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Pius	
  Leuba	
  dit	
  Galland	
  雷朴实	
  
Assoc.	
  Prof./	
  Director	
  
BiDL	
  Biomime9c	
  Design	
  Lab	
  
D&I,	
 ...
Our current impact!
Human exploitation!
“Directly or indirectly, the human species already captures nearly 40%
of the total biological product...
The biotic crisis!
“…planet Earth has begun the 6th great biological extinction period in
its 4.5 billion year history. Pr...
Nature taps the power of limits!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
1.  Earth’s Water!
2.  Earth’s Atmosphere!
3.  Earth’s Landmass!
...
Pearce, F., 2010, Earth’s Nine Lives, New Scientist, 27 Feb., vol. 205, no 2749, pp 31-35
Nature, September, 2009
Scientif...
EPI Environmental Performance Index 2014!
http://epi.yale.edu/
	
  
	
  
118. China
1. Switzerland
Switzerland’s Ecological Footprint!
Switzerland's footprint is
more than four times larger
than its biocapacity: 5
global ...
Our Extinction?!
It is estimated that only 0.1% of all
species that ever existed are still alive
today. 99.9% are extinct....
Acknowledge that we need to
restore what we’ve destroyed,!
before we can even talk about
sustaining it!
Regeneration!
Chan...
But where to learn from?!
Nature seems the only true sustainable example!
Single-Celled Organisms!
•  2.5	
  billion	
  years	
  old	
  
•  S9ll	
  around	
  today	
  
•  Features	
  feedback	
  l...
Human vs. natural processes!
Biomimetics - its practice and theory-
Vincent-J. R. Soc. Interface. 2006-471-82
“At size lev...
Truly sustainable building/artifact!
•  Earthquake proof!
•  Water/Wind/Sun proof!
•  Predator proof!
•  Optimal size!
•  ...
Green Chemistry!
People have produced over 300
polymers!
!
“Nature works with five polymers.
Only five polymers.”! ----Janin...
Elements found in nature-made organisms (28):!
Nature works primarily with:!
!
!
!
!
!
Partially with:!
!
!
!
Metals that ...
WE ARE NATURE !!
•  We contain single celled
organisms and depend
on them!
•  Innumerable benign
chemical processes are
co...
water efficiency	
  
resilient
structure	
  marketing and
advertising	
  
self-shading
shape	
  
Self-assembly
through sol...
Biomimicry!
BIOMIMICRY!
仿生学!
ancient practice & emerging
discipline!
古代练习与进化训练!
!
!
!
!
!
!
“I think the biggest
innovations of the 21...
Biomimicry Definition!
Conscious emulation of natures’ genius

自然基因的自觉仿真!
!
•  Intended!
•  ≠ copy!
•  Expertise of 3.8 bil...
Natural Strategies!
case	
  studies	
  :	
  product	
  design	
  
could this be
glue without
chemicals?
gecko	
  tape	
  
Zebra:	
  air	
  convec9on	
  through	
  temperature	
  gradient	
  
Process:	
  non-­‐mechanical	
  cooling	
  system	
  ...
how	
  could	
  bees	
  inspire	
  	
  
your	
  management	
  style?	
  	
  
Swarm-­‐inspired	
  innova9ve	
  leadership:	...
Could	
  this	
  be	
  a	
  subway	
  map?	
  
slime	
  mold	
  generated	
  Tokyo	
  rail	
  map	
  
Systemic:	
  Instant...
Could	
  this	
  be	
  a	
  model	
  for	
  your	
  
firm’s	
  manufacturing	
  system?	
  
Localiza9on	
  &	
  connec9ons	...
could	
  this	
  be	
  a	
  model	
  for	
  a	
  	
  
mixed-­‐use,	
  sustainable	
  
neighborhood?	
  
symbiosis	
  and	
...
Case studies!
DYESOL – Man-made photosynthesis!
Get energy without fossil fuel!
不用矿物燃料得到能源!
!
•  Uses only solar energy!
•  Uses photosy...
Lotusan I Mincor – repel water and dirt!
Self-clean without
chemicals!
不用化学剂实现自我清洁!
!
Many large-winged insects
and plant ...
BASF I Sharklet – prevent bacteria & parasites!
Self-clean without
chemicals!
不用化学剂实现自我清洁!
!
•  Galapagos shark!
•  Algae ...
Mirasol | Qualcomm – Structural colors
Color without pigment!
不用涂料上色!
!
Morpho butterflies display a
life-long, vibrant blu...
XYLEM STRUCTURE - Raise water without pump!
Synthetic Tree, by Cornell &
Kate McCulloh, Univ. of
Utah!
!
•  High-rise wate...
Daimler-Benz Bionic car – Material optimization!
Maximize strength while
minimizing material!
物尽其用
Trees only add material...
Namibian Desert Beetle – Liquefy humidity !
Fog-basking beetle inspired
evaporators and
condensers!
!
•  Exoskeleton conta...
Grimshaw I MIT I QinetiQ – Liquefy humidity !
The Water Theatre, !
Las Palmas, Design 2005!
!
Airborne moisture from the
e...
Carolyn Dry - Self Healing Concrete!
Self-heal, self-maintenance!
!
•  Rhino horn!
•  Non-living tissue!
•  Protein-releas...
Doing Biomimicry!
Levels of Biomimicry!
ECOSYSTEM!
生态系统
!
PROCESS!
过程
FORM!
形态
Emulation Level 1: Form!
Form can be seen
with your eye,
something you can
measure (kingfisher
beak shape for a train
tip.)...
Emulation Level 2: Process!
The train tip material
may still be toxic.
How to create the
same beak at ambient
conditions, ...
Emulation Level 3: (Eco-)Systems!
Kalundborg industrial
symbiosis, Denmark!
Upcycle ‘Waste’ as
nutrients!
!
How is the bea...
Fundamentals!
ethos!
ethics, moral, philosophy;
respect for all life forms.!
'FIT IN' on earth; survive
and be a beneficial species;
'cre...
Life’s Principles 生命的原则!
Overarching patterns found
amongst all species
surviving and thriving on
Earth!
!
 6 master princ...
Life’s Principles 生命的原则!
Evolve to survive 

为生存而进化
Be resource efficient 

有效的再生资源
Adapt to changing
conditions

适应变化的环境
I...
Life’s Principles!
Life creates conditions
conducive to Life…!
创造有益于生活的环境!
!
!
!
The principles can act as !
•  Model:

in...
Life’s Principles!
Life creates conditions
conducive to Life…!
创造有益于生活的环境!
!
!
!
The principles can act as !
•  Model:

in...
The method!
Design Lens – Biomimicry Thinking!
While akin to a
methodology, Biomimicry
Thinking is a framework
that is intended to hel...
Design Lens – Biomimicry Thinking!
SCOPING!
•  DEFINE Context !
•  IDENTIFY Function !
•  INTEGRATE Life’s
Principles !
DI...
Design Lens – Biomimicry Thinking!
Challenge to Biology!
!
1.  IDENTIFY Function !
2.  DEFINE Context !
3.  BIOLOGIZE Chal...
Design Lens – Biomimicry Thinking!
Biology to Design!
!
1.  DISCOVER Natural
Models !
2.  ABSTRACT Design
Principles !
3. ...
Tools!
Biomimicry Taxonomy (actions, functions)!
Biomimicry Taxonomy!
Biomimicry Taxonomy!
 
	
  
	
  
Thank You!!
Links:!
•  www.Biomimicry.net!
•  www.Biomimicry.org !
•  www.Asknature.org !
•  www.EOL.org !
Bio...
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Biomimicry - The Future of Sustainable Innovation

A practicing architect, designer and sustainability consultant, Pius is teaching Environmental Design at TongJi University, Shanghai, School of Design and Innovation (D&I). For more than a decade he has researched, designed and taught in the realm of sustainable human environment. His current focus are urban ecology, biomimicry, sustainable materials, place-specific design, sustainable rural development projects, and sustainable mobility projects. Pius is director of the biomimetic design lab (http://bidl.tongji.edu.cn/) at D&I and instrumental in the creation of a Regional Biomimicry Network in China (BCN).
Pius presentation talks about what is biomimicry - its philosophy, goals, essential elements, methodology, most famous examples and current extent and actors, as well as the work in Tongji’s Biomimetic Design Lab.

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Biomimicry - The Future of Sustainable Innovation

  1. 1. Pius  Leuba  dit  Galland  雷朴实   Assoc.  Prof./  Director   BiDL  Biomime9c  Design  Lab   D&I,  TongJi  University   Biomimicry – The Future of Sustainable Innovation! Shanghai Green Drinks | Game Changers Series!
  2. 2. Our current impact!
  3. 3. Human exploitation! “Directly or indirectly, the human species already captures nearly 40% of the total biological productivity on land and 70% of the productivity of the marine environment […]. The rate of increase in human use is about 2% per year.” ! http://www.theglobaleducationproject.org/human-conditions.php “Oceans' Fish Could Disappear by 2050”   May 17, 2010, by AFP: http://news.discovery.com/earth/oceans/oceans-fish-fishing-industry.htm
  4. 4. The biotic crisis! “…planet Earth has begun the 6th great biological extinction period in its 4.5 billion year history. Previous extinction events reduced biodiversity by up to 70-90%. After past events, recovery took roughly 5 million years. ! However, the current depletion […] of tropical forests, wetlands, estuaries and coral reefs (“engines of biodiversity”), may have profound effects on the evolutionary processes that have previously fostered re-diversification. Even our largest protected areas will be far too small for the further speciation of large vertebrates. ! ! On the time scale of the human species, this environmental disruption (or at least aspects of it) is permanent.! http://www.theglobaleducationproject.org/human-conditions.php (Note: Our modern human species is about 20,0000 years old)!
  5. 5. Nature taps the power of limits! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 1.  Earth’s Water! 2.  Earth’s Atmosphere! 3.  Earth’s Landmass! © Adam Neiman These 3 spheres are Earth’s only life resources. It’s where life succeeded to evolve for 3.8 billion years. It’s also where we put all our waste & toxins. !
  6. 6. Pearce, F., 2010, Earth’s Nine Lives, New Scientist, 27 Feb., vol. 205, no 2749, pp 31-35 Nature, September, 2009 Scientific American, April, 2010 Earth’s Life Cycles! Level of (irreparable?) damage to Earth’s life support systems! !
  7. 7. EPI Environmental Performance Index 2014! http://epi.yale.edu/     118. China 1. Switzerland
  8. 8. Switzerland’s Ecological Footprint! Switzerland's footprint is more than four times larger than its biocapacity: 5 global hectares (gha) per capita vs. a biocapacity of only 1.2 gha per capita.! ! An average person living in Switzerland needs 2.4 Planet Earths.! ! ! Swiss Federal Statistical Office: Sustainable development. 2010
  9. 9. Our Extinction?! It is estimated that only 0.1% of all species that ever existed are still alive today. 99.9% are extinct. ! ! Only the most adapted ones survive. ! ! Due to human impact, current extinction rates are about 1000 times higher than in previous millennia.! ! Are we well adapted or mal-adapted to Earth’s circumstances?! Bishop's O`o 1915
  10. 10. Acknowledge that we need to restore what we’ve destroyed,! before we can even talk about sustaining it! Regeneration! Change from Dominator to Benefactor ! – for our own sake!! Every action/project needs to leave our environment a better place than what we found it. Not ‘less bad’ but ‘more good’ à POSITIVE IMPACT!
  11. 11. But where to learn from?!
  12. 12. Nature seems the only true sustainable example!
  13. 13. Single-Celled Organisms! •  2.5  billion  years  old   •  S9ll  around  today   •  Features  feedback  loops  (learn,  adapt…)   •  No  human  ar9fact  does  that   http://voices.nationalgeographic.com, picture by by Aaron J. Bell, Science Source
  14. 14. Human vs. natural processes! Biomimetics - its practice and theory- Vincent-J. R. Soc. Interface. 2006-471-82 “At size levels of up to 1m, where most technology is sited, the most important variable for the solution of a problem is manipulation of energy usage […], closely followed by use of material.”! ! “… in biology the most important variables for the solution of problems at these scales are information and structure”! Humans: Nature:
  15. 15. Truly sustainable building/artifact! •  Earthquake proof! •  Water/Wind/Sun proof! •  Predator proof! •  Optimal size! •  Minimal materials (1x)! •  Soft/comfortable/cool! •  Easily accessible! •  Self-timed, automatic, benign disassembly! •  No-Tech! •  Zero external energy! •  Zero toxins! •  …! Weaver  bird  nest  
  16. 16. Green Chemistry! People have produced over 300 polymers! ! “Nature works with five polymers. Only five polymers.”! ----Janine Benyus
  17. 17. Elements found in nature-made organisms (28):! Nature works primarily with:! ! ! ! ! ! Partially with:! ! ! ! Metals that are present in our bodies, but only as trace elements:! ! ! ! Again metals, but in trace amounts only in few living species! C    H    N    O   Ca      Cl      Mg      P      K      Na      S   Co                    Cu                        Fe                        Mn                        Zn   Il          As              B              Br              Cr              F                  Ga                I                Mo                Se            Si            V   Magnesium. Humans: 0.05%
  18. 18. WE ARE NATURE !! •  We contain single celled organisms and depend on them! •  Innumerable benign chemical processes are constantly occurring within us! •  We are the pinnacle of natural evolution – but we need to act that way! •  Will we be able to bring nature/life/evolution to a completely new level?!
  19. 19. water efficiency   resilient structure  marketing and advertising   self-shading shape   Self-assembly through solar power  zero waste   protection / security   Self-organization and optimization   No-tech recycling   how can this eco-system inspire your next task?!
  20. 20. Biomimicry!
  21. 21. BIOMIMICRY! 仿生学! ancient practice & emerging discipline! 古代练习与进化训练! ! ! ! ! ! ! “I think the biggest innovations of the 21st century will be at the intersection of biology and technology.”! ----Steve Jobs
  22. 22. Biomimicry Definition! Conscious emulation of natures’ genius
 自然基因的自觉仿真! ! •  Intended! •  ≠ copy! •  Expertise of 3.8 billion years x 30 million species! ! ! "Biomimicry is learning from and then emulating natural forms, processes, and ecosystems to create more sustainable designs."! ! ----A Biomimicry Primer, Janine M. Benyus, The Biomimicry Institute and the Biomimicry Guild, 2011
  23. 23. Natural Strategies!
  24. 24. case  studies  :  product  design   could this be glue without chemicals? gecko  tape  
  25. 25. Zebra:  air  convec9on  through  temperature  gradient   Process:  non-­‐mechanical  cooling  system   how  could  a  zebra   inspire  your  non-­‐ mechanical,  individual   cooling  strategy?  
  26. 26. how  could  bees  inspire     your  management  style?     Swarm-­‐inspired  innova9ve  leadership:  bioteams   Process:  instant  &  permanent  chemical  communica9on  
  27. 27. Could  this  be  a  subway  map?   slime  mold  generated  Tokyo  rail  map   Systemic:  Instant  Demand  &  Supply  
  28. 28. Could  this  be  a  model  for  your   firm’s  manufacturing  system?   Localiza9on  &  connec9ons   Systemic:  Proximity  of  resource  &  users  
  29. 29. could  this  be  a  model  for  a     mixed-­‐use,  sustainable   neighborhood?   symbiosis  and  shared  use   Systemic:  Mutual  benefits  through  resource  cycles  
  30. 30. Case studies!
  31. 31. DYESOL – Man-made photosynthesis! Get energy without fossil fuel! 不用矿物燃料得到能源! ! •  Uses only solar energy! •  Uses photosynthesis
 (not creating electricity, splits water!)! •  Creates chemical energy, not physical! •  Dyesol: sandwiched glass with dye between, acts like photosynthesis to create small current, in any location, position and lighting levels!
  32. 32. Lotusan I Mincor – repel water and dirt! Self-clean without chemicals! 不用化学剂实现自我清洁! ! Many large-winged insects and plant surfaces remain dirt-free without chemical detergents or expending energy, simply by how their complex surface topography affects physics of water molecules…”! •  Water rolls over bumps! •  Carries away impurities! •  Lotus effect! !
  33. 33. BASF I Sharklet – prevent bacteria & parasites! Self-clean without chemicals! 不用化学剂实现自我清洁! ! •  Galapagos shark! •  Algae and bacteria deposits! •  Skin structure does not allow to get a grip! •  Useful for hospitals, labs, doorknobs, handrails!
  34. 34. Mirasol | Qualcomm – Structural colors Color without pigment! 不用涂料上色! ! Morpho butterflies display a life-long, vibrant blue, without paint or color. Their wing scales contain many protein layers that refract light in selected ways. Color we see is due to the play of light and structure instead of pigments.”! Wavelengths of unwanted colors cancel each other out (light interference).! http://www.asknature.org/#
  35. 35. XYLEM STRUCTURE - Raise water without pump! Synthetic Tree, by Cornell & Kate McCulloh, Univ. of Utah! ! •  High-rise water pumping needs lots of energy! •  Redwoods are 100m tall! •  Every leaf has stomata (pores)! •  Evaporation of water creates low pressure (vacuum)! •  Vision is to create ‘wallpaper’ for bringing water up buildings!
  36. 36. Daimler-Benz Bionic car – Material optimization! Maximize strength while minimizing material! 物尽其用 Trees only add material where strength is needed. Bones remove material where it's not used, optimizing structure for dynamic workloads.! Boxfish form for aerodynamics (no drag & turbulences).! SKO soft-kill option & CAO computer-aided optimizing. Increased stability & safety.! Reduced material & weight by 40-60%.! CAO & SKO, Karlsruhe Research Centre
  37. 37. Namibian Desert Beetle – Liquefy humidity ! Fog-basking beetle inspired evaporators and condensers! ! •  Exoskeleton contains hydrophilic bumps and hydrophobic valleys! •  Morning fog from Ocean! •  Stand vertical into the wind on top of hills! •  Water drop forms until gravity brings it to its mouth! !
  38. 38. Grimshaw I MIT I QinetiQ – Liquefy humidity ! The Water Theatre, ! Las Palmas, Design 2005! ! Airborne moisture from the evaporators is then collected from the condensers, which are cooled by deep seawater.! !
  39. 39. Carolyn Dry - Self Healing Concrete! Self-heal, self-maintenance! ! •  Rhino horn! •  Non-living tissue! •  Protein-release which fills the crack! •  Microscopic resin capsules in concrete! Carolyn Dry, Natural Process Design Inc. (Univ. of Indiana)!
  40. 40. Doing Biomimicry!
  41. 41. Levels of Biomimicry! ECOSYSTEM! 生态系统 ! PROCESS! 过程 FORM! 形态
  42. 42. Emulation Level 1: Form! Form can be seen with your eye, something you can measure (kingfisher beak shape for a train tip.)! Kingfisher beak shape inspired shinkansen train tip.!
  43. 43. Emulation Level 2: Process! The train tip material may still be toxic. How to create the same beak at ambient conditions, no-tech, with the resources that immediately surround you?! Calera binds half a ton of CO2 when producing a ton of concrete, vs. emitting one ton of CO2.! •  About 200% stronger than our toughest high-tech ceramics! Abalone shell! •  made out of chalk (calcium carbonate) and protein!
  44. 44. Emulation Level 3: (Eco-)Systems! Kalundborg industrial symbiosis, Denmark! Upcycle ‘Waste’ as nutrients! ! How is the beak in relationship to the bird, to the tree, to the forest, to the biosphere, to the planet?!
  45. 45. Fundamentals!
  46. 46. ethos! ethics, moral, philosophy; respect for all life forms.! 'FIT IN' on earth; survive and be a beneficial species; 'create conditions conducive to life’! emulate! nature as model, mentor and measure (≠ copy, but learning & applying)! (re)connect! discover life's genius, quieting human intelligence & listening to nature, rediscover relationship with nature ! Essential Elements - ‘Seeds’ of Biomimicry! B3.8 & Biomimicry Institute
  47. 47. Life’s Principles 生命的原则! Overarching patterns found amongst all species surviving and thriving on Earth! ! 6 master principles ! 26 overall principles! ! Operating conditions:! 1.  Limits and boundaries (the 3 balls)! 2.  Gravity, sunlight and water, size restraints…! 3.  Cyclic processes! 4.  Dynamic non- equilibrium! B3.8 & Biomimicry Institute
  48. 48. Life’s Principles 生命的原则! Evolve to survive 
 为生存而进化 Be resource efficient 
 有效的再生资源 Adapt to changing conditions
 适应变化的环境 Integrate development with growth
 整合增长与发展 Be locally attuned and responsive
 与当地协调并适应 Use life friendly chemistry
 利用有利生命的化学品! B3.8 & Biomimicry Institute
  49. 49. Life’s Principles! Life creates conditions conducive to Life…! 创造有益于生活的环境! ! ! ! The principles can act as ! •  Model:
 innovative strategies! •  Mentor: 
 aspirational ideals! •  Measure: 
 sustainable benchmarks! ! ! B3.8 & Biomimicry Institute
  50. 50. Life’s Principles! Life creates conditions conducive to Life…! 创造有益于生活的环境! ! ! ! The principles can act as ! •  Model:
 innovative strategies! •  Mentor: 
 aspirational ideals! •  Measure: 
 sustainable benchmarks! ! ! B3.8 & Biomimicry Institute
  51. 51. The method!
  52. 52. Design Lens – Biomimicry Thinking! While akin to a methodology, Biomimicry Thinking is a framework that is intended to help people practice biomimicry while designing anything. There are four areas in which a biomimicry lens provides the greatest value to the design process:! ! Scoping! Discovering! Creating! Evaluating! B3.8 & Biomimicry Institute
  53. 53. Design Lens – Biomimicry Thinking! SCOPING! •  DEFINE Context ! •  IDENTIFY Function ! •  INTEGRATE Life’s Principles ! DISCOVERING! •  DISCOVER Bio-Models ! •  ABSTRACT Design Strategies! CREATING! •  BRAINSTORMING Bio- Inspired Concepts! •  EMULATE Nature’s Strategies ! EVALUATING! •  MEASURE! B3.8 & Biomimicry Institute
  54. 54. Design Lens – Biomimicry Thinking! Challenge to Biology! ! 1.  IDENTIFY Function ! 2.  DEFINE Context ! 3.  BIOLOGIZE Challenge ! 4.  DISCOVER Natural Models ! 5.  ABSTRACT into Design Principles ! 6.  EMULATE Nature’s Strategies ! 7.  EVALUATE against Life’s Principles ! ! B3.8 & Biomimicry Institute
  55. 55. Design Lens – Biomimicry Thinking! Biology to Design! ! 1.  DISCOVER Natural Models ! 2.  ABSTRACT Design Principles ! 3.  BRAINSTORM Potential Applications ! 4.  EMULATE Nature’s Strategies ! 5.  EVALUATE against Life’s Principles! B3.8 & Biomimicry Institute
  56. 56. Tools!
  57. 57. Biomimicry Taxonomy (actions, functions)!
  58. 58. Biomimicry Taxonomy!
  59. 59. Biomimicry Taxonomy!
  60. 60.       Thank You!! Links:! •  www.Biomimicry.net! •  www.Biomimicry.org ! •  www.Asknature.org ! •  www.EOL.org ! Biomimicry in China:! •  http://bidl.tongji.edu.cn ! •  http://bidl.tongji.edu.cn/ wiki! •  bidltj@tongji.edu.cn ! ! Books:! •  Biomimicry – Innovation Inspired by Nature, by Janine Benyus! •  Biomimicry in Architecture, by Michael Pawlyn! •  The Gecko's Foot: Bio-inspiration - Engineering New Materials from Nature, by Peter Forbes! •  Biomimetics: Biologically Inspired Technologies, by Yoseph Bar-Cohen! •  TED talks, formal education (Bpro, Bspec), workshops, …!

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