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HOLISTIC MANAGEMENT Planned Grazing

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HOLISTIC MANAGEMENT Planned Grazing

  1. 1. HOLISTIC MANAGEMENTHOLISTIC MANAGEMENT Planned GrazingPlanned Grazing January 2015January 2015 Grey Bruce Farmers’ WeekGrey Bruce Farmers’ Week
  2. 2. Audience InformationAudience Information  1 –What are you grazing – cattle, horses,1 –What are you grazing – cattle, horses, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry - other?sheep, goats, pigs, poultry - other?  2 –Have you heard of holistic management2 –Have you heard of holistic management before?before?  3 – Have you read something by or about3 – Have you read something by or about Allan Savory?Allan Savory?  4 – How often do you move your lifestock?4 – How often do you move your lifestock? Never, monthly, weekly, daily?Never, monthly, weekly, daily?
  3. 3. Presentation will be in 3 partsPresentation will be in 3 parts  A quick overview of HMA quick overview of HM  A look at some key features ofA look at some key features of Holistic Management PlannedHolistic Management Planned GrazingGrazing  A question and answer periodA question and answer period
  4. 4. Holistic Management is aHolistic Management is a decision making processdecision making process  Developed by Allan SavoryDeveloped by Allan Savory and refined by decades of useand refined by decades of use  It is inclusive – involving theIt is inclusive – involving the whole farm management teamwhole farm management team
  5. 5. ““Holistic Goal”Holistic Goal”  Process involves the full management teamProcess involves the full management team developing a “Holistic Goal”developing a “Holistic Goal” The Holisticgoal has 3 partsThe Holisticgoal has 3 parts  Quality of LifeQuality of Life  What weWhat we valuevalue in Lifein Life  Forms of ProductionForms of Production  What weWhat we DODO to achieve Quality of Lifeto achieve Quality of Life  Future Resource BaseFuture Resource Base  What we needWhat we need to sustainto sustain quality of Lifequality of Life
  6. 6. Date & Title Quality of Life - What we value in Life Forms of Production - What we DO to achieve the Quality of Life Future Resource Base - What we need to sustain the Quality of Life
  7. 7. A number of Tools have beenA number of Tools have been developed to help farm familiesdeveloped to help farm families move toward their Holistic Goalmove toward their Holistic Goal  Seven Testing QuestionsSeven Testing Questions  are used when making decisions and helpare used when making decisions and help families make choices that take them towardfamilies make choices that take them toward their goal and achieve a triple bottom line oftheir goal and achieve a triple bottom line of socially, environmentally and economicallysocially, environmentally and economically appropriate decisions. One of the 7 is “Doesappropriate decisions. One of the 7 is “Does this action address thethis action address the rootroot cause of thecause of the problem?problem?
  8. 8. TestingTesting QuestionsQuestions on a handyon a handy cardcard Canadian TireCanadian Tire Farm AuctionFarm Auction Kitchen tableKitchen table
  9. 9. The Financial Planning ProcessThe Financial Planning Process  Encourages farm families to plan for aEncourages farm families to plan for a significant profit.significant profit. Savory suggests 50% ofSavory suggests 50% of the gross income!the gross income!  not just by increasing income but bynot just by increasing income but by controlling costs!controlling costs!  and using a “weak link analysis” toand using a “weak link analysis” to determine where they can best spenddetermine where they can best spend money to address the “weak link” in eachmoney to address the “weak link” in each of their enterprisesof their enterprises
  10. 10. Financial Weak LinkFinancial Weak Link The WEAK LINK is the link in the chain ofThe WEAK LINK is the link in the chain of Production that is most limiting the performance ofProduction that is most limiting the performance of that enterprise.that enterprise. Need to determine which is the weakest link in theNeed to determine which is the weakest link in the chain of productionchain of production for each enterprisefor each enterprise.. RESOURCE PRODUCT MARKETINGRESOURCE PRODUCT MARKETING CONVERSION CONVERSION CONVERSIONCONVERSION CONVERSION CONVERSION Sunlight and/or Products Marketing ofSunlight and/or Products Marketing of raw resources and / or productsraw resources and / or products including money services and /or servicesincluding money services and /or services
  11. 11. Land Planning ProcessLand Planning Process  helps farm families develop a longhelps farm families develop a long term plan for infrastructure andterm plan for infrastructure and landscape improvements.landscape improvements.  which are donewhich are done when they will paywhen they will pay for themselvesfor themselves as part of the financialas part of the financial planning.planning.
  12. 12. Feed back LoopFeed back Loop  Make your plan but assume it willMake your plan but assume it will bebe WRONGWRONG..  Then figure out where to monitorThen figure out where to monitor for early signs that it is notfor early signs that it is not working so you can adjust it.working so you can adjust it.  PLAN-MONITOR-CONTROL-PLAN-MONITOR-CONTROL- REPLANREPLAN
  13. 13. 10 Principles10 Principles  1 – Nature Functions in Wholes1 – Nature Functions in Wholes  2 – Understand the Environment You2 – Understand the Environment You ManageManage  Brittle and Non-Brittle EnvironmentsBrittle and Non-Brittle Environments  3 – Livestock Can Improve Land Health3 – Livestock Can Improve Land Health  Mimicking wild herding with predatorsMimicking wild herding with predators  4 – Time is More Important than4 – Time is More Important than NumbersNumbers
  14. 14. 10 Principles Continued10 Principles Continued  5 – Define What You Are Managing5 – Define What You Are Managing  6 – State What You Want-Clear6 – State What You Want-Clear HolisticgoalHolisticgoal  7 – Bare Ground is Public Enemy # 17 – Bare Ground is Public Enemy # 1  8 – Play With a Full Deck8 – Play With a Full Deck  9 – Test Your Decisions9 – Test Your Decisions  10 – Monitor For Results10 – Monitor For Results
  15. 15. August 1996 in BCAugust 1996 in BC
  16. 16. Things particularly relevant toThings particularly relevant to GrazingGrazing  Understanding of the ecosystemUnderstanding of the ecosystem  Brittleness ScaleBrittleness Scale  Relationship of grazing period and recoveryRelationship of grazing period and recovery period to plant performance.period to plant performance.  Role of animal impactRole of animal impact  Planned Grazing ChartsPlanned Grazing Charts
  17. 17. Understanding the EcosystemUnderstanding the Ecosystem Lets us work with itLets us work with it  Working with it increasesWorking with it increases  Productivity of our sunlightProductivity of our sunlight  Reduces stress on our animalsReduces stress on our animals  Working with it decreasesWorking with it decreases  Need for off farm inputsNeed for off farm inputs  Workload and stress on farmersWorkload and stress on farmers
  18. 18. Brittleness ScaleBrittleness Scale  Brittle – very dry – desert most brittleBrittle – very dry – desert most brittle  Non-Brittle – moist – rain forest –Non-Brittle – moist – rain forest –  Brittle and Non-Brittle EnvironmentsBrittle and Non-Brittle Environments  Respond differently to same managementRespond differently to same management  Rest – Non-Brittle – moves to more complexRest – Non-Brittle – moves to more complex  Rest – Brittle - degradesRest – Brittle - degrades  Brittle Environments – Biological CommunityBrittle Environments – Biological Community  In the rumen of grazing animals part of the yearIn the rumen of grazing animals part of the year
  19. 19. Bare Capped Soil - ZimbabweBare Capped Soil - Zimbabwe
  20. 20. 6 months later – After - 200 cattle &6 months later – After - 200 cattle & 100 goats in a new area each day100 goats in a new area each day
  21. 21. Two Years LaterTwo Years Later
  22. 22. Increased Land ProductivityIncreased Land Productivity  doubling stocking ratesdoubling stocking rates  –– like getting a second farm –like getting a second farm –  some of the brittle environmentssome of the brittle environments  –– tripled stocking rates.tripled stocking rates.  Increased soil organic matterIncreased soil organic matter  And Carbon SequestrationAnd Carbon Sequestration  Improved water infiltration and holdingImproved water infiltration and holding  Improved mineral cyclingImproved mineral cycling  Increased Energy Capture – Solar FarmersIncreased Energy Capture – Solar Farmers
  23. 23. September 3, 2008 – Regrowth from Hay cut June 24, 2008 – 64 day recovery – Middle A Ontario is NOT Zimbabwe
  24. 24. We are Non-BrittleWe are Non-Brittle  How can Holistic Management Help Us?How can Holistic Management Help Us?  Understanding RecoveryUnderstanding Recovery  Role of Animal ImpactRole of Animal Impact  Control of “Time” and “Numbers”Control of “Time” and “Numbers”  Choosing Grazing and Recovery PeriodsChoosing Grazing and Recovery Periods  Managing for the plants – improveManaging for the plants – improve productivityproductivity  Planned Grazing ChartsPlanned Grazing Charts
  25. 25. Grazing and PastureGrazing and Pasture managementmanagement At the right placeAt the right place At the right timeAt the right time For the right reasonFor the right reason
  26. 26. YOU SHOULD NEVERYOU SHOULD NEVER BE SO BUSYBE SO BUSY DOINGDOING WHAT YOU ARE DOINGWHAT YOU ARE DOING THAT YOU DON’TTHAT YOU DON’T HAVE TIME TOHAVE TIME TO THINKTHINK ABOUT WHAT YOU ARE DOINGABOUT WHAT YOU ARE DOING
  27. 27. The Grazing Chart lets you see all your paddocks and livestock in one place. It also lets you keep track of things like recovery periods, breeding, calving, planned holidays, environmental constraints on some paddocks, rainfall, herd animal units etc.
  28. 28. If things aren’t working or there is a problemIf things aren’t working or there is a problem We have 3 choices:We have 3 choices: 1. DO NOTHING1. DO NOTHING 2. DO THE SAME HARDER2. DO THE SAME HARDER 3.3. MAKE A CHANGEMAKE A CHANGE
  29. 29. Story of 2012 droughtStory of 2012 drought  - The grazing chart helped us realize- The grazing chart helped us realize something was amiss in MAYsomething was amiss in MAY  - The testing questions helped us decide- The testing questions helped us decide to buy hay then rather than wait.to buy hay then rather than wait.  - The pasture planning we did meant we- The pasture planning we did meant we ended up pasturing our animalsended up pasturing our animals throughout the summer and fall andthroughout the summer and fall and didn’t start feeding hay till Middidn’t start feeding hay till Mid November 2012.November 2012.
  30. 30. Holistic Planned Grazing:Holistic Planned Grazing:  Coordinates two land managementCoordinates two land management toolstools  Grazing and Animal impactGrazing and Animal impact HM – using animals as “Tools”.HM – using animals as “Tools”.  Uses fourUses four management guidelinesmanagement guidelines  Population management (stocking rate)Population management (stocking rate)  TimeTime  Stock densityStock density  Herd effectHerd effect
  31. 31. Willows the Day of Grazing Salt and Mineral feeder in the willows Animal Impact and Herd Effect
  32. 32. Cattle moving into the area – some going after the mineral & salt immediately
  33. 33. Willows the day after grazing
  34. 34. Recovery PeriodRecovery Period  The length of time it takes a plant to recoverThe length of time it takes a plant to recover fully from being grazed.fully from being grazed.  How can we tell if a plant has Recovered?How can we tell if a plant has Recovered?  It starts to work on REPRODUCTION notIt starts to work on REPRODUCTION not REGENERATION.REGENERATION.  It starts to flowerIt starts to flower  It has replenished its roots and energy reserves andIt has replenished its roots and energy reserves and can start on reproduction.can start on reproduction.
  35. 35. Important ConceptsImportant Concepts  - Severely Grazed- Severely Grazed  - Over Grazed- Over Grazed  - Over Rested- Over Rested
  36. 36. Overgrazing can OccurOvergrazing can Occur  1 – If the Recovery Period is too short1 – If the Recovery Period is too short  Animals return to a paddock too soonAnimals return to a paddock too soon and Plants are regrazed before theyand Plants are regrazed before they fully recover.fully recover.  2 – If the Grazing Period is too long2 – If the Grazing Period is too long  Re-growing plants are regrazed beforeRe-growing plants are regrazed before the animals leave the paddockthe animals leave the paddock..
  37. 37. Pretty Severely Grazed – not a lot of trampled litter on the soil surface.
  38. 38. Fresh Trampled Litter Bank
  39. 39. Feed Soil & LivestockFeed Soil & Livestock • Monitor Daily GrazingMonitor Daily Grazing Patterns.Patterns. • Fresh Trampled Litter On TheFresh Trampled Litter On The SoilSoil • Proper Gut Fill On The leftProper Gut Fill On The left Side In Front Of Hip Bone.Side In Front Of Hip Bone. Greg Judy – comments & slides
  40. 40. Recovery Periods will vary!Recovery Periods will vary!  Depending on the time of yearDepending on the time of year AND the residual left afterAND the residual left after grazing AND the weather!grazing AND the weather!  In the early spring?In the early spring?  Late spring early summer?Late spring early summer?  Mid summer?Mid summer?  Fall?Fall?
  41. 41. Lengths for Grazing PeriodsLengths for Grazing Periods  Fast Growth – 3 days or lessFast Growth – 3 days or less  Slow Growth – 6 to 7 days ???Slow Growth – 6 to 7 days ???  Some folks experimenting withSome folks experimenting with very short graze periods, rapidvery short graze periods, rapid moves, high stock density.moves, high stock density.
  42. 42. Neil Dennis, Saskatchewan, Stock Density, 1,000 animal units per acre. 1 million pounds of beef on an acre – Moving every couple of hours. To get a similar stock density with 30 animal units they would be in a paddock 26 by 50 feet. 43 square feet/animal.
  43. 43. New Zealand Batt Latches – timed gate release. Neil sets up a number of pasture strips of about an acre and then has the Batt Latches timed to open every two hours. The cattle keep moving forward into the fresh pasture – they can go back to get to the water truck.
  44. 44. Paddock #’s impact Grazing Time and Recovery Period # of Paddocks Grazing Period Recovery Period 1 150 days 0 2 75 days 75 days 4 38 days 112 days 8 19 days 131 days 16 9 days 141 days 16 with 3 passes 3 days 45 days
  45. 45. Electric fencingElectric fencing  They need to be trained to respect it.They need to be trained to respect it.  Makes it easier to subdivide pasturesMakes it easier to subdivide pastures  Moving animals frequently makes them easierMoving animals frequently makes them easier to handle.to handle.  Can separate animals for shippingCan separate animals for shipping  Make temporary lanes to move animals to theMake temporary lanes to move animals to the barn.barn.  Make temporary gates – no permanent laneMake temporary gates – no permanent lane ways.ways.
  46. 46. Moving Cattle from South A & B to Middle A – September 3, 2008
  47. 47. Cattle Flow into next strip Middle A, Sept. 3, 2008
  48. 48. Elapsed time – around a minute – moving into Middle A – Sept. 3, 2008
  49. 49. Animal Impact on Wet SoilAnimal Impact on Wet Soil  One of my anxieties – in our Non-Brittle area.One of my anxieties – in our Non-Brittle area.  If animals are on small areas when they areIf animals are on small areas when they are wet – looks pretty grimwet – looks pretty grim  But only a small area is affectedBut only a small area is affected  If there is adequate recovery period it is OKIf there is adequate recovery period it is OK  Planned Grazing can helpPlanned Grazing can help  Biologically active soil may also be importantBiologically active soil may also be important
  50. 50. May 16, 2008 – pasture before horses went in – Section of West R
  51. 51. May 16, 2008 – West R – after the horses were on it for 1 day – wet weather - 3.25 inches of rain so far in May – 7/16 the night before. 4 horses on about 1/7 acre.
  52. 52. May 16, 2008 – West R – Animal Impact
  53. 53. July 23, 2008 – 63 days later in West R
  54. 54. Portable Mud Proof Water
  55. 55. You are the Expert on your Farm!You are the Expert on your Farm!  Experiment with new ideas.Experiment with new ideas. Severely graze a paddock.Severely graze a paddock. Leave lots of residual inLeave lots of residual in another.another. Monitor what happens.Monitor what happens. Each year will be different!Each year will be different!
  56. 56. Start SlowlyStart Slowly  Increase Stock DensityIncrease Stock Density  Paddock NumbersPaddock Numbers  And reducing Grazing PeriodAnd reducing Grazing Period  Maintain good gut fillMaintain good gut fill  And adequate recoveryAnd adequate recovery  Do for several yearsDo for several years  Before Increasing Stocking RateBefore Increasing Stocking Rate
  57. 57. HM Planned GrazingHM Planned Grazing  Just one element of Holistic ManagementJust one element of Holistic Management  Other elements includeOther elements include  Developing a Holistic GoalDeveloping a Holistic Goal  Financial PlanningFinancial Planning  Land PlanningLand Planning  Testing QuestionsTesting Questions  Feedback LoopFeedback Loop
  58. 58. For More InformationFor More Information  Tony & Fran McQuailTony & Fran McQuail mcqufarm@hurontel.on.camcqufarm@hurontel.on.ca 519-528-2493519-528-2493 Holistic Management InternationalHolistic Management International http://holisticmanagement.org/free-downloads/http://holisticmanagement.org/free-downloads/ http://www.ted.com/talks/allan_savory_how_to_http://www.ted.com/talks/allan_savory_how_to_ green_the_world_s_deserts_and_reverse_climgreen_the_world_s_deserts_and_reverse_clim ate_changeate_change

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