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The Gamification User Types Hexad Scale

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Do all users equally enjoy all game elements in gamification?
This talk presents the Hexad user types survey and the game elements correlated with each one of the six Hexad user types.
Presented at the ACM CHI PLAY 2016 Conference.

Publicada em: Ciências
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The Gamification User Types Hexad Scale

  1. 1. The Gamification User Types Hexad Scale Gustavo F. Tondello, Rina R. Wehbe, Lisa Diamond, Marc Busch, Andrzej Marczewski, Lennart E. Nacke
  2. 2. Gamification 2 Game design elements in non-game contexts (Deterding et al., 2011) (Marczewski, 2015) Deterding, Dixon, Khaled, & Nacke. 2011. From Game Design Elements to Gamefulness: Defining “Gamification.” Proc. of MindTrek '11, ACM. Andrzej Marczewski. 2015. 48 Gamification elements, mechanics and ideas. Gamified UK.
  3. 3. Self-determination Theory Autonomy Competence Relatedness Meaning Internalization and Integration Extrinsic Motivation Intrinsic Motivation 3 (Ryan & Deci, 2000) R. Ryan & E. Deci. 2000. Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. The American Psychologist 55, 1: 68–78.
  4. 4. Gamification User Types Hexad 4 (Marczewski, 2015) Do all users equally enjoy all game elements? Theoretical References • Self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000) • Player typologies (Bartle, 2005) Andrzej Marczewski. 2015. User Types. In Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play: Gamification, Game Thinking & Motivational Design. Gamified UK. R. Ryan & E. Deci. 2000. Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. The American Psychologist 55, 1: 68–78. Richard Bartle. 2005. Virtual Worlds: Why People Play. Massively Multiplayer Game Development 2, 1.
  5. 5. Goals Gap: no validated instrument for assessing user types Goal: Propose and validate a survey measure for scoring an individual in the six Hexad user types Gap: no empirical evidence that the user types explain user’s preferences for different game elements Goal: Evaluate if the Hexad user types correspond to user’s preferences for different game elements 5
  6. 6. Female, 64 Male, 59 N/A, 10 Methods 1. Survey scale construction • Expert workshop to generate survey items • Expert rating to select the best 5 items per user type 2. Data collection and analysis • 133 participants (40 in the follow-up) – aged 18-36 • demographic information • Hexad user types • game elements preferences • personality (BFI-10 (Rammstedt & John, 2011)) 6 N=133 B. Rammstedt and O. John. 2007. Measuring personality in one minute or less: A 10-item short version of the Big Five Inventory in English and German. Journal of Research in Personality 41, 1: 203–212.
  7. 7. Survey Validation User Type α (5 items) α (4 items) r (5 items) r (4 items) Philanthropist .896 .893 .850 ** .852 ** Socialiser .846 .838 .820 ** .853 ** Free Spirit .727 .723 .483 ** .631 ** Achiever .766 .759 .752 ** .798 ** Disruptor .728 .738 .611 ** .782 ** Player .689 .698 .387 * .357 * 7 * p < 0.05. ** p < 0.01. Internal Consistency Test-Retest Factor analysis results are available in the paper
  8. 8. Survey Availability The full survey is available in the paper Also online: https://gamified.uk/UserTypeTest2016/user-type-test.php 8
  9. 9. Survey Scoring Exact scoring per user type 9 By main user type only Philanthropist 24% Achiever 24% Free Spirit 22% Socialiser 19% Player 10% Disruptor 1% N=133 22.36 22.18 22.09 20.33 20.99 14.94 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Philanthropist Achiever FreeSpirit Socialiser Player Disruptor Mean
  10. 10. Preferred Game Elements by User Types 10
  11. 11. Preferred Game Elements by User Types 11
  12. 12. Implications Design Supporting different user types Personalizing the user experience Research Better understanding of gamifications mechanisms and effects 12 Philanthropist 24% Achiever 24% Free Spirit 22% Socialiser 19% Player 10% Disruptor 1% N=133
  13. 13. Limitations and Future Work Repeat the study with a larger sample Review the subscale for the Player type Investigate motivations for Philanthropists on a focused study Investigate the role of the context in moderating the user experience Investigate the similarities of the Hexad with other player type models 13
  14. 14. Takeaways Goal: Propose and validate a survey for the Hexad user types A standard and validated 24-items survey for assessing Hexad user types is now available (see the paper for details) Goal: Evaluate if the user types correspond to user’s preferences A table of preferred game elements per user type is now available for: • Supporting different user types • Personalizing the user experience in gameful applications • Further researching the mechanisms and effects of gamification 14
  15. 15. Thank you! The Gamification User Types Hexad Scale http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2967934.2968082 CONTACT Gustavo F. Tondello gustavo@tondello.com @GustavoTondello http://hcigames.com/ 15 Thanks to Marim Ganaba (HCI Games Group) for infographic design.

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