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Synthetic biology In Scotland

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A report from IBioIC on synthetic biology growth potential and current market in Scotland

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Synthetic biology In Scotland

  1. 1. Synthetic Biology in Scotland
  2. 2. 2 Contents Engineering Design...........................................................................4 Market Impacts of Synthetic Biology ...................................................5 Synthetic Biology is growing in Scotland..............................................6 A Snapshot of the Scottish Landscape .................................................7 Key Research Facilities ......................................................................8 The University of Edinburgh.......................................................................... 8 Overview....................................................................................................... 8 Areas of Excellence......................................................................................... 8 Capabilities and Facilities................................................................................. 9 Industrial Collaborations................................................................................ 10 The University of Glasgow .......................................................................... 11 Overview..................................................................................................... 11 Areas of Excellence....................................................................................... 11 Capabilities and Facilities............................................................................... 11 Industrial Collaborations................................................................................ 11 The University of Aberdeen......................................................................... 12 Overview..................................................................................................... 12 Areas of Excellence....................................................................................... 12 Capabilities and Facilities............................................................................... 12 Industrial Collaborations................................................................................ 12 Other Universities and Institutes with Synthetic Biology Activities.................... 13 University of Dundee .................................................................................... 13 University of St Andrews ............................................................................... 13 University of Strathclyde ............................................................................... 13 Heriot Watt University................................................................................... 13 James Hutton Institute.................................................................................. 13 Supporting Institutes ................................................................................. 13 Key Industry Players....................................................................... 15 Ingenza ................................................................................................... 15 Synpromics .............................................................................................. 15 Biotangents .............................................................................................. 16 Industrial End-Users ....................................................................... 17 Education and Training.................................................................... 18 Funding and Support....................................................................... 20 Scottish Enterprise and Highlands and Islands Enterprise ............................... 20 Locations to do Business ................................................................. 22 Appendix A - Academic Landscape .................................................... 23 University of Edinburgh.............................................................................. 23 Facilities...................................................................................................... 23 Key Research Areas ...................................................................................... 23 Industrial Collaboration ................................................................................. 24 University of Glasgow ................................................................................ 25 Facilities...................................................................................................... 25 Key Research Areas ...................................................................................... 25 Industrial Collaboration ................................................................................. 25 University of Aberdeen............................................................................... 26 Facilities...................................................................................................... 26
  3. 3. 3 Key Research Areas ...................................................................................... 26 Industrial Collaboration ................................................................................. 26 University of Dundee ................................................................................. 27 Facilities...................................................................................................... 27 Key Research Areas ...................................................................................... 27 University of St Andrews ............................................................................ 28 Facilities...................................................................................................... 28 Key Research Areas ...................................................................................... 28 Industrial Collaboration ................................................................................. 28 University of Strathclyde ............................................................................ 29 Facilities...................................................................................................... 29 Key Research Areas ...................................................................................... 29 Industrial Collaboration ................................................................................. 29 Heriot Watt University................................................................................ 29 Facilities...................................................................................................... 29 Key Research Areas ...................................................................................... 29 James Hutton Institute............................................................................... 30 Key Research Areas ...................................................................................... 30 Moredun Institute...................................................................................... 30 Key Research Areas ...................................................................................... 30 Roslin Institute.......................................................................................... 30 Key Research Areas ...................................................................................... 30 Industrial Collaboration ................................................................................. 30 Appendix B - Potential End-Users ..................................................... 31
  4. 4. 4 Engineering Design There is no question that biotechnology has opened up opportunities to create new solutions and economic benefit in many areas including health, energy, and agriculture. Yet, progress has been marred by often unexpected failures and public concerns over the use of genetic modification. These failures and concerns are largely a result of believing that the novelty that has been introduced is somehow insulated from the host that it finds itself in. With the massive advances in DNA sequencing technologies and ability to evaluate the global effect of cellular proteins, we are now in a position to better understand these interactions. Applying design and engineering principles will, eventually, allow us to have the same certainty in biotechnology outcomes as we have from designing electronic circuits. Synthetic biology aims to provide this certainty through the central concept that biology can be reduced to a number of functional parts. As DNA is the main repository of biological information; it should be possible to combine DNA parts in specific ways to create ‘circuits’ to achieve desired outcomes. These circuits could make use of native DNA sequences, or systems could be designed that are incapable of interacting with, effectively insulated from, the host. Most industrialised nations are now pursuing programmes for the development of synthetic biology capabilities and looking to apply these to a range of industrial sectors. What is clear from examining the way in which synthetic biology is developing and being exploited is that business to academia and business to business collaborations will be the norm. Case Study – Sustainable Chemicals for the Manufacture of Antibiotics The manufacture of most pharmaceuticals begins with petrochemicals or glucose that is produced from food sources. Neither is sustainable, and so GSK is working with researchers at the University of Strathclyde to use synthetic biology to engineer novel metabolic pathways in microbes that would allow these building blocks to be made from renewable sources (such as agricultural waste).
  5. 5. 5 Market Impacts of Synthetic Biology Synthetic biology is expected to have a significant market impact. A review of the analysis by three leading market research companies suggests that the market was worth between 1.9 and 3 billion USD in 2013, with growth rates of between 24% and 44% to the end of this decade1 . Figure 1. Global synthetic biology market trends (billions USD) from three independent market research companies from 2013 to 2018/20. The market can be segmented into enabling tools (such as DNA cloning and sequencing), enabling products (such as novel genetic constructs and engineered microbes) and enabled products (such as biofuels). While enabled products are expected to retain the highest share of the market, the key growth area at present is in enabling product technologies. This is an area that Scotland has strong capabilities in. 1 Figures derived from the following market research reports: Synthetic Biology: Global Markets (BCC Research, 2014), Synthetic Biology Market by Tool (MarketsandMarkets, 2014), World Synthetic Biology Market - Opportunities and Forecasts, 2013 – 2020 (Allied Market Research, 2014). 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Allied Market Research BCC Research Markets and Markets
  6. 6. 6 Synthetic Biology is growing in Scotland  Scotland has the highest density of synthetic biology practitioners in the UK, outside of London.  The Universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow offer world-class facilities.  The Industrial Biotechnology Innovation Centre (IBioIC) headquartered at the University of Strathclyde provides an interface between academia and industry for industrial biotechnology and synthetic biology.  There is a small and engaged industrial base developing new research tools and using synthetic biology for process and product development.  There are a number of large industrial end-users keen to use and further develop synthetic biology tools.  There are additional world class facilities that would support the translation of technologies into human health, crop and livestock development.  The majority of these sites are within two hours travel of each other.  There is a strong infrastructure and connectivity between academia and industry.  The next generation of synthetic biologists are being trained through Masters and PhD courses at the Universities of Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Strathclyde, with Edinburgh and St Andrews also offering undergraduate degrees in biology and mathematics. Case Study – Improving the expression of proteins in engineered microbes Ingenza and Aberdeen are collaborating to model and understand the dynamics of protein translation in cells expressing heterologous genes. By doing so they expect to be able to design gene expression systems that lead to the optimal expression, folding and solubility of encoded proteins, thus reducing the production costs of proteins such as enzymes and therapeutics.
  7. 7. 7 A Snapshot of the Scottish Landscape Scotland is rich in academic talent in synthetic biology, with most of this concentrated in the Universities of Edinburgh, Glasgow and Aberdeen. However, there are additional groups in Dundee, St Andrews, and Heriot Watt. The Industrial Biotechnology Innovation Centre (IBioIC), a collaborative initiative between all Scottish universities, provides a focal point that connects this expertise and has directly funded academic-industry collaborations through its Exemplar Programme. All academic centres welcome collaboration and provide access to their facilities for external users. In addition to this strong academic presence, Scotland has a number of companies providing synthetic biology services to a growing list of international clients for metabolic engineering and the optimisation of protein expression across a variety of microbial, plant and mammalian systems. Several large multi-national end-users of synthetic biology are also located in Scotland, including GSK and Thermo Fisher. Scottish organisations are active in major UK initiatives such as SynbiCITE – the UK’s collaborative Innovation and Knowledge Centre (IKC) dedicated to promoting the adoption and use of synthetic biology by industry; and the Knowledge Transfer Network (KTN) – the UK’s innovation network which has its biosciences and biotechnology team located in Edinburgh. U of Edinburgh - Mammalian SynthSys Genome Foundry Edinburgh Genomics Systems Biology Software Infrastructure Kinetic Parameter Facility Photobiology & Low Light Imaging Facility Microfluidic Imaging Facility Systems biology; large-scale DNA manipulation; industrial, animal & crop biotech JHI - crop & environment research U of Strathclyde - Industrial Biotech Innovation Centre U of Glasgow - Polyomics Facility (high throughput -omics) Protein & Nucleic Acid Characterisation U of Aberdeen - Systems Biology Integrative Centre Genomics & Proteomics Roslin & Moredun Institutes - animal biotech & husbandry Synpromics - synthetic promoters to enhance gene expression for health & medicine, and plant biotech Ingenza - combinatorial genetics for biotech applications in chemicals, medicine/health, biofuels & agrochemicals Thermo Fisher - tools for -omics technologies Other research groups at Dundee, St Andrews, and Heriot Watt Biotangents - combinatorial genetics for metabolic engineering
  8. 8. 8 Key Research Facilities The University of Edinburgh Overview The University of Edinburgh has made synthetic biology a strategic priority. Over the past eight years, the University has invested ~£24M in people, buildings, studentships and facilities to create a critical mass of research excellence in synthetic biology in Edinburgh. It offers world-class facilities for the manipulation and exploitation of a variety of cells, and for the design, manufacture, and validation of DNA up to chromosome length. SynthSys is the focus of synthetic and systems biology research in Edinburgh. This multidisciplinary, virtual centre spans the University and has around 40 principal investigators and over 200 researchers from Biological Sciences, Chemistry, Engineering, Informatics, Mathematics, Medicine, and Social Sciences. It is also home to the UK Centre for Mammalian Synthetic Biology Research, a BBSRC, EPSRC and MRC funded synthetic biology research centre. Research capabilities in SynthSys are integrated to support a broad range of industrial sectors including: industrial biotechnology, energy, animal and human health, agriculture and the environment. Areas of Excellence Edinburgh has built expertise in the application of synthetic biology tools across a wide range of organisms - bacteria, yeast, fungi, plants and animals. This includes:  Minimal, chassis microbes for the introduction of novel genes and genetic pathways – including microbes that are suited to specific environments.  Novel genetic control elements such as transcription factors, DNA binding sites, insertion (recombinase) sites and epigenetic domains – to modulate gene expression.  Novel genetic circuits that are modular and orthogonal (do not ‘cross-talk’ with host cell biological circuits) for use in biosensors and biosynthesis.  Novel metabolic pathways within microbes to enhance the production of desired products, such as novel drugs, or catalyse the breakdown of biopolymers, such as lignin and cellulose, to useful building blocks.  Controlling the level and timing of expression and secretion of proteins from bacteria through mechanical stimuli and feedback loops.  Plant synthetic biology to boost yields of natural products, and improve growth, and systems biology approaches to understand how different environmental factors influence plant circadian clocks and thus growth.  Single cell assays, genomics, proteomics and epigenetics to understand changes at the cellular and molecular level.  Mathematical and computational approaches to model a variety of biological processes.
  9. 9. 9 Figure2. Synthetic biology capabilities at the University of Edinburgh. Capabilities and Facilities Centre for Mammalian Synthetic Biology - a £13.3m investment from UK Research Councils to develop tools for the manipulation and exploitation of mammalian cells, with a short term industrial focus on drug discovery, biosensors and bioproduction. The centre also includes industrial partners: Thermo Fisher, Selex, Charles River Labs, Roslin Cells, and Autodesk. Edinburgh Genome Foundry - will provide end-to-end DNA design, assembly (up to chromosomal lengths) and validation. The Foundry will go online later in 2016, allowing researchers anywhere in the globe to order specific services. All services will be fully automated. Phenotyping Platforms – A core experimental resource containing specialist equipment for measuring multiple parameters of cell physiology. It provides access to medium-throughput benchtop fermentation systems for the culture of a variety of cell types. Systems Biology Software Infrastructure – supporting the understanding and design of biomolecules and genetic circuits. Microscopy – A range of novel technologies including confocal microscopy (OPERATM ), optical imaging and single-cell analysis. Plant Phenomics – provides facilities for tissue culture and biological containment, controlled growth environments and plant stem cell cultures. It includes an electron microscopy suite for biomolecular characterisation. Centre for Translational and Chemical Biology – supports drug discovery programmes through expertise in structural biology, virtual screening and structure based design. Centralised protein
  10. 10. 10 production and characterisation facilities are available through the Edinburgh Protein Production Facility (EPPF). Edinburgh Genomics – next generation DNA sequencing, genotyping and bioinformatics. Illumina HiSeq X allows for inexpensive whole genome sequencing. Innogen – research and consultancy around the social and economic impacts of innovation in the life sciences. Industrial Collaborations Examples of industrial collaborations in synthetic biology with the University of Edinburgh include:  Ingenza – a number of projects to identify novel microbial enzymes and enzymatic pathways for the metabolism of different biomass feedstocks.  Synpromics – novel promoters to improve protein expression in mammalian cells.  GSK – novel manufacturing processes for antibiotics.  Unilever – production of chitosans for use in food and personal care products.
  11. 11. 11 The University of Glasgow Overview Researchers at the University of Glasgow are applying synthetic biology to a number of areas including synthetic cells, water and environment remediation, photosynthesis and optogenetics. Researchers are connected through the Synthetic Biology Group which is multi-disciplinary and spread across a number of faculties. Areas of Excellence Glasgow has developed a number of areas of expertise including:  Synthetic cells - a means of expressing desired DNA from a vesicle made from either polymers or lipids and containing cell lysates, mainly from E. coli. Membrane proteins can be inserted into the vesicle to allow passage of chemicals or binding to specific targets. Potential uses include biosensors, water remediation or as a therapeutic delivery agent (through cell fusion).  Cyanobacteria as a novel system for the production of useful compounds, exploiting their broad range of habitats and hence metabolisms. Research has identified promoters that are only active when the cyanobacteria have reached maximum cell density, stationary growth phase, allowing optimal expression of transgenes.  Site-specific recombinases for genome editing, allowing genetic circuits to be created and easily modified. These also have use as novel sensors that induce permanent changes in DNA as the result of a specific event (e.g. cell division).  Microalgae cultivation for biofuels and high value products.  Systems biology to model and understand microbial communities for the purpose of designing new communities to achieve water and environmental remediation.  Artificial photosynthesis using the light-harvesting complex from purple bacteria.  Optogenetics – using light responsive domains in plant and algal photoreceptors to control gene expression. Capabilities and Facilities Polyomics facility – unique in the UK, integrating all ‘-omics’ technologies and pioneering metabolomics, which for example, can be used to verify the action of drug candidates and profile the dynamics of microbial communities. Supports much research across the university and has established relationships with a number of industrial clients including Ingenza, Novartis, GSK, and Astra Zeneca. Protein and Nucleic Acid Characterisation Facility – wide variety of biophysical techniques, including fluorescence, circular dichroism, UV-VIS, FTIR, isothermal calorimetry, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR), to analyse structural integrity, stability, and interactions with other macromolecules, ligands, and membranes. Industrial Collaborations Examples of industrial collaborations in synthetic biology with the University of Glasgow include:  Ingenza – developing a platform for rapid and precise DNA module rearrangements.
  12. 12. 12 The University of Aberdeen Overview Synthetic biology at the University of Aberdeen is used for marine biodiscovery, the study of developmental pathways and for optogenetics. There is also a strong systems and modelling capability. Areas of Excellence  Cloning and optimising the expression of enzymes from marine fungi, bacteria and cyanobacteria that constitute metabolic pathways for the production of cyclic peptides that have therapeutic properties. Different enzymes are used in combination in cell-free systems to generate drug candidates and fine chemical precursors. Commercialised as a spin-out company (Ripptide-Pharma) in partnership with the University of St Andrews.  Systems biology – to understand development and differentiation, control of complex biological systems and fine control of protein translation in yeast. Capabilities and Facilities Systems Biology Integrative Centre – applies mathematical modelling to molecular, organismal and environmental biology for the purpose of supporting a greater understanding of metabolism, development and disease. Centre for Genome-Enabled Biology and Medicine – provides next generation sequencing, microarray technologies and bioinformatics. Institute of Medical Sciences – provides cytometry, microscopy, proteomics, and qPCR capabilities. Industrial Collaborations Examples of industrial collaborations in synthetic biology with the University of Aberdeen include:  Ingenza – discovery and scalable synthesis of therapeutic cyclic peptides, discovery of new bacterial enzymes for biomass processing, and optimisation of protein translation.
  13. 13. 13 Other Universities and Institutes with Synthetic Biology Activities University of Dundee The University of Dundee has strong bioinformatics (genomics and proteomics) and mathematical modelling capabilities to investigate whole biological systems, in particular microbes. Applied research using synthetic biology focuses on the metabolic engineering of bacteria to produce hydrogen. Other interests include plant biotechnology (in partnership with the James Hutton Institute) and bacterial protein transport. Dundee has been particularly active in the iGEM competition (see under ‘Education and Training’). University of St Andrews The University of St Andrews has several research groups investigating the biosynthesis of natural products and using recombinases such as CRISPR to manipulate genomic DNA. Areas of interest include biofuel synthesis and lignin metabolism. St Andrews also hosts the Sasol Technology Research Centre for RTD in synthetic fuels, and has collaborated with Ingenza and the University of Aberdeen on the discovery and scalable synthesis of therapeutic cyclic peptides. University of Strathclyde The University of Strathclyde has substantial expertise in industrial biotechnology and manipulating microbial metabolism. It also hosts the Industrial Biotechnology Innovation Centre (IBioIC) which is a collaborative initiative between 14 Higher Education Institutions in Scotland. IBioIC has over 30 industrial partners, and offers funding through its exemplar programmes for industrial-academic collaboration, access to pilot plant facilities, and education and training in industrial biotechnology. Strathclyde researchers have collaborated with Ingenza to engineer bacteria to produce products traditionally made from petrochemical sources. Strathclyde hosts the Rapid Bioprocess Prototyping Centre which supports the development of bioprocess technology from lab to industrially compatible scales (1-15l). Its focus is on assessing the potential of new cell lines, bio-products or novel approaches to bioprocessing. Heriot Watt University Heriot Watt has expertise in biotechnology and bioprocessing, centred on the Institute of Biological Chemistry, Biophysics and Bioengineering. Research activities include the manipulation of multicellular structures such as tissues and biofilms, and bioenergy, using carbon dioxide fixation by cyanobacteria. The Flexible Downstream Bioprocessing Centre will be officially launched in May 2016, a facility under the umbrella of IBioIC it will take technologies demonstrated through the Rapid Bioprocess Prototyping Centre at Strathclyde and scale these up to 15-200l. James Hutton Institute JHI is a major international research institute for the development of new crop cultivars, particularly soft fruits, cereals and potatoes. It collaborates extensively with industry and applies genomics tools to assist in the breeding of new varieties and to understand and manipulate plant pathogen interactions with hosts. It has extensive glasshouse facilities with contained growth areas for GM cultivation and plant pathogen study. Supporting Institutes While they are not directly developing or using synthetic biology tools, the Moredun and Roslin Institutes provide access to valuable animal welfare and health capabilities, including containment
  14. 14. 14 facilities, and therefore the prospect of translating synthetic biology advances into livestock development. Further information on academic capabilities and facilities, including key contact information, is provided in Appendix A.
  15. 15. 15 Key Industry Players There are three companies in Scotland which deliver RTDI services that are enabled by synthetic biology. All offer platform technologies, delivering business to business services for industrial clients, from SMEs to multi-nationals. Each of these companies also collaborates with academic research groups. Ingenza Ingenza was founded in 2002 and has extensive synthetic biology, and industrial fermentation expertise. Its inABLE technology is a high-throughput combinatorial genetics platform, to both join multiple DNA segments together in a controlled manner and test large numbers of the resultant constructs rapidly, for both protein functionality and expression levels. The platform has been used across a number of prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems, to optimise expression and/or functionality from single or multiple genes. The company uses bioinformatics to aid in the design of constructs, e.g. substituting functional domains in a target protein with homologues from other species or strains to deliver improvements. The highly parallel approach markedly reduces development time and has delivered solutions to issues clients have previously found intractable. Ingenza works with industrial clients and academic partners across the globe and across a range of sectors including fine and speciality chemical, pharmaceuticals, biocatalysts and biofuels. In addition to its synthetic biology expertise, the company is GMP compliant and employs industrial biotechnology knowledge to optimise fermentation processes to manufacturing scales. Synpromics Synpromics was founded in 2010 to exploit proprietary promoter design technology for a number of eukaryotic cell systems. The control elements that are used are organism and/or cell-specific, allowing gene expression to be fully optimised according to specific design requirements. These are developed for international clients to improve mammalian and microbial industrial biotechnology processes and the efficacy of cell and gene therapies. The benefits of this technology platform include:  High levels of gene expression and specificity;  Novel and patentable promoters;  Production of simple or complex protein products;  Stable and high expression;  Adaptable to pathway engineering;  Inducible expression in any environment. Through understanding how different promoter elements function in different cell-types and in different environments, Synpromics is able to construct synthetic promoters to optimise the expression of genes encoding desired proteins. Specific algorithms are used to mine its database of promoter elements and design libraries of synthetic promoters for specific purposes. Synpromics received £2.1m investment from Calculus Capital in August 2015 and at the end of 2015 announced deals with AGTC and Avalanche Tech (both to develop novel promoters for adeno- associated virus vectors for ocular diseases).
  16. 16. 16 Biotangents Biotangents launched at the beginning of 2015. Its Leapfrog Assembly technology is a PCR-free approach to combine multiple DNA fragments in a defined manner for the purpose of metabolic engineering. The DNA used can be both coding and non-coding. The company provides these services to a number of UK and international industrial clients. One particular area of expertise is engineering E. coli to produce small molecules for flavours and fragrances, and controlling the length and post-polymerisation modification of larger polysaccharides for other consumer products. Biotangent’s technology produces identical products to natural flavours and fragrances that are rare and/or expensive to extract, and makes use of more abundant feedstocks.
  17. 17. 17 Industrial End-Users Scotland has a vibrant life-sciences community, engaged in drug discovery, developing new drug delivery systems, diagnostics and research tools, all of which can benefit from advances in synthetic biology in the short to medium term. Other sectors that will see benefits from synthetic biology developments are represented within Scotland, such as: chemical manufacturing, including agrochemicals and petrochemicals; energy; agriculture, food and drink; environment, water and waste management. Key multi-national players with an active presence in Scotland include:  Thermo Fisher – has a large facility just outside Glasgow, and globally has active RTD programmes for developing research tools that exploit synthetic biology. It has collaborations with a number of Scottish universities.  GSK – has manufacturing plants on both the East and West coasts of Scotland. It is collaborating with industrial and university partners in Scotland to develop synthetic biology tools for the realisation of improved process technologies.  Finmeccanica (Selex ES) – has a large site in Edinburgh and is a partner in the Centre for Mammalian Synthetic Biology. It has interests in the development of novel biosensors.  Charles River Laboratories – has two facilities around Edinburgh and is a partner in the Centre for Mammalian Synthetic Biology. Further information on the large, potential end-user markets for synthetic biology developments, and relevant companies located in Scotland, can be found in Appendix B.
  18. 18. 18 Education and Training Scotland has a long history of producing high calibre life-science graduates and offering a variety of post-graduate opportunities at Masters and PhD level. In recent years there has been an increase in the number of life-science graduates, and at the same time the introduction of more applied degrees, beginning with industrial biotechnology, which is offered by most universities at either Honours or Masters levels. In recognition of the growing importance of synthetic biology, several are now offering relevant courses to ensure that Scotland maintains a pipeline of skilled individuals:  University of Edinburgh: o BSc Honours .n Mathematics and Biology – supporting a more quantitative approach to biology o MSC in Systems and Synthetic Biology - understanding of how genetic systems interact and how to engineer and control novel genetic systems. o MSc in Synthetic Biology and Biotechnology - practical applications of synthetic biology and biotechnology, combined with insight to technology transfer and responsible research and innovation. o MSc in Management of Bioeconomy, Innovation and Governance (BIG) - includes an optional course 'Social Dimensions of Systems and Synthetic Biology'.  University of Glasgow o MSc in Biotechnology - combines advanced molecular genetics and biotechnology with business and industrial skills. o MSc in Biotechnology and Management – adds additional management aspects to the above course. o MSc in Bioinformatics, Polyomics and Systems Biology - covers all -omics technology and integrates with bioinformatics and systems biology. o PhD in Systems Biology - understanding and integration of -omics data.  University of Strathclyde o MSc in Industrial Biotechnology - industry-led, including a placement with an industrial partner. Synthetic and systems biology are core components.  University of St Andrews o BSc (Hons) in Biology and Mathematics – supporting a more quantitative approach to biology. The Scottish Universities Life Sciences Alliance (SULSA) which is supported by the Scottish Funding Council (SFC) plays a key role in linking education and training activities across six Scottish universities (Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh, Glasgow, St Andrews and Strathclyde). SULSA has established a synthetic and systems biology theme group to coordinate activities across universities and organises a number of regular activities to engage academic researchers and industry. For example, it supports industrial placements for post-graduate students. This is mainly at the PhD level, where students spend between three and six months in industry, although there are also a number of undergraduate placements, where students are funded for a full year in a company between their third and final years. These placements are usually in Scotland, but can be located elsewhere, in which case the company is asked to contribute to additional expenses. In addition to
  19. 19. 19 this, SULSA supports Scottish undergraduate participation in the iGEM (International Genetically Engineered Machine) competition, which takes place every year in Boston. There have been several successful teams from Scottish universities (see box). In addition, there are developments at the further education level to provide training courses, certificates and diplomas for technical aspects that meet industry’s needs. This is coordinated by a cross-party skills and education group involving Scottish Enterprise, Skills Development Scotland (SDS), Further and Higher Education institutions and industry, under the auspices of the Scottish Industrial Biotechnology Leadership Group. This group is addressing the needs of industrial biotechnology and already considering synthetic biology, in terms of the broad range of skillsets that will be required. Scottish University success in iGEM Teams from several Scottish universities have successfully competed in the iGEM competition. Recent examples include:  The Synthetic Forensic Toolkit – to measure fingerprint age, analyse body fluids without contaminating DNA, and detect chromate in wounds. (Gold)  Class-A-fiED – a biosensor to detect the illicit presence of opiates in diet pills. (Gold, Best Integrated Human Practices)  GlasGlow – engineering bioluminescence in E coli for children’s nightlights. (Gold)  E. coli-based Trypanosomiasis Diagnostic System – a logic gate based system to detect the presence of two parasite antigens and indicate this through fluorescence. (Gold, Best Innovation in Measurement, Best Health & Medicine Project)  The Lung Ranger – a biosensor to rapidly and non-invasively identify bacteria colonising a Cystic Fibrosis patient. (Gold, Best Policy & Practices Advance, Best Health & Medicine Project, iGEMers Prize)  RewirED – using intercellular signalling to control the growth dynamics of bacteria in mixed populations. (Gold)  Switching on the power of E.coli – using site specific recombinases to permanently switch expression from one gene (or set of genes) to another in response to a stimulus. (Gold)  TOXiMOP – using synthetic biology to monitor and remove toxins from algal blooms in freshwater bodies.  WastED - remediation and valorisation of industrial waste streams, with a particular focus on Scottish leather, textile, and whisky industry waste waters.
  20. 20. 20 Funding and Support There are a variety of funding schemes available to support company growth in Scotland. Those that are most relevant are listed below. Scottish Enterprise and Highlands and Islands Enterprise Scottish Enterprise (SE) and Highlands and Islands Enterprise (HIE) are the main economic development agencies in Scotland. Funding provided by both is only available to companies that are established, or intending to establish in Scotland. SMART: Scotland Award provides grant support to SMEs (small and medium sized businesses) for feasibility studies, and research and development (R&D) projects.  Feasibility studies support early stage R&D to enable informed decisions on the technical and commercial feasibility of a new product or process. Support is at up to 70% of the eligible project costs and projects last 6-18 months, and the maximum grant is £100,000.  R&D projects aim to develop a pre-production prototype of a new product or process. Support is at up to 35% of the eligible project costs and projects last 6-36 months, and the maximum grant is £600,000. Seek and Solve grant provides support for companies to engage in innovation projects with customers who have committed resources to the project. Support is up to 45% of costs, with projects lasting 6-36 months. Scottish Venture Fund invests in companies from start-ups, early-stage to expanding businesses seeking funding to develop products and/or markets. Primarily equity based, SE provides up to 50% of total funding package, or between £10,000 and £2 million. Scottish Co-investment Fund matches accredited investment partners up to a maximum of 50% of the total funding package on a commercial basis. SE provides from £10,000 to £1.5 million. Scottish Loan Fund provides loans ranging from £250,000 to £5 million to SMEs to support their expansion University Collaboration Funding Schemes Innovation Vouchers provide a small amount of funding to Scottish-based SME’s to carry out short feasibility studies in collaboration with a Scottish University. Typically these “vouchers” pay for £5000 worth of access to university expertise or equipment, which usually has to be matched in cash or in kind by the industrial partner. The Innovation Voucher can be used as a way to initiate a project and lead on to further, more R&D detailed collaboration. Several organisations administer these, the main one, of relevance to the life-science sector is Interface, which delivers the Scottish Funding Council (SFC) Innovation Voucher Scheme. Knowledge Transfer Partnerships (KTPs) are UK Government funded and enable businesses to benefit from the wide range of expertise available in the UK Knowledge Base - public and private sector research institutes and higher and further education institutions. KTPs are a three-way partnership between the business, the academic (usually university) partner and a recent graduate (the Knowledge Transfer Associate) to deliver projects of strategic importance to the business.
  21. 21. 21 Projects last 12-36 months, SMEs need to contribute 33% of costs (on average £23,000 per year) and large enterprises need to contribute 50% of costs (on average £30,000 per year). SFC support KTPs in Scotland. Industrial CASE Studentships provide funding for PhD studentships where the industrial partner takes the lead in arranging projects with an academic partner of their choice. Industrial CASE studentships are available through all the UK research funding councils and require both industry financial contribution and placement of students from between 3-18 months with the company. In addition to these funding schemes, the UK Government provides funding for industrial RTD through Innovate UK, which operates in a similar manner to Scottish Enterprise and investment through schemes such as the Rainbow Seed Fund, which is a is a £24m early-stage venture capital specifically for synthetic biology companies. There are further means of supporting innovation such as R&D tax credits and the UK’s Patent Box both of which allow companies to reduce corporation tax burdens as a result of their RTDI activities.
  22. 22. 22 Locations to do Business Scotland has a variety of science and technology parks. Most of these are either located near higher education facilities or have direct connections to these. They are connected into the economic and innovation support provided through SE and HIE. The maps below indicate the locations of those that support life-science innovation, with larger scale maps for the greater Edinburgh and Glasgow areas. Location of facilities around Edinburgh: Location of facilities around Glasgow: 1. Aberdeen Energy and Innovation Parks 2. Dundee Technopole 3. Heriot-Watt University Research Park 4. Edinburgh BioQuarter 5. Roslin Biocentre 6. Edinburgh Technopole and Biocampus 7. Pentlands Science Park 8. Elvingston Science Centre 9. Alba Innovation Centre 10. Stirling University Innovation Park 11. Inovo 12. Strathclyde University Incubator 13. West of Scotland Science Park 14. Queen Elizabeth University Hospital 15. Hillington Park Innovation Centre 16. Scottish Enterprise Technology Park 17. Irvine Bay 18. BioCity 19. European Marine Science Park
  23. 23. 23 Appendix A - Academic Landscape University of Edinburgh Facilities Facilities Description of Assets Contact SynthSys Integrated centre, developing synthetic and systems biology approaches for application in industrial biotech, plants and mammalian systems. Over 40 principal investigators, strong connections with industry. Key capabilities include modelling and manipulating genetic and metabolic pathways, synthesising and assembling DNA parts. Peter Swain (Director) Peter.Swain@ed.ac.uk Genome Foundry Ability to synthesise and modify long stretches of DNA (up to 1 Mbp). Part of SynthSys (funding secured, still to be formally opened). Susan Rosser Susan.Rosser@ed.ac.uk Patrick Cai yizhi.cai@ed.ac.uk Mammalian SynthSys Whole-cell modelling, cell-engineering tool generation, computer- assisted design and construction of DNA and high-throughput phenotyping. Near term industrial focus on drug discovery and biosensors. Susan Rosser Susan.Rosser@ed.ac.uk SBSI Systems Biology Software Infrastructure is a suite of software applications and libraries that is designed to enable high- performance model analysis in a manner usable to biologists and modellers. Part of SynthSys. Stephen Gilmore stg@staffmail.ed.ac.uk KPF The Kinetic Parameter Facility generates biomolecular compositional data (nucleic acids, proteins) for input into mathematical models. Part of SynthSys. Lorraine Kerr Lorraine.Kerr@ed.ac.uk Plant Phenomics Plant growth facility (greenhouse and isolation units) and biology scanning electron microscope facilities. Andrew Hudson A.Hudson@ed.ac.uk Centre for Translational and Chemical Biology Centralised protein production and characterisation facilities through the Edinburgh Protein Production Facility (EPPF), and expertise in structural biology, virtual screening and structure based design. Martin Wear martin.wear@ed.ac.uk Edinburgh Genomics Next generation DNA sequencing, genotyping and bioinformatics. (merger of ARK Genomics and The Gene Pool) – located at Roslin and Kings Buildings. Illumina HiSeq X allows for inexpensive whole genome sequencing. Mark Blaxter (Director) Mark.blaxter@ed.ac.uk Key Research Areas Synbio research at Edinburgh covers a broad spectrum of areas: 1. Manipulation of a wide range of organisms: bacteria, yeast, fungi, plants and animals 2. Human, animal and plant health 3. Genome assembly 4. Systems biology – circadian clocks, responses to environment 5. Bioinformatics 6. Structure analysis of proteins and chromosomes, including epigenetics 7. Creation and investigation of novel genetic circuits 8. Vector design for expression of proteins and therapeutics 9. Interaction between different microbes as ecosystems 10. Microbial metabolic engineering 11. Lignocellulose metabolism 12. Engineering biological control systems 13. Environmental remediation through bioengineering 14. Investigating light and temperature control of crop growth 15. Plant improvements – photosynthesis, structure, disease resistance
  24. 24. 24 16. Understanding and manipulating bacterial compartmentalisation systems 17. Development and cell differentiation 18. Societal dimensions of synbio 19. Innovation systems Industrial Collaboration Company Nature of Collaboration Academic Contact Mendel Biotechnology Systems biology approach to investigate role of two transcription factors in circadian regulation in crops Andrew Millar Andrew.Millar@ed.ac.uk Ingenza Ligniflex: A synthetic biology platform to optimise the process and products of enzymatic lignin disruption Louise Horsfall louise.horsfall@ed.ac.uk Mining new enzymes in the rumen for biomass processing and chiral synthesis Mick Watson mick.watson@roslin.ed.ac.uk Adapted yeast for superior carbon conversion Mick Watson mick.watson@roslin.ed.ac.uk Synpromics Promoters for Improved Protein & Biopharmaceutics Production in Mammalian Cells Lorraine Kerr Lorraine.Kerr@ed.ac.uk Thermo Fisher SynthSys-Mammalian: Edinburgh Mammalian Synthetic Biology Research Centre Susan Rosser srosser2@staffmail.ed.ac.uk Selex SynthSys-Mammalian: Edinburgh Mammalian Synthetic Biology Research Centre Susan Rosser srosser2@staffmail.ed.ac.uk GSK IBioIC Exemplar project - future manufacturing processes for antibiotics Gary Loake (G.Loake@ed.ac.uk) Dominic Campopiano (dominic.campopiano@ed.ac.uk) Patrick Cai (yizhi.cai@ed.ac.uk) Charles River Labs SynthSys-Mammalian: Edinburgh Mammalian Synthetic Biology Research Centre Susan Rosser srosser2@staffmail.ed.ac.uk Roslin Cells SynthSys-Mammalian: Edinburgh Mammalian Synthetic Biology Research Centre Susan Rosser srosser2@staffmail.ed.ac.uk Autodesk SynthSys-Mammalian: Edinburgh Mammalian Synthetic Biology Research Centre Susan Rosser srosser2@staffmail.ed.ac.uk Unilever Production of chitosans for use in food and personal care products Chris French C.French@ed.ac.uk
  25. 25. 25 University of Glasgow Facilities Facilities Description of Assets Contact Polyomics Facility State-of-the-art technologies to measure the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome from any biological system. Mike Barrett (Director) Michael.Barrett@glasgow.ac.uk Protein and Nucleic Acid Characterisation Facility Wide variety of biophysical techniques, including fluorescence, circular dichroism, UV-VIS, FTIR, isothermal calorimetry, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR), to analyse structural integrity, stability, and interactions with other macromolecules, ligands, and membranes. Sharon Kelly (Facility Manager) Sharon.Kelly@glasgow.ac.uk Synthetic Biology Group Multi-disciplinary group across several faculties with research activities on biofuels, DNA rearrangements, nano- engineering, waste treatment/microbial communities, chip based manufacturing – assembly, synthetic biology, and a polyomics facility. No lead at present (awaiting appointment of Chair). Mike Barrett provides connection with SULSA. Key Research Areas Synbio research at Glasgow covers a wide range of activities: 1. Water and environmental remediation 2. Metabolomics to validate drug discovery and as a tool to profile and support the development of new consumer goods 3. Systems biology – modelling and understanding microbial communities 4. Cyanobacteria as a novel system for production of useful compounds 5. Plant cell signalling 6. Mitochondrial biology 7. Optogenetics - light-controlled gene expression and enzymatic activity 8. Artificial photosynthesis 9. Artificial cells for sensing and for localised gene expression 10. Site-specific recombinases for genome editing and creation of novel sensors through inducing permanent changes in DNA 11. Microalgae cultivation for biofuels and high value products Industrial Collaboration Company Nature of Collaboration Academic Contact Ingenza A platform for rapid and precise DNA module rearrangements in Synthetic Biology Marshall Stark Marshall.Stark@glasgow.ac.uk Scottish Water Selecting microbial communities for water remediation Bill Sloan William.Sloan@glasgow.ac.uk
  26. 26. 26 University of Aberdeen Facilities Facilities Description of Assets Contact Systems Biology Integrative Centre Applying mathematical modelling to molecular, organismal and environmental biology. Supported by experimental research in drug discovery and developmental biology. Ian Stansfield i.stansfield@abdn.ac.uk IFCC Iain Fraser Cytometry Centre: state-of-the-art multi-user facility providing cell or particle analytical and sorting capacities. Access is on a fee-for-service basis. Raif Yuecel raif.yuecel@abdn.ac.uk CGEBM Centre for Genome-Enabled Biology and Medicine includes next generation sequencing, microarray technologies and bioinformatics Elaina Collie-Duguid e.collie-duguid@abdn.ac.uk Aberdeen Proteomics 1D/2D PAGE and mass spec Craig Pattinson c.pattinson@abdn.ac.uk qPCR 96 and 384-well plates for genotyping, gene expression, etc Georgina Hold g.l.hold@abdn.ac.uk Key Research Areas Interests include: 1. Marine biodiscovery from invertebrates, fungi, bacteria and cyanobacteria 2. In vitro synthesis of therapeutics using manipulated enzymatic pathways (from cyanobacteria) 3. Systems biology – to understand development and differentiation, control of complex biological systems and fine control of protein translation in yeast 4. Optogenetics Industrial Collaboration Company Nature of Collaboration Academic Contact Ingenza Enhanced discovery and scalable synthesis of therapeutic cyclic peptides Marcel Jaspers m.jaspars@abdn.ac.uk Mining new enzymes in the rumen for biomass processing and chiral synthesis John Wallace John.Wallace@abdn.ac.uk Optimisation of cellular translation Ian Stansfield i.stansfield@abdn.ac.uk
  27. 27. 27 University of Dundee Facilities Facilities Description of Assets Contact DDU Drug Discovery Unit: Integrated DMPK group, liquid handling and detectors including nanolitre dispensing, protein/cell screening, SPR, NMR and Octet RED284 instrumentation, data management, auto-prep HPLC purification, state-of-the-art protein crystallography, bio- informatics, library selection, virtual screening, In silico ADMET optimisation. Paul Wyatt: ContactDDU@Dundee.ac.uk MRC PPU Protein phosphorylation and ubiquitylation Unit DNA preparation, sequencing and fragment analysis Supply of cDNA clones and plasmids, bespoke and off-the-shelf protein production, purification and analysis facility, antibody production, animal models Nick Helps info@dnaseq.co.uk Hilary McLoughlin or James Hastie: MRCPPUreagents@dundee.ac. uk NPSC National Phenotypic Screening Centre World-class facility with state-of-the-art robotics, instrumentation and computation in collaboration with the Universities of Oxford and Edinburgh. Can analyse single cells, groups of cells, organs and organisms. Paul Andrews p.d.andrews@dundee.ac.uk NMR & Mass Spec NMR, mass spectrometry Gina Mackay r.l.mackay@dundee.ac.uk Dundee Imaging Facility Light and electron microscopy for cell and tissue analysis Sam Swift s.swift@dundee.ac.uk FingerPrints Proteomics and mass spec facility Douglas Lamont d.j.lamont@dundee.ac.uk FACS Flow cytometry and fluorescence activated cell sorting Rosie Clarke r.z.clarke@dundee.ac.uk X-ray crystall- ography X-ray crystallography Paul Fyfe p.k.fyfe@dundee.ac.uk Human Pluripotent stem cell facility Human induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells. Lindsay Davidson stemcells@dundee.ac.uk Plant Sciences Crop and pathogen biology. Claire Halpin c.halpin@dundee.ac.uk James Hutton Institute Plant, crop, soil and pathogen collections and databases, growth facilities, info@hutton.ac.uk Key Research Areas 1. Metabolic engineering of bacteria including production of hydrogen 2. Bioinformatics – genomics and proteomics 3. Chemi-informatics 4. Bacterial protein transport (pre-folded proteins) 5. Geo-microbiology (metal mineral transformation) 6. Phenotypic analysis of cells and whole organisms 7. Human, animal and plant health 8. Bioinformatics 9. Complete structural analysis of proteins 10. Plant:Pathogen interactions, plant microbiota 11. Genetic analysis of plant circadian clocks 12. Transcriptome and Epi-transcriptome analysis Industrial collaborations include: Addgene, Astra Zeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, GSK, Merck KgaA,
  28. 28. 28 University of St Andrews Facilities Facilities Description of Assets Contact BSRC Biomedical Sciences Research Complex - DNA manipulation, proteomics and understanding of biosynthetic pathways Malcolm White mfw2@st-andrews.ac.uk Mass Spectrometry and Proteomics Facility Catherine Botting cb2@st-andrews.ac.uk Key Research Areas 1. DNA manipulation/recombination through CRISPR 2. Biosynthetic pathways – understanding and design and synthesis of natural products 3. Cloning and expression of bacterial enzymatic pathways involved in carbohydrate synthesis 4. Biofuels and lignin metabolism Industrial Collaboration Company Nature of Collaboration Academic Contact Ingenza Enhanced discovery and scalable synthesis of therapeutic cyclic peptides James Naismith jhn@st-andrews.ac.uk
  29. 29. 29 University of Strathclyde Facilities Facilities Description of Assets Contact IBioIC Industrial biotechnology Roger Kilburn (CEO) roger.kilburn@ibioic.com Brian McNeil b.mcneil@strath.ac.uk Key Research Areas 1. Microbial metabolism and exploitation for industrial biotech Industrial Collaboration Company Nature of Collaboration Academic Contact Ingenza IBioIC Exemplar project - Engineered bacteria for scalable biosynthesis of products traditionally made from petrochemical sources RuAngelie Edrada-Ebel ruangelie.edrada- ebel@strath.ac.uk Heriot Watt University Facilities Facilities Description of Assets Contact IB3 Institute of Biological Chemistry, Biophysics and Bioengineering - cell biology, molecular imaging, atomic force microscopy, tissue/cell culture and bioprocessing facilities, laser and optical laboratories, linked by a high speed data network Rory Duncan (Institute Head) r.r.duncan@hw.ac.uk Key Research Areas 1. Bioprocessing and biotechnology 2. Bioprocessing, and manipulating multicellular structures such as tissues and biofilms
  30. 30. 30 James Hutton Institute Facilities Description of Assets Contact Genome Technology Provides DNA sequencing, genotyping and high-throughput gene expression Pete Hedley Pete.Hedley@hutton.ac.uk Glasshouses Contained growth areas for GM cultivation and plant pathogen study Key Research Areas 1. Genomics 2. Crop breeding 3. Understanding and manipulating plant pathogen interaction with hosts Moredun Institute Facilities Description of Assets Contact Proteomics Provides advice on initial experimental design, tailored fractionation of complex biological mixtures, downstream MS analyses and general proteomics expertise for the investigation of infectious diseases both from pathogen and host perspectives. Neil Inglis neil.inglis@moredun.ac.uk Kevin McLean kevin.mclean@moredun.ac.uk proteomics@moredun.ac.uk Key Research Areas 1. Animal welfare and productivity Roslin Institute Facilities Description of Assets Contact Edinburgh Genomics Part corresponding to original ARK Genomics located at Roslin Mick Watson mick.watson@roslin.ed.ac.uk Key Research Areas 1. Animal development, immunology, and systems biology Industrial Collaboration Company Nature of Collaboration Academic Contact Ingenza Mining new enzymes in the rumen for biomass processing and chiral synthesis Mick Watson mick.watson@roslin.ed.ac.uk
  31. 31. 31 Appendix B - Potential End-Users The table below provides an overview of the breadth of companies that are headquartered or have sites in Scotland, and operate in a sector that could expect to benefit from synthetic biology advances. However, this does not imply that all of these companies are using, or planning to use, synthetic biology applications. Activities have been categorised according to whether the company:  offers an RTD service (microbial culture, DNA synthesis and cloning, metabolic engineering, or discovery programmes);  manufactures and sells RTD tools in any of the above areas to others;  is active in the following sectors: chemicals, health and medicine, energy, agrifood, or environment. Company Name MicrobialCulture DNASynthesis& Cloning Metabolic Engineering Discovery Tools Chemicals Health&Medicine Energy Agrifood Environment Company Description Ab Biotechnology + + MHRA-licencsed biomanufacturer of peptides and proteins Agilent + + Mutagenesis, screening. Founding member of SynBio Institute at UCB Aptuit + + Drug discovery & development Aquila BioMedical + + Preclinical contract research organization Argent Energy + Biodiesel production Armstrong Waste Management + Waste management - potential to use in AD plants Avanticell + + + Cell testing - drug discovery, toxicology etc Barr + Waste management - potential to use in composting and energy generation BASF + + Chemicals and pharma (Callanish) development and production Beòcarta + + + Micobial bioprocessing and biorefineries BigDNA + + Small molecule cancer therapies using a novel delivery and drug activation technology. BioMar + Fish feed manufacturer Brainwave-Discovery + + Insect CNS models for testing of human drug candidates
  32. 32. 32 Company Name MicrobialCulture DNASynthesis& Cloning Metabolic Engineering Discovery Tools Chemicals Health&Medicine Energy Agrifood Environment Company Description BryoActives + + ID of novel antibiotics and novel compounds from bacteria-marine invertebrate symbiosis Celtic Renewables + + + Microbial fermentation of waste grain for biofuel production Charles River Labs + + Drug discovery, validation and testing Clearwater + Waste management - potential to use in AD plants Cyclacel Pharmaceuticals + + Development of oral anti-cancer therapies Cypex + In vitro drug metabolism testing using recombinant enzymes Diageo + Alcoholic beverage manufacturer Dundee Cell Products + + Cells, biomolecules, reagents and tools to support biotech/pharma RTD EctoPharma + + Virtual drug discovery and commercialisation company Elanco + Animal pharmaceuticals and biologics Environmental Waste Systems + Waste management - potential to use in AD plants ERS + Environmental remediation of contaminated soils Ex Scientia + + Using knowledge of genomics and phenotypes to design better drugs FCC Environment + Waste management - potential to use in AD plants Ferguson and Menzies Ltd + Chemical manufacturer including pine oils and terpenes Ferring + + Drug discovery, validation and testing Fios Genomics + Bioinformatics company GenTech Propagation Ltd + Micropropagation of crop plants Glycomar + + + Healthcare product discovery from marine microalgae GSK + + Global pharma and healthcare R&D and manufacturing INEOS + Global manufacturer of fine and speciality chemicals
  33. 33. 33 Company Name MicrobialCulture DNASynthesis& Cloning Metabolic Engineering Discovery Tools Chemicals Health&Medicine Energy Agrifood Environment Company Description Lallemand Aquapharm + + Isolating useful marine microalgae for aquaculture bioremediation M Power World + + Microbial fuel cell systems MacFarlan Smith (JM company) + + Drug discovery and development Macphie + Food ingredient developer and manufacturer Marine Biotech + + Marine biotechnology to discover and develop new therapeutics Merck Millipore + + + Reagents and tools for biotechnology RTD MyInefield Research Services + + + Crop RTD NCIMB + + Microbial culture and assay development. Also microbial biomolecule identification and purification Neogen Europe Ltd + + Diagnostics for crop, livestock and food NovaBiotics + + Discovery and development of antimicrobial and antifungal peptides ProStrakan + + Pharma discovery and development Q2 Lab Solutions + + Diagnostic and discovery lab service arm of Quintiles R Biomedical + + R&D for regenerative medicine therapies SASOL + Biofuels – research centre at St Andrews SB Drug Discovery + + HT-screening and cell-based assays for drug discovery SELEX + Biosensors Shanks + Waste management - potential to use in AD plants and contaminated soil clean-up Sistemic + + Service provider - use of microRNA as a cell characterisation tool, e.g. to support drug discovery Soilutions + Soil remediation services (including bioremediation) Syngenta + Agrochemical manufacturing
  34. 34. 34 Company Name MicrobialCulture DNASynthesis& Cloning Metabolic Engineering Discovery Tools Chemicals Health&Medicine Energy Agrifood Environment Company Description TauRx Pharmaceuticals + + Drug discovery and development for Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases Tepnel Pharma Services + + Molecular genetic screening technologies (amongst others) Thermo Fisher + + Gene manipulation UPM + Forestry, biomass, biofuel production Veolia + Waste management - potential to use in AD plants and contaminated soil clean-up VIRTTU + + Develop modified HSV for cancer therapies (gene modification) Wlliam Tracey + Waste management - potential to use in AD plants and contaminated soil clean-up There are a number of other companies for which synthetic biology could become relevant if circumstances alter (including maturity of technology, specific applications, and a clear regulatory framework). Examples of these are listed below: 4D Pharma (developing new concepts into therapeutics); Accufluidics (microfluidics for life sciences); Accuro Biologics (contract research organisation for pharma and biotech); Advanced Pest Solutions (bacteriophages for bacterial control); Alere Technologies (PoC diagnostics); Aviagen (chicken selection and breeding); Biomar (fish feed R&D and manufacture); BioRad (research tool); Cyclogenix (biotechnology company); Cypex (reagents for analysis of human drug metabolism); Ewos (fish feed R&D and manufacture); Exomedica (develops others' medical technologies); Fixed Phage (Anti-bacterial products based on bacteriophages); Furagene Biopharmaceuticals Ltd (biotechnology company); GlycoBioChem (carbohydrate reagents and modifications of proteins for RTD); Glycologic (carbohydrate based nutrients and pharmaceutical ingredients); Harbro (animal feed R&D and manufacture); Hologic (diagnostics); Kerry Biosciences (yeast extracts for food processing and additives); Kilco (animal health); Marine Biopolymers (extraction of different biopolymers from seaweeds); Nandi Proteins (use of natural proteins for food manufacturing); Renishaw Diagnostics (multiplexed screening); Roslin Cells (cell therapies); SAFC (Irvine) (manufacture of RTD and pharma reagents); Skretting (fish feed R&D and manufacture); Transgenomics (high-throughput technology to support personalised medicine).

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