7. Methodology Section
• The methods section is the most important part of a
research paper .
•It provides a clear description of :
•how the research was done.
•what was done to answer the research question
•how the results were analyzed.
8. Methodology Section
It must be written with enough information so that:
(1) the research could be repeated by others to evaluate
whether the results are reproducible, and
(2) the audience can judge whether the results and
conclusions are valid.
9. Methodology Section
• The method starts directly below the introduction.
•It is typically divided into three subsections:
10. Methodology: Participants
• Information on participants
– Number of participants.
– Procedures for selecting
participants or the sampling
method (random, opportunistic
– Demographic information
(age, gender, occupation,
– If some participants did not
complete the experiment, state
how many and why they did
20 male and 20 female
in the current study. No
11. • Describe materials used and their function in enough
detail so others can replicate
• For example: in describing word lists, include the
number of words, approximate length of words, were
they in capital or lowercase letters, etc.
• A copy of the materials can be included in an appendix
at the end of the paper; you would refer your reader to
that appendix; (see Appendix for a complete list of the
words used in this experiment).
12. Methodology: Procedure
• The procedure is like the
instructions for baking a cake or
making something from Lego.
• It describes exactly what was done
in the study and the order in which
things were done.
• Describe the instructions given to
• The procedure should be logical,
and contain sufficient information
for the reader to follow.
13. Methodology Example
Sixty university students (30 males and 30 females) participated in this study for extra
course credit in a Psychology 100 course at the University of Victoria....
Three word lists were created, each of which consisted of 20 words. See Appendix for
a complete list of the words used in this experiment. All words were written in lowercase
letters. The length of each word ranged from 5 to 8 letters...
Participants were tested individually in the presence of the experimenter...
Purpose: To report the key findings and the statistical
The results section is one of the most feared
sections of the report.
The results section should start with descriptive
(summary) statistics (e.g. Mean, median, range etc.)
A summary table of descriptive statistics can be
Use graphs and graphs and axis are titled and the
graph means something to the overall report.
17. Result Example
The mean number of words was 25.6 and the mean. See
Figure 1 for a summary of descriptive statistics. These
data were analyzed using a t-test and the results were
statistically significant, t(30) = 4.99, p = .002, suggesting
that younger participants were able to recall more words
than older participants.
18. Successful Report Writing
• Start writing early – important details
about the study may be forgotten if the
write-up is left to the last minute.
• Remember – a naive reader should be
able to follow your report and replicate
• Read – reading journal articles will help
you with structuring your report and
understanding the required style.
• Reflect – reflect upon the comments you
receive on your practical reports and
essays – these are provided to help you!