1. Vitals Signs & Measurements
Department of Radiation and Imaging Technology
NIMS University, Jaipur Rajasthan
2. Vitals Signs
Vital signs are a group of the four to six most important medical
signs that indicate the body’s vital functions.
These measurements are taken to help asses the general physical
health of a person & give clues to possible diseases.
It includes –
- Body temperature
- Pulse rate
4. Body Temperature
• It is the hotness & coldness of the body.
• The normal body temperature is 37°C or 98.6°F.
• Thermometer is an instrument used to measure body
• There are 2 types of body temperature –
(a) Core temperature – It is the temperature of the internal organs and it
remains constant, most of the time with range of 36.5-37.5°C.
5. (b) Surface temperature – It is the temperature of the skin, subcutaneous tissue &
fat cells and it rises & falls in response to the environment.
It does not indicate internal physiology.
7. Pulse Rate
Pulse – A wave of blood flow created by a contraction of the heart.
Pulse rate is commonly assessed by palpation (feeling) by the 3 fingers or
auscultation (hearing) the pulse with the help of stethoscope or
Normal pulse rate 60-100 beats/minute.
11. Respiratory rate
Respiration is the act of breathing and includes the intake of oxygen and
removal of carbon di-oxide.
Ventilation also a another word which refers to movement of air in and out of
Observed by the movement of the chest up ward and down ward.
Normal RR is 15-20/minute.
Respiration measuring instruments respirometer.
13. Blood Pressure
Blood pressure is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood
It is expressed in terms of millimeters of Mercury (mm of Hg).
BP is measured by using an instrument called Sphygmomanometer or
Brachial artery and popliteal artery is most common used for bp measurement.
14. Types of blood pressure
There are 2 types of blood pressure-
(a) Systolic blood pressure – refers to the pressure inside your arteries when
your heart is pumping.
(b) Diastolic blood pressure – is the pressure inside your arteries when your
heart is resting between beats.
Systolic blood pressure is the top number and refers to the amount of pressure
experienced by the arteries while the heart is beating.
Diastolic blood pressure is the bottom number and refers to the amount of
pressure in the arteries while the heart is resting in between heartbeats.