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Introduction to Green NCAP

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Introduction to Green NCAP

  1. 1. Introduction to Green NCAP A New Consumer Programme For Greener Cars
  2. 2. New Car Market by Fuel Types 36% 58% 4% 1% 1% Total Market: 15,624,486 units (2018) Diesel Petrol Hybrid Plug-in Hybrid Battery Electric Source: ACEA
  3. 3. Mission & Vision → For Greener Cars The highest standard is attributed to a car that maximises the reduction of its own pollutants and greenhouse gasses and, at the same time, operates at minimised fossil fuel consumption and/or maximized energy efficiency under real-world conditions during its life time.
  4. 4. Aims → Provide comprehensive, simple rating information to consumers, fleet operators and other stakeholders → Stimulate real green cars to enter the market → Reduce pollutant and noise exposure damaging to human health → Restoring consumer confidence by reducing the gap between claimed and real- world consumption
  5. 5. Approach → Develop a holistic assessment of a vehicle’s environmental performance → Expand environmental performance test boundary conditions and enhance test robustness → Analysis of (non-)regulated pollutants → Analysis of energy efficiency and (non-)regulated greenhouse gas emissions → Assess real-world noise emissions
  6. 6. Scope → Vehicle types → Category M1 vehicles (passenger cars) → Propulsion unit types → All propulsion unit types and combinations (ICE, HEV* and BEVs) *from 2020 onwards
  7. 7. Guiding Principles → Independence → Objectivity (technology neutral) → Reliability → Transparency → Quality
  8. 8. Partners   
  9. 9. Jan-June Jul-Dec Jan-June Jul-Dec Jan-June2017 PILOT PROJECT PHASE 1 Drafting procedures Draft protocols Launch Milestones: Rating scheme 2018 Timeline 2019 First verification tests Round-robin tests Validation
  10. 10. Technical Assessment
  11. 11. Main Assessment Principle → The vehicle´s propulsion unit shall be clean and energy efficient in every feasible engine speed and load operation point on and under the maximum torque curve Propulsion unit performance Pollutant emissions Energy efficiency
  12. 12. Laboratory* Robustness* (Laboratory & Real-World) PEMS* (Real-World) Engine Load (Max Curve Mapping) *Pollutants, GHG Emissions, Fuel/Energy Consumption, in future real-world Driving Range will be added. Test Matrix Overview → WLTC+ cold engine (2x) → WLTC warm engine (reg.) → WLTC warm (eco mode) → WLTC warm (sport mode) → BAB130 motorway → PEMS+ warm Eco → PEMS+ warm Heavy load → PEMS+ cold engine (reg.) → Sweep test to log maximum engine load versus engine speed (fully depressed accelerator pedal) Note: Independent, direct access to vehicle data via ODB interface or remotely via telematics unit is required Approval test cycles under average ambient conditions (@ 14ºC) Custom-tailored tests with variations of vehicle settings, low and high engine load) Custom-tailored approval driving tests under real-world ambient conditions Custom-tailored sweep test to visualise maximum engine load operation sampling
  13. 13. Repeatability & Reproducibility → Basis: regulatory EU WLTP & RDE test procedures, custom-tailored → Repeatability → Generally using laboratory test results as basis to calculate clean air index scores. Real-world testing used for verification purposes → Using only laboratory test results as basis to calculate energy efficiency index. However, using real-world testing under development → Reproducibility → Excellent Round Robin results achieved by the eight participating labs → Applying harmonised test procedures and use of reference fuel
  14. 14. Test Vehicle Selection → Representative vehicles → Fully type-approved and in conformity with all legal requirements → From series production and be legally marketed to the general public Important market segments Best selling vehicles Alternative drive systems & new technologies Manufacturer nominated Selection Criteria
  15. 15. Rating Method → Overall Star rating: → 0 (poor) to 5 (best) stars → Two Boxes: → Clean Air Index (0-10pts), rating polluting components HC, NOx, CO, PN → Energy Efficiency Index (0-10pts), rating fuel/energy consumption Overall Star Rating Clean Air Index Energy Efficiency Index Clean Air Energy Efficiency 5 stars 8.0 7.5 4 stars 7.0 6.0 3 stars 6.0 4.5 2 stars 5.0 3.0 1 star 4.0 1.5 0 stars 0.0 0.0
  16. 16. → One “yardstick” → ICE-fuels are converted to energy content, allowing direct comparison (tank-to-wheel) in kWh/100km → Thresholds identical for all lab-tests, PEMS considered not suitable yet Equals approximately Energy Consumption Petrol Diesel Lower threshold 40 kWh/100km 4.6 l/100 km 4.1 l/100 km Upper threshold 90 kWh/100km 10.4 l/100 km 9.1 l/100 km Energy Efficiency
  17. 17. Roadmap 2030 → Future steps to develop the programme further → Based on stakeholder input → Includes well-to-wheel assessment, range, noise etc. → Will be updated from time to time
  18. 18. “Green Vehicle Index” → Upcoming RTD Project will be a catalyst for future developments → Full set of improved and aligned test protocols → Validated scoring methodology & tools → Updated roadmap → Full set of validated tests (lab & PEMS real-world) for 50+ cars
  19. 19. Lab Testing vs Remote Sensing → Several indexes proposed based on Remote Sensing of vehicles, e.g. TRUE Initiative, AIR, … → Indications of real-world vehicle emissions in urban environment → Distinguishes gross pollutant emitters from well-performing vehicles → Laboratory and PEMS tests are imperative to allow a detailed comparison between cars over the total bandwidth → Both methods are compatible and could be integrated in the longer term
  20. 20. Green NCAP Inaugural Tests
  21. 21. Ford Fiesta 1L GDi EcoBoost (Euro6b) Ford Fiesta 1L GDi EcoBoost (Euro6d Temp) Fiat Panda 0.9L Twinair (Euro6b) VW Golf 1.6L TDI (Euro6b) Audi A7 TDI Sportsback (Euro6d Temp) Mercedes A200 120 kW (Euro6d Temp) Volvo XC40 T5 AWD (Euro6d Temp) Subaru Outback 2.5i (Euro6d Temp) BMW X1 18d (Euro6d Temp) BMW i3 18d PEV (Euro6b) Hyundai Ioniq PEV (Euro6b) VW UP! GTI (Euro6d Temp) DDD PPP PPP P E E E Battery Electric P Petrol D Diesel
  22. 22. X-Road Traveller 2.0 petrol, 4x4 auto6.2/10 3.4/10 Clean Air Index Energy Efficiency Index Example vehicle - Not rated
  23. 23. Datasheet Explained → Aled to add a few comments
  24. 24. Load Curve Mapping 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 800 1800 2800 3800 4800 5800 EnergyConsumption(Wh/s) Engine Speed (rpm) Energy Consumption (Wh/s) Full Load curve WLTC Cold start WLTC Warm Sport BAB130 Warm start PEMS Cold start (RDE) PEMS Warm Heavy Power (Full Load curve)
  25. 25. Overall Ratings Car Model Star Rating Clean Air Index Energy Efficiency Index BMW i3 PEV (Euro 6b)  10 8.5 Hyundai IONIQ PEV (Euro 6b)  10 8.5 VW UP! (Euro 6d_Temp)  9.2 6.7 BMW X1d (Euro 6d_Temp)  9.4 5.8 Mercedes A200 (Euro 6d_Temp)  9.4 5.2 Ford Fiesta 1L EcoBoost (Euro 6d_Temp)  8 4.4 Audi A7 50 TDI (Euro 6d_Temp)  7.3 2.5 Volvo XC40 T5 (Euro 6d_Temp)  6.8 2.3 Subaru Outback 2.5i (Euro 6d_Temp)  6.5 1.8 VW Golf (Euro 6b)  3.1 6.7 Ford Fiesta 1L EcoBoost (Euro 6b)  1.1 6.6 Fiat Panda 0.9L (Euro 6b)  0 6 E E P P P P P P D D D P E Battery Electric P Petrol D Diesel
  26. 26. [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 CleanAirIndex Energy Efficiency Index Index Overview Euro6b 1 star 3 stars 4 stars 5 stars 2 stars
  27. 27. Euro6d_temp versus Euro6b → Ford Fiesta 1L GDi EcoBoost (2018) → Euro6d_temp | Petrol → Clean Air Index: 8 → Energy Efficiency Index: 4.4 → Ford Fiesta 1L GDi EcoBoost (2017) → Euro6b | Petrol → Clean Air Index: 1.1 → Energy Efficiency Index: 6.6
  28. 28. Market Range → Subaru Outback 2.5i (2018) → Euro6d_temp | Petrol → Price: € 35,000-40,000 → BMW X1 18d (2018) → Euro6d_temp | Diesel → Price: € 31,000-41,000 → Hyundai Ioniq PEV (2018) → Euro6b | Electric → Price: € 26,000-38,000
  29. 29. Limitations → At the moment, BEVs receive maximum test scores and highest 5-star rating → Tank-to-wheel assessment (TtW) for BEVs is inherently limited but is the only feasible option today to provide a consistent consumer rating across the EU → The energy efficiency index has build-in some head-room to be applied in the next steps: → Driving resistance/vehicle mass → Energy consumption measurement under real-world conditions → Driving range and speed of recharging
  30. 30. Conclusions → Euro6d_temp conventional vehicles rate from 1 to 4 stars regardless of the fuel type → Electric vehicles rate with 5 stars but only TtW is considered at the moment → Already significant improvement on the Clean Air Index with RDE legislation → Green NCAP brings simple, digestible information to consumers based on objective and challenging environmental performance tests

Notas

  • To rate all cars on the same yardstick for use of energy, fuels are converted to energy content. This will allow direct rating comparison between different fuelling and propulsion unit system architectures on a Tank-to-Wheel basis for the moment (in kWh / 100 km).
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