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Here Comes the Sun: Strategies to Achieve Low-Carbon and Zero-Carbon Health Facilities Guy Dauncey, May 2014

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Here Comes the Sun: Strategies to Achieve Low-Carbon and Zero-Carbon Health Facilities Guy Dauncey, May 2014

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A presentation to Island Health, British Columbia, on progress towards low-carbon and zero carbon hospitals and facilities in Europe and North America.

A presentation to Island Health, British Columbia, on progress towards low-carbon and zero carbon hospitals and facilities in Europe and North America.


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Here Comes the Sun: Strategies to Achieve Low-Carbon and Zero-Carbon Health Facilities Guy Dauncey, May 2014

  1. 1.       Here Comes the Sun  Strategies to Achieve Low-Carbon and Zero-Carbon  Health Facilities Guy Dauncey, May 2014   
  2. 2. As we burn the fossil fuels… CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 100 million tonnes a day = 4 million tonnes an hour = 67,000 tonnes a minute = 1,000 tonnes a second
  3. 3. May 2014
  4. 4. The Story of Energy Part One: Firewood A million years ago to 1750 AD
  5. 5. The Story of Energy Part Two: Charcoal 1250 to 1750 AD
  6. 6. The Story of Energy Part Three: Wind and Water 1250 to 1750 AD
  7. 7. The Story of Energy Part Four: Slaves 1250 to 1890 AD
  8. 8. The Story of Energy Part Five: Whale Oil 1500 - 1870
  9. 9. The Story of Energy Part Six: Fossil Fuels 1750 - 2050
  10. 10. The Story of Energy Part Six: Fossil Fuels 1750 - 2050
  11. 11. The Story of Energy Part Six: Fossil Fuels 1750 - 2050
  12. 12. The Story of Energy Part Seven 2000 -  ?
  13. 13. Neolithic Era Ancient Egypt Roman Empire Islamic Golden Age 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 The Age of Fossil Fuels ………………………………………. The last 10,000 years
  14. 14. The last 10,000 years ................................................... What happens here, when we stop using fossil fuels? The next billion years ?
  15. 15. • Air source solar heat pumps (heat/cooling) • Ground source solar heat pumps (<1km) and deep  geothermal (>1km) (heat/cooling) • Water source solar heat pumps (heat/cooling) • Solar thermal (heat and cooling) • Biofuels (transport) • Biogas (heat and/or electricity when in CHP) • Bioliquids (heat and/or electricity) • Biomass boilers/stoves (heat and electricity when in CHP) • Energy from waste – biodegradable element only (for heat  and electricity when in CHP) Renewable Heat
  16. 16. Global Commission on the Economy and ClimateGlobal Commission on the Economy and Climate
  17. 17. Global Commission on the Economy and ClimateGlobal Commission on the Economy and Climate Global Commission on the Economy and Climate
  18. 18. Global Commission on the Economy and Climate
  19. 19. www.woodwaste2ruralheat.ca  www.bcsea.org (search ‘webinars’)
  20. 20. BC Hydro 2013 Resource Options Map Potential Biomass: Wood Based
  21. 21. BC Hydro 2013 Resource Options Map Potential Biomass: Biogas
  22. 22. www.communityenergy.bc.ca
  23. 23. EU commitment to 2020 targets for smart,  sustainable and inclusive growth:  • Greenhouse gas emissions (mainly CO2) to be 20%  lower than 1990 • 20% of energy from renewable sources • 20% increase in energy efficiency
  24. 24. Europe: Low Carbon Health-Care www.lowcarbon-healthcare.eu
  25. 25. Towards Zero Carbon Hospitals with  Renewable Energy Systems RES-Hospitals Challenge Exploring options to achieve a zero carbon hospital in the  future and develop an investment plan for 50% of energy  consumption from renewable energy by 2020 www.res-hospitals.eu
  26. 26. ITALY Cardinal Massaia: solar thermal, solar PV, biomass and gas fired  trigeneration. €12.7 million - save nearly 12,000 tonnes CO2 per year.  = €1,000/tonne     Over 20 years = €50/tonne San Camillio de Lellis: tri- generation, solar PV. biomass boiler. €12.6 million - save 6,350 tonnes CO2 per year. 20 years: €200/tonne  Sant’Orsola campus: gas-fired cogeneration and solar PV.  €32.8 million - save nearly 17,000 tonnes CO2 per year. €200/tonne  Versilia: new cogeneration plant, other energy efficiency measures to  complement existing solar/wind systems  €7.2 million - save nearly 7,500 tonnes CO2 per year €100/tonne  ‘Zero carbon’ roadmap includes proposed energy-from-waste system.
  27. 27. HOLLAND Two of three hospitals already had hot/cold storage, ground source  heat. Detailed evaluation for most obvious technical options:  biomass, solar and wind energy systems.  Conclusion:  main zero carbon opportunity was combination of deep  geothermal, green electricity & energy efficiency = 80-90% renewables  by 2020. €40 million+ saves over 12,500 tonnes a year. €3,000/tonne Over 20 years = €150/tonne  Zero carbon needs combination of biomass and solar PV. Quest to identify other large energy consumers in the locality to  create a small-sized district heat system.
  28. 28. POLAND Myslenice: boiler decentralisation, air/ground source heat  pumps, solar thermal panels. €1.2 million = 60% RES Sucha Beskidzka: rejected biomass in favour of geothermal  radial drilling. €1.6 million = 56% RES Wadowice: geothermal heat pumps with radial drilling; also  considered hospital sewage as heat source. + Solar panels,  new gas-fired boiler, energy efficiency measures.  €1.6 million = 50% RES
  29. 29. Geothermal Radial Drilling Austrian geo-drilling technique http://geothermic.tracto-technik.com
  30. 30. SPAIN Some hospitals had solar thermal, PV, ground source heat Main strategy: biomass boiler with wood pellets / wood chips, to  consider economic benefits of a local supply chain for wood chips.  Gorliz: planning solar PV on car park and small scale wind turbines. Cruces and Galdako-Usansolo: planning biomass fired co-generation  systems and solar PV.  Galdako- Usansolo: adding to existing solar PV and solar heating. Total value €16m, saves 10,000 tonnes per annum. Use of Energy  Service Companies (ESCOs) seen as best way to proceed. Political  problems in Spain. 
  31. 31. FRANCE 550 bed Avicenne Hospital: biomass boiler, solar PV €12 million will save 4,500 tonnes of CO2 emissions. 20 years: €300/tonne The regional health agency is using the Renewable Energy Guide to encourage other hospitals in Greater Paris to explore energy-related investment plans.
  32. 32. HUNGARY Zala County Hospital, 1060 beds, three sites. Already uses small solar thermal to supply hot water. 2 km deep geothermal heating system €1.5 million saves nearly 2,000 tonnes CO2 €750/tonne Over 20 years = €37/tonne Zero carbon roadmap: solar PV could close the remaining gap but would need off-site project
  33. 33. Ethianum Hospital in Heidelberg, Germany 45 ground-source heat bore holes up to 70 meters deep
  34. 34. United Kingdom 650 bed Raigmore Hospital, Inverness: uses heavy fuel oil for thermal energy due to remoteness from national gas. RES: Two biomass boilers €3.4 million = 50% RES, save 5,500 tonnes CO2 per annum. €618/tonne Over 20 years = €31/tonne
  35. 35. in Scotland the devolved Government has set a target for the publicly funded hospital sector to reduce CO2 emissions by 3%, year-on-year. The effect is to raise the priority of capital investment in renewable energy systems within hospitals.
  36. 36. Britain's Greenest Hospital “Urgent need to reduce our carbon footprint”: • More efficient lighting, heat exchangers and building controls: overall energy reduction of 26% since introduction of carbon management in 2007/8. • Biomass boiler will reduce annual CO2 emissions by 3,459 tonnes. • Smaller 200 kilowatt biomass boiler will make the Centre self sufficient in heat. • Ground source heating pumps in Cystic Fibrosis Unit • Car share and cycle to work schemes • A commitment by the Trust Board to maintain a robust sustainability policy.
  37. 37. “Saving energy means saving money. The trust says such efficiencies have been partly eaten up by increased gas prices, but estimates in- year savings of £15,000. Furthermore, it reckons the biomass boilers will save it £40,000 from 2011-12 onwards under the government's scheme to charge large users of energy for every tonne of carbon dioxide they release.”
  38. 38. • Staff nursery allotment and therapeutic gardens • Program for development of green champions • Better use of water • Targets for reducing waste • Annual sustainability symposium • Staff health club focusing on walking, running, yoga and tai chi. • 200 of the 5,500 staff cycle to work • Showers for cyclists • Bike-purchase loan scheme for patients and staff using unclaimed bicycles from the police • 150 members of staff share their cars
  39. 39. www.carbontrust.com/media/39216/ctv024_hospitals.pdf Healthy Budgets through Energy Efficiency (UK)
  40. 40. Heat escaping Heat not escaping
  41. 41. www.hotmapping.co.uk Heat escaping Heat not escaping
  42. 42. Empire State Building Sustainability Retrofit 38% reduced energy use
  43. 43. Window refurbishment 6,514 windows = 4 x more efficient Insulated Radiative Barriers Chiller plant Variable speed drives 5% improvement Air handling units Variable air volume Wireless Control Network
  44. 44. Efficient plugs and lighting save 75% energy Daylighting Tenant Energy Management
  45. 45. PEER LEARNING WORKSHOP - HOLLAND Dutch voluntary commitment to 30% reduction in energy consumption by 2015. Criteria for payback of capital investment had been relaxed; break-even periods of 7-8 years being adopted in some cases. Has made huge difference to what can be achieved with energy efficiency. Notable examples of ground source heat pumps in some Dutch hospitals
  46. 46. PEER LEARNING WORKSHOP - SPAIN Hospital de Mataró (near Barcelona): uses Green Pipe (Tub Verd) powered by sewage and municipal waste. Hospital de Mollet (new): solar PV, ground source heat is one of biggest systems in Europe; natural light.
  47. 47. PEER LEARNING WORKSHOP - PARIS 4,000 MW district heating system serves whole Paris metropolitan, thermal energy to all hospitals in AP-HP. 35% of network powered by energy recovery from domestic waste: 50% by 2015 from biomass, biofuel and geothermal. New district cooling network being developed in using water from River Seine. Several French hospitals plan to invest in biomass heating systems. Discussion on positive and negative aspects of biomass, importance of measurement and comparative data to understand what is possible.
  48. 48. Brentwood College, Mill Bay, BC
  49. 49. The geothermal buildings use 25% of the energy used by the other buildings. 13 months to pay for themselves.
  50. 50. The loops lie 30 feet deep in Saanich Inlet, covering a surface of about 1,000 square feet. Stainless steel exchangers provided a $250,000 savings compared to the cost of traditional exchangers
  51. 51. Stokmarknes Hospital, Norway: thermal energy from the sea provides nearly 90% of the heat demand
  52. 52. Artificial lights = 16% of the energy consumption of a typical hospital
  53. 53. Control artificial lights to guarantee comfort conditions avoiding energy wastes. ICT infrastructure energy saving strategies: presence detection, luminance level optimization, time schedule based control. LED lights guarantee improved efficiency due to higher lux – watt ratio and allow control strategies without decreasing light source lifetime.
  54. 54. Energy savings in Hospital de Mollet, 2014 Energy saving strategies implemented for Surgery Room Air Unit New control algorithms based on particle counter save 11% of electricity consumption of the surgery rooms ventilation system. Air supply flow is regulated to maintain sanitary conditions, guarantee air quality and save energy. Hot & Cold Production system has new energy meters that enable innovative control algorithms - 10% savings on electricity and gas consumption. Able to obtain best performance of each machine at every moment.
  55. 55. www.ecoquip.eu “Healthcare organisations are … unaware of the benefits that a proactive approach to procurement of innovative new solutions can bring. This means that opportunities for innovation are missed and problems remain unsolved in a sector that has around 15,000 hospitals in Europe, accounts for some 5% of CO2 emissions and represents a huge slice of public procurement budgets.”
  56. 56. 50 of the Greenest Hospitals in America September 2013 Recycling & waste • Styrofoam recycling • Employee uniforms made out of recycled plastic bottles. • 100% dining ware in cafeteria; 90% in inpatient areas compostable and biodegradable. • Reductions in red bag biohazardous waste • Greening the operating room- recycles 675 pounds of blue wrap every month. • Hospital uses 220,000 reusable isolation gowns and 231,000 incontinent pads pa • Reprocessing medical devices, reducing medical waste, purchasing reusable pillows; composts 90% of food waste. • Unused medication recycling program • Ecologically safe disposal of hazardous bio-waste
  57. 57. 50 of the Greenest Hospitals in America September 2013 Energy & Water • PlaNYC Hospital Carbon Challenge aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 30% by 2018. • New white roof made out of recycled materials to reflect heat, decreases heating and cooling. • Natural sunlight hits 80% of available space • Bio-retention areas for water runoff • Microfiber mop system cut water use by 43,000 gallons and chemical use by 90%.
  58. 58. 50 of the Greenest Hospitals in America September 2013 Engagement • 55 different energy projects, saving $2.1 million that year. Changed to greener supplies. • Green Team includes 225 sustainability leaders and officers www.beckershospitalreview.com
  59. 59. Designed with goal of becoming greenest hospital in Canada, and North America’s first new built carbon-neutral hospital. St. Mary’s Hospital, Sechelt
  60. 60. • High-performance building envelope • 125 boreholes for heating and cooling through radiant slabs. • 19 kW PV array • Green roof reduces solar heat gain • Passive design strategies, solar shading, operable windows, natural ventilation • Lighting with occupancy sensors • Exhaust air recovery ventilation • On target to achieve 40% energy savings compared to other LEED Gold hospitals St. Mary’s Hospital, Sechelt
  61. 61. $$ Is There a Green Premium? $$ LEED Certified Hospitals: Perspectives on Capital Cost Premiums and Operational Benefits The average capital cost premium for LEED-certified hospitals under 100,000 sq.ft. was 1.24% For hospitals over 100,000 sq.ft. it was 0.67%, based on analysis of 15 LEED-certified hospitals.
  62. 62. University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust Low-Carbon Procurement Strategy
  63. 63. • 75% of entire carbon footprint came from procurement process • Assembly, packaging, transport, storage and handling of products and materials = 60% of the entire carbon footprint of the NHS. • 3-month pilot study to embed carbon reduction into UCLH's purchasing and introduce "whole life" carbon costing. • Worked with partners to launch neutral vendor supply chain initiative: all goods delivered to a single warehouse and held centrally. Loads consolidated before being transported, so fewer vehicles. • Reduces transport on roads by 15%, saves 7,000 tonnes CO2/pa • Sourcing local fruit and vegetables, free range chicken and red- tractor certified meat, offering low-carbon menu options to staff and patients, at no extra cost. Low-Carbon Procurement Strategy
  64. 64. Akershus University Hospital, Norway Low Carbon Hospital
  65. 65. Ground-source = 85% heat, 40% total energy. Hospital divided into energy blocks for detailed use analysis. Heat recovery from exhaust ventilation Energy optimization of ventilation system Shading devices on windows facing south and west Low temperature radiators for maximum utilization of heat pump 40,000 points and 3,000 rooms individually temperature controlled
  66. 66. May 2008, Gundersen Health System Wisconsin, Minnesota and Iowa Offset 100% of fossil fuel-based energy by 2014. 41 clinics, 325-bed hospital, 3 critical access hospitals, variety of affiliate organizations, EMS ambulance service, rural hospitals, nursing homes, hospice. Gundersen Health System
  67. 67. www.gundersenenvision.org
  68. 68. www.nrel.gov/docs/fy10osti/47867.pdf
  69. 69. The following measures were used to attain 50% energy savings: • Reduced lighting power densities • Daylighting sensors in applicable perimeter zones • Occupancy sensors in applicable zones • More insulative envelope (opaque exterior and fenestration) • Reduced infiltration through tighter envelope construction • Overhangs on south-facing fenestrations • A multizone variable air volume dedicated outdoor air system with zone-level water-to-air heat pumps, common condenser loop with temperature maintained though use of chiller and boiler • High-efficiency chillers, boilers, and water heaters • Demand controlled ventilation • More efficient pumps • Integration of subsystems to achieve whole-building performance.
  70. 70. Interseasonal Heat Transfer™ for low carbon hospitals • Reliable, low-cost on-site space heating by recycling solar energy • Saves 50% carbon emissions compared to gas boiler • Reliable, low-cost, on site cooling by recycling winter cold • Saves over 80% carbon emissions compared to standard cooling • Low-cost heat source for processes using ThermalBanks • Prolongs life of solar thermal panels by storing heat instead of allowing to overheat in summer www.icax.co.uk
  71. 71. Interseasonal Heat Transfer (IHT) recycles heat from an Asphalt Solar Collector down to a Thermal Bank in summer, and a heat pump to recycle heating in winter. Doubles the CoP of the heat pump by starting from a warm ThermalBank.
  72. 72. Laying down a ThermalBank before the insulated foundations are installed. Stores heat in the ground, retrieved in winter for heating. Doubles the performance of the heat pump by starting with a warm ThermalBank instead of cold ground.
  73. 73. Solar Collector captures summer heat for storage in the ground & release for heating in winter. ICAX doubles the CoP of the heat pump by starting with a warm ThermalBank
  74. 74. The heat pump in an ICAX Skid starts with warmth from a ThermalBank instead of starting with cold ground temperature.
  75. 75. Tesco, Oldham, UK 25,400 sq ft First supermarket heated and cooled by Interseasonal Heat Transfer. 41% reduced emissions from heating and cooling. CoP 8.5 (normal 3.5) Each 1kW of electricity produces 8.5 kW of heat.
  76. 76. Wellington Civic & Leisure Centre, UK ICAX extracts heat from solar roofing, and from changing room and swimming pool ventilation. Used for domestic hot water, swimming pool. Excess summer heat stored in ThermalBank for re-cycling in winter.
  77. 77. Merton, London, UK Intergenerational Acacia Centre Initially the architects looked at a biomass boiler. Costs grew as they included storage for the woodchip fuel, space for delivering fuel to the site, and the practicalities of managing a boiler installation. A review of energy requirements pointed to the need for summer cooling, which the boiler could not provide.
  78. 78. ICAX proposal less expensive than biomass heat + electrical air cooling. Took up less space, saved constructing special building for biomass boiler. Annual running costs less. ICAX proposal able to provide over 40% of on-site renewable energy. Merton Intergenerational Centre
  79. 79. Heats the building using heat from the building in summer (by-product of cooling), stored in underground boreholes. Advanced ground source heat pump linked to the boreholes, recycles the stored waste heat in winter. Merton Intergenerational Centre
  80. 80. Toddington, UK
  81. 81. Solar heat road test in Hiroshima, Japan
  83. 83. Molten Salt: 7.5 hours after dark
  84. 84. Slab and Earth Heat Storage
  85. 85. Saturated sand
  86. 86. 100% solar heated house, Emmental, Switzerland www.jenni.ch
  87. 87. Austria
  88. 88. REHAU Borehole for 95°C industrial waste heat Sheffield, UK
  89. 89. In Sweden, Stockholm sends heat from treated sewage effluent to 80,000 apartments
  90. 90. Vancouver False Creek Sewage-Based District Heat
  91. 91. Pre-insulated piping used to heat most homes and commercial buildings in Scandinavia. Insulation allows the delivery of hot water at 200o C to customers up to 23 km away, with a net loss of only a few degrees.
  92. 92. Drake Landing, Okotoks, Alberta. Solar Thermal District Heating
  93. 93. 800 solar hot water panels on the garages 90% of residential space heating needs met by solar thermal energy (40-50o C) Reduction - 5 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions per home per year.
  94. 94. The Energy Centre Solar Thermal Heating 12 months a year Community solar heat panels Solar hot water panels Guy Dauncey 2007 www.earthfuture.com
  95. 95. Collective solar thermal system on a residential building, Germany www.wagner-solar.com
  96. 96. Almere, Holland
  97. 97. Tunnel transfers heated water and steam from the Amager Powerplant to the National Hospital in Copenhagen
  98. 98. Insulated heat pipes
  99. 99. The District Heat Plant, Vienna Architect – Hundertwasser
  100. 100. District heat tower at Theiss, Lower Austria 50,000 cubic meters
  101. 101. Solar Thermal Heat Storage Tank
  102. 102. Marstal, Danish island of Aero 100% solar district heat + 23.4 MWth solar thermal storage + Biomass cogeneration plant
  103. 103. www.sunmark.com Marstal, Denmark
  104. 104. Olivier Drucke, 2009
  105. 105. www.solarthermalworld.org
  106. 106. 134 GW in 2013 9000% increase since 2000
  107. 107. Vauban, Freiburg, Germany
  108. 108. Kagoshima Nanatsujima 70 MW solar plant
  109. 109. London’s new solar bridge
  110. 110. 2014: 4 kW PV = $16,000 4,400 kWh year
  111. 111. 2020: 4 kW PV = $6,000 4,400 kWh year Will save $30,000 - $60,000 over the 30 year life of the panels
  112. 112. 20 kW Solar, St Mary’s Hospital, Sechelt
  113. 113. $3.50/watt 20 kW = $73,500 20 kW generates 22,000 kwh/year 2014: $2728 pa 2024: $3834 pa 2034: $5154 pa Over 25 years: $110,000
  114. 114. By 2020: $1.50/watt 20 kW = $31,500 Over 25 years: saves $131,000 (Assumes BC Hydro price inflation 3% pa)
  115. 115. Solar Valley, China
  116. 116. Huang Ming started Himin with the production of solar thermal components in 1990. • 360 internal company standards (48 relevant international standards; 20 national standards China) • Employs 6,300 people in Dezhou • 60,000 partners throughout China. • Combines all production steps from borosilicate glass to the collector panels, tanks and complete thermosiphon systems
  117. 117. Solar Valley, Dezhou, China • 3 vacuum tube factories + 3 water heater factories • Automated tube assembly line – 40,000 tubes a day • PV road lighting over 16 km • Solar office and hotel complex • Solar university with 2000 students educated in solar energy products, engineering and business. Most study free of charge • Solar sports and entertainment complex, parks and apartments. • Brings together developers, city planners, school directors, hospital directors • Goal: to set a global example of solar as a viable solution. • Receives 1,500-4,000 visitors a day
  118. 118. www.chinasolarvalley.net
  119. 119. Solar Egg Spa Resort, Sun Valley, China Solar + Geothermal Heat
  120. 120. Sun-Moon Mansion Solar Thermal Year-Round
  121. 121. Utopia Gardens, Solar Valley, China
  122. 122. 504 solar tubes feed heat into a central heating and cooling system Owners save up to 75% of annual energy costs. In summer, the solar field powers the absorption chillers for air-conditioning. Excess heat is stored in a seasonal storage area below the building complex with 1,800 bore holes, large enough to supply the entire Utopia Garden Project. Electric compression and gas absorption chillers serve as backup when the solar heat does not reach a high enough temperature to run the solar chillers. Winter space heating primarily covered by seasonal storage ground source heat pumps. If not sufficient, rest of their energy from a district heat system.
  123. 123. Utopia Gardens
  124. 124. Himin Solar Valley Solar Shell International Conference Center
  125. 125. • Solar water heating • BIPV lighting • Energy-saving glass • Ceiling radiation • Intelligent sun-shading • Intelligent building control • 1994 square meters solar heat collection • Mono-silicon and poly-silicon thin film batteries • 70% solar energy conversion
  126. 126. 1/10th energy of a conventional building. Heating and cooling from huge solar thermal installation with aquifuge trans-seasonal energy storage and ground source heat pump.
  127. 127. April 2014
  128. 128. The last 10,000 years ................................................... What happens here, when we stop using fossil fuels?
  129. 129. A billion years The Sun does not begin to turn into a Red Giant for more than a billion years. That’s 100,000 periods each with 10,000 years
  130. 130. A billion years The Sun does not begin to turn into a Red Giant for more than a billion years. And with every passing year, solar technology will improve and get cheaper.
  131. 131. CITY of the FUTURE A Journey to the Year 2032 GUY DAUNCEY Summer 2014
  132. 132. www.slideshare.net/GuyDauncey
  133. 133. Table Task You have been given $10 million to invest with the goal of reducing GHGs. What’s your preference? Decide – Share why - Discuss 1. Biomass heat 2. Ground-source/water-source heat 3. Solar thermal heat + inter-seasonal storage 4. Solar thermal heat + inter-seasonal storage + ground-source heat pump
  134. 134. Guy Dauncey 2013 www.earthfuture.com Guy Dauncey www.earthfuture.com

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