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  1. Leadership & Leader (Program – MA)
  2. Chapter 1 Leader & Leadership A. Introduction To Leader /Definition/ B. Harmony forces of Leader /Power, Trust, Knowledge/ C. How To be an Effective Leader /Be, Know, Do/ Chapter 2 Leadership A. Leadership Concepts /Definition/ B. How Leadership Occurs? Chapter 3 A. Leader vs. Manager B. Importance of Leadership in Management Chapter 4 Leadership Theories 3.1. Great Man, Trait, Behavioral, Transactional, & Transformational Theories
  3. Chapter 5 Styles, Importance and Types of Leadership •Transformational, Transactional, Charismatic, Servant Leadership Chapter 6 Forms of Leadership 1. Democratic: 2. Authoritarian Leadership: 3. Participative Leadership: 4. Laissez-Faire Leadership Chapter 6 Biblical Leade7ship 7.3. Distinctive of Biblical Leadership 7.3.1. Character 7.3.2. Calling 7.3 3. Competence 7.3.4. Community
  4. Chapter 1 A. Introduction to Leader Definition of Leader: Leader is the person who leads or commands a group, organization, or country. The concept of Leader & leadership are interdependent. Who is an Effective leader? According to the idea of transformational leadership, an effective leader is a person who does the following: 1.Creates an inspiring vision of the future. 2.Motivates and inspires people to engage with that vision. 3.Manages delivery of the vision. 4. Coaches and builds a team, so that it is more effective at achieving the vision. Leadership brings together the skills needed to do these things. We'll look at each element in more detail.
  5. 1. Creating an Inspiring Vision of the Future In business/work, a vision is a realistic, convincing and attractive depiction/representation of where you want to be in the future. Vision provides direction, sets priorities, and provides a marker, so that you can tell that you've achieved what you wanted to achieve. To create a vision, leaders focus on an organization's strengths by using tools such as Porter's Five Forces A.PEST Analysis,/Political, Economic, Social & Technical/ B. USP Analysis, The Unique Selling/working Proposition or USP Analysis is a strategy that is implemented to highlight the special features of a product that is marketed to the organization’s clients.
  6. C. Core Competence Analysis: are the resources and capabilities that comprise the strategic advantages of a business/work. D.SWOT Analysis: Strength, Weakness, Opportunities & Traits to analyze their current situation. They think about how their industry/Organization is likely to change, and how their competitors are likely to behave. They look at how they can innovate successfully, and shape their businesses and their strategies to succeed in future Ministry. And they test their visions with appropriate market/Servise research, and by assessing key risks using techniques such as Scenario Analysis.
  7. Therefore, leadership/Leader is proactive – problem solving, looking ahead, and not being satisfied with things as they are. Once they have developed their visions, leaders must make them compelling/pressuring/ and convincing. A compelling vision is one that people can see, feel, understand, and embrace. Effective leaders provide a rich picture of what the future will look like when their visions have been realized. They tell inspiring stories, and explain their visions in ways that everyone can relate to. Here, leadership combines the analytical side of vision creation with the passion of shared values, creating something that's really meaningful to the people being led.
  8. 2. Motivating and Inspiring People A compelling/forceful vision provides the foundation for leadership. But it's leaders' ability to motivate and inspire people that helps them deliver that vision. Fredrik Arnander, in his 2013 book “We Are All Leaders”, suggested that leadership is “not a matter of position, but mindset”. In an article in Nigeria’s Premium Times, Bamidele Ademola-Olateju stated:“A leader goes in the front, leads the way and by his actions; people follow.” Nelson Mandela, the late, great leader of South Africa, had this to say:“It is better to lead from behind and to put others in front, especially when you celebrate victory when nice things occur. You take the front line when there is danger. Then people will appreciate your leadership.”
  9. 3.Manages delivery of the vision. Guide for Managers Managing Delivery of the Vision is the area of leadership that relates to management Add to My Personal Learning Plan. Leaders must ensure that the work needed to deliver the vision is properly managed – either by themselves, or by a dedicated manager or team of managers to whom the leader delegates this responsibility – and they need to ensure that their vision is delivered successfully.
  10. 4. Coaches and builds a team, Coaches and builds a team is more effective at achieving the vision. A strong, effective team works in harmony to achieve a specific goal. Techniques, theories and exercises have been designed for the purpose of building a cohesive team and can be found on for free. Managers must take on several roles to facilitate development of an outstanding team that demonstrates confidence in the results produced and projects the company image in a positive and professional way.
  11. B. Harmony forces of Leader To exercise influence a leader must have power, i.e. the potential or ability to influence decisions and control resources. •According to Dale E. Zand Power, Knowledge and Trust are three forces that is known as Leadership triad/harmony. •But effective leaders use power appropriately, and know when and how to be directive and when to delegate.
  12. The 3 Harmony forces Leader needs are /Power, Trust & Knowledge/. Leader; with Trust & Knowledge; but without Power –Expert Leader with Trust & Power but without Knowledge –Abuse Leader with Power & Knowledge but without Trust – Laissez-faire
  13. C. How To be an Effective Leader BE, KNOW & DO BE – this is all about your character as a leader and is foundational to your ability to lead. It gives you the courage to do what is right regardless of the circumstances or the consequences. As part of BE, you should be aware of your personal core values as well as your organization’s values. For the Army, their values are: Loyalty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity and Personal Courage.
  14. KNOW – This is about the knowledge and skill sets you need to be competent as a leader and cover four areas: Interpersonal skills, Conceptual skills, Technical skills and Tactical skills. DO – Leaders act. They bring together everything they are, everything they believe, and everything they know how to do to provide purpose, direction, and motivation. This involves the following three leader actions: Influencing, Operating and Improving
  15. 1. Define Leader & describe 4 effective leader works. /2 %/ 2. Discuss Porter's Five Forces to create organization' vision. /3 %/ 3. Discuss the 3 Harmony forces Leader & explain BE, KNOW & DO in Leadership/5 %/ Assignment 1
  16. A. Definition of Leadership:  Creating an Inspiring Vision of the Future  Motivating and Inspiring People. B. How Leadership Occurs? 1. Leadership Occurs in a group Context Groups are the context in which leadership takes place. Chapter 2 Leadership Concepts
  17. Leadership involves influencing a group of individuals who have a common purpose—it can be small task group, a community group or a large group encompassing a entire organization. So leadership training program that teach people to lead themselves are not considered a part of leadership within the definition.
  18. 2. Leadership Involves Goal Attainment •Directing a group of individuals towards accomplishing some task or end. •Leaders direct their energies towards individuals towards accomplishing some task or end. •Leadership is the ability to inspire confidence and support among the people who are needed to achieve organizational goals.
  19. •Whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal, •that means it is not a trait or characteristic that resides inside the leader •but a transactional event that occurs between the leader and his/her followers.
  20. 3. Leadership Involves Influence •It is concerned with how the leader affects followers •Without influence leadership does not exists •Interpersonal influence, directed through communication towards goal attainment. •It also implies that leaders affects and is affected by its followers. •The influential increment over and above mechanical compliance/ agreement with directions and orders.
  21. •The act that causes others to act or respond a shared direction The art of influencing people by persuasion or example to follow a line of action. The principal dynamic force that motivates and coordinates the organization in the accomplishment of its objectives . •A willingness to take the blame.It implies that the leadership is not linear, one way event but rather an interactive event.
  22. 4. Empowering of Leaders Empowerment refers to passing of decision-making authority and responsibility from managers to group members. Participative management, Shared decision Making and delegation are different means of empowerment.
  23. Four components of empowerment are identified: 1. meaning, value of work goal. 2.Competence /Self efficiency/ individuals belief in his/her capability to perform a particular task well 3.self-determination, individuals feeling of having a choice.and 4. impact, degree to which the worker can influence strategic, administrative outcomes •Apart from these four empowerment internal commitment is also needed.
  24. 4.1.Empowering Leadership Practices •Foster Initiative and Responsibilities •Link Work Activities to the goal of the Organizations •Provide Ample/sufficien/t Information •Allow group members to choose methods •Encourage Self Leadership •Implement team based HR policies •Establish limit to Empowerment
  25. 4.2.Sources and types of Power 1.Position Power (Power granted by the Organization) A.Legitimate Power: lawful right to make a decision B. Reward Power: The authority to give employees reward for compliance/agreement. C. Coercive Power: the power to punish for noncompliance /based on fear/ D.Information Power: stemming from formal control over information
  26. 2. Personal Power: stemming from characteristic & behavior of the power actor A.Expert Power-influence other through specialized knowledge, skills, or abilities B.Referent Power: ability to influence others through desirable traits and charactertics C.Prestige/status Power: stemming from status & reputation. Note: Expert & Referred Powers contribute to Charisma
  27. 3. Ownership Power: Executive leaders accrue power in their capacity as agents acting on behalf of shareholders. The strength of this power depends on how closely the leader is linked to shareholders and board members. Also it depends upon the magnitude of investment. 4.Power Stemming from Providing Resources: Organization needs continuous flow of human resources, money, customers and clients, technology inputs, and material to continue to function. 5. Power Stemming from Being close to power Power derived from Capitalizing on opportunities
  28. 1. Define Leadership & discuss How it Occurs? 10 % 2. Discuss Four components of empowerment sources and types of Power -------------------------------- 10% Assignment from Chapter 2
  29. Chapter - 3 Leader Vs Manager Discover the qualities that will make you stand out from the crowd/mass/. Leaders are people who do the right thing; managers are people who do things right. – Professor Warren G. Bennis The word "leadership" can bring to mind a variety of images. For example: •A political leader, pursuing a passionate, personal cause. •An explorer, cutting a path through the jungle for the rest of his group to follow.
  30. •An executive, developing her company's strategy to beat the competition. Leaders help themselves and others to do the right things. They set direction, build an inspiring vision, and create something new. Leadership is about mapping out where you need to go to "win" as a team or an organization; and it is dynamic, exciting, and inspiring.
  31. •Yet, while leaders set the direction, they must also use management skills to guide their people to the right destination, in a smooth and efficient way. •In this article, we'll focus on the process of leadership. •In particular, we'll discuss the "transformational leadership" model, first proposed by James MacGregor Burns and then developed by Bernard Bass. •This model highlights visionary thinking and bringing about change, instead of management processes that are designed to maintain and steadily improve current performance.
  32. Importance of Leadership in Management •When it comes to business management, leadership plays an effective role in accomplishing the set objectives of an organization. •The onus/responsibility is on people working as the top brass to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the human resources management and utilize them effectively to achieve the goals set by the organization.
  33. •In most of the cases, the failure of a business firm can be attributed to the failure of leadership which holds its reins. •Inability of the leaders to develop an effective strategy and more importantly, implement it, can only lead to diminishing returns as far as investment in human resource is concerned.
  34. •Other than decision making, the leader also has to motivate and guide his team towards success. •As a CEO of an organization, the individual on that post is also expected to boost the morale of his employees by understanding their strengths, weaknesses, problems they are subjected to, etc.
  35. •Lack of coordination between two departments in a company is a perfect recipe for disaster, and therefore, the leadership has to shoulder the responsibility of coordinating between two or more departments in a said company. •In order to get things done from employees, the management has to create a work friendly environment and this can only be done when people at the leadership level know its importance.
  36. Assignment from Chapter 3 1. What is similarities & differences between Leader and Manager? Discuss it. (1 Page) -10%
  37. Chapter 4 Leadership Theories •Leadership theories explain the concept and practices adopted to become a leader. •It gives precise information on the leadership qualities and attributes one must have to become a leader. •Let us get into the details of leadership theories:
  38. 1. Great Man Theories One of the leadership theories that often figures in various leadership books the Great Man theory states that there are two basic assumptions; that leaders are born and not made, and the second assumption is that great leaders will come up when there is a need.
  39. •This theory was developed from an early research which included the study of great leaders. •The early leaders came from the privileged class and held hereditary titles. •Very few people from the lower class had the opportunity to take a lead.
  40. •The Great Man theory was based on the idea that whenever there is a need of leadership, a Great Man would arise and solve the problems. •When the Great Man theory was proposed, most of the leaders were males and therefore, the gender issues were not negotiable. Even the researchers were male, which was the reason for the name of the theory being 'Great Man Theory'.
  41. 2. Trait Theories •One of the important leadership theories in education, traits theory of leadership assumes that leaders have inherited traits/personality in them which make these people suitable for leadership. •Many say that leaders are people who can fully express themselves while others cannot, and this is what makes them different from other people.
  42. These traits/persenalities/ are: •Intelligence and judgments based on actions •Physical stamina and a vital driving force •Task competency •Better understanding of the followers and their demands •Avidness to accept responsibilities •Ability to deal with people •Capability to motivate people •Trustworthy •Conclusiveness •Flexibility
  43. •These are some of the few qualities and attributes of a leadership. •When this theory was researched earlier, researchers believed that a leader has all the listed traits in him/her. •The meaning of this theory is that the same leadership attributes are applicable for leadership on a battlefield and the leadership in a school.
  44. •However, if a person has some of these traits and not all, then it is not possible for him to be a leader! •Apart from this question, there was again the problem of gender in a leadership. •Even if you make an exhaustive list of leadership traits, these attributes are defined taking into consideration a male leader. This gave rise to the new leadership theory called the behavioral theory.
  45. 3. Behavioral Theories •After the trait theory, the researchers started exploring the behavior of the leaders and made assumptions that the traits and the leadership qualities are not inherited, they can be learned and mastered by any person. •Thus, this theory meant that leaders are not born, leaders can be made and so it became a famous management leadership theory and practice.
  46. •In the behavior theory, you need to assess a successful leader along with the actions of that particular leader. •As a successful leader is assessed, a leader with failure is also assessed, therefore, a second aspect of this theory was built. •Apart from the leadership theories and styles which were pronounced earlier, the basic leadership ideas remained the same. •Here are the four styles of leadership based on the behavioral theory:
  47. A. Concern for People: the characteristics of the leaders who aimed upon solving the problems of their followers and look after their needs, development and problems. The leader who has the concern of people as his priority will always strive for the betterment of his people or followers. B Concern of Task: The leader with the concern of task is more focused on his achievements and level of productivity. Also, the concern of task style reflects the ability to organize people and arrange activities, in order to meet the desired objectives and goals.
  48. C. Directive Leadership: This leadership style includes the characteristics of leaders with the ability to be decisive and expect the followers to act according to his decision. D Participative Leadership: Unlike directive leadership, in participative leadership, the leader and his followers take a decision by sharing the views and decisions together.
  49. 4. Situational Leadership Theories •One of the relatively lesser known leadership theories is the situational leadership theory. •The researchers found that leaders emerged as a result of different situations. •Therefore, the researchers assumed that leadership qualities were developed depending on the situation.
  50. •However, there are people who believe that there are different styles of leadership which changes the situation. There are three basic things in a situational leadership; •The foremost thing is that the relationship between the followers and the leader must be healthy. 1. The followers must like the leader and support him/her in his goals.
  51. 2. The second thing is that the task which is to be accomplished must be known, and the leader should set the goals as per the task to be done. •Along with the tasks to be accomplished, the methods and standards to accomplish the task must also be specified in details, as this will make an impact on the followers. 3. The third thing that is important is that the organization must confer/aware the responsibilities of the task upon the leader, as this will strengthen the position of the leader.
  52. 5. Transformational Theories •In the transformational theory of leadership, the assumption is that people are inspired from the leader and the leader must have passion about his leadership. •This is a great way of putting in enthusiasm/eagerness/ and energy in the followers to get the work done. •In short, the people are encouraged, and converted into potential followers.
  53. What are the leadership types and styles? Several theories have been propounded as to which are the most effective leadership styles and what is the best way of getting the work done from their employees and keep them motivated at the same time.
  54. Assignment from Chapter 4 1. Discuss 5 Leadership Theories in detail! (minimum 2 Pages) 10%
  55. Chapter 5 Styles, Importance and Types of Leadership So many Styles, Importance and Types of Leadership. We will discuss some of them as follows. A. Transformational Leadership •Burns, Leadership is quiet different from power because it is inseparable from followers’ needs. •Burns also distinguishes b/w two types of leadership: transactional and transformational. •Focus of transformational leadership is on what the leader accomplishes, rather than his/her relationship with group members.
  56. •It helps in bring about major, positive changes. •It moves group members beyond their self- interests for good of the group, organization, or society. • In contrast, the transactional leader focuses on more routine transactions with an emphasis on rewarding the group members for meeting standards.
  57. 1. Transformational leadership is the process whereby a person engages with others and crates a connection that raises the level of motivation and morality in both the leader and the followers. This type of leaders is attentive to the needs and motives of followers and tries to help followers reach their fullest potential. Mahatma (Mohandas) Gandhi, according to Burns, who raised the hopes of millions, is the best example of this. Ryan White (American teenager) who raised the American peoples awareness regarding AIDS is yet another example
  58. How Transformation Takes Place? The Leader: :Raises people’ s Awareness, Helps people look beyond self-interest, Help people search for self fulfillment, Helps people understand needs for change, Invests managers with sense of urgency and Adopt a long-range broad perspectives
  59. Key Qualities of Transformational Leader Charismatic •Inspirational Leadership (fluency & Confidence…by emotional support & appeal) •Intellectual Stimulation (encourage creative thinking & intuition) •Individual Consideration (personal attention)
  60. Charisma &Transformational Leader Charisma (Greek word)- divinely inspired gift-having special quality of leaders whose purposes, powers, & extraordinary determination differentiate from others. •Weber (1947) defines Charisma as special personality characteristic that gives a person superhuman or exceptional powers, resulting into the person being treated as a leader Just parallel to Burn House (1976) published a theory of leadership and sometimes understood just similar to the Transformational leadership.
  61. Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders: •Visionary-so offer a exciting image. •Masterful Communication Skills: to inspire people •Ability to inspire trust •Able to make group members feel capable •Energy & Action Oriented •Emotional Expressiveness & Warmth •Romanticize Risk •Unconventional Strategies to achieve success •Self-promoting personality (proving importance) •Dramatic & Unique
  62. Transformational Leadership & Performance Business /work/ Unit Performance: •Jane M. Howell & Bruce J. Avolio, proved that there is direct/positive correlation b/w transformational L & Business Unit performance •Military Units: Research done on Israel Defense force prove that leaders engages in three of charismatic behaviors (emphasizing ideology, emphasizing collective identity, and displaying exemplary behavior) •Performance Appraisal: Performance appraisals of groups higher if their leaders are transformational
  63. 1.4 Servant Leadership •The idea of the servant as leader came partly out of Greenleaf's half-century of experience in working to shape large institutions. •However, the event that crystallized Greenleaf 's thinking came in the 1960s, when he read Hermann Hesse's short novel Journey to the East-- an account of a mythical journey by a group of people on a spiritual quest. •Greenleaf, in his classic essay, The Servant as Leader, described the servant-leader in this manner:
  64. •The servant-leader is servant first… It begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve, to serve first. •Then conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead. Chanakya wrote, in the 4th century B.C., in his book Arthashastra: the king [leader] shall consider as good, not what pleases himself but what pleases his subjects [followers]” “the king [leader] is a paid servant and enjoys the resources of the state together with the people.” •The Center for Servant Leadership at the Pastoral Institute in Georgia defines servant leadership as a lifelong journey that includes discovery of one’s self, a desire to serve others, and a commitment to lead.
  65. Essentially Ethical and Honest Influence Tactics 1.Leading by examples 2.Rational Persuasion 3.Exchange favour & Bargaining 4.Getting Network members to support your position 5.Legitimating a request 6.Inspirational Appeal & Emotional Display 7.Personal Magnetism 8.Consultation 9.Forming Coalition 10.Team Play
  66. Essentially Dishonest and Unethical tactics 1.Deliberate Machiavellianism 2.Gentle Manipulation 3.Undue Pressure 4.Game Playing 5.Debasement 6.Upward Appeal 7.Silent Treatment 8.Ingratiation 9.Joking & Kidding
  67. Styles of Leadership A different leadership style may be required under different circumstances but principles are not changeable. Four types of Leadership Styles, Directing, Coaching, Supporting, Delegating Leadership A. The Directing Leader: •Sets goals. •Identifies the problems. •Comes up with solutions. •Decides who does what work. •Gives specific directions. •Announces decisions. •Closely supervises and evaluates employees' work.
  68. B. The Coaching Leader •Sets the goals. •Identifies the problems. •Develops a plan to solve problems and consults with employees. •Makes the final decision about procedures or solutions after hearing employees' ideas, opinions, and feelings. •Explains decisions to employees and asks for their ideas. •Praises employees' work efforts. •Continues to direct employees' work. •Evaluates employees' work.
  69. C. The Supporting Leader •Involves employees in problem-solving and goal- setting. •Takes the lead in defining how to do a job or solve a problem. •Provides support, resources, and ideas if requested. •Shares responsibility for problem-solving with employees. •Listens to employees and guides them as they make decisions. •Evaluates an employee’s work with that person.
  70. 4. The Delegating Leader •Identifies problems with employees. •Sets goals with employees. •Develops plans and makes decisions with employees. •Lets employees decide who does the tasks. •Accepts employees' decisions and monitors their performance. •Lets employees evaluate their own work. •Lets employees take responsibility and credit for their work.
  71. Character of the Excellent Leader Excellent leaders are: Knowledgeable about the total organization, Able to learn from mistakes, Excellent communicators/listeners, Able to speak clearly and effectively Resourceful. and Realistic.
  72. Importance of Leadership •Effective leadership forms the backbone of a successful business, as it allows the firms to utilize their resources efficiently. •Even though it is much more prominent in the corporate world, the same rule is applicable to various other sectors, including sports and politics.
  73. •In an organization which acknowledges the importance of leadership development, employees demonstrate a positive attitude, which in turn reflects on their performance. •On the other hand, an organization characterized by lack of leadership has a negatively influenced work environment, which in turn, results in poor performance from the employees.
  74. Assignment from Chapter 5 1. Discuss Styles, Importance and Types of Leadership 10% 2.Discuss Ethical/Honest & dishonest tactics of Leaders 5% 3.Discuss Importance of Leadership 5%
  75. Chapter 6 Basic Styles of Leadership •A good leader should be able to assess the requirements of the team members and adopt a style of leadership that befits the team. •In the book, 'Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence', authored by Daniel Goleman, Richard E. Boyatzis and Annie McKee, the authors have illustrated the different styles of leadership. The six leadership styles can be summarized as follows:
  76. 1.Democratic: This form of leadership draws its strength from the team members allowing them to voice their views and opinions. In other words, a democratic leader participates in a team building exercise and seeks the active participation of team members. A democratic leader hopes for mutual consensus, on how to archive the given targets, by allowing team members to come forth with innovative ideas. This approach is particularly useful when the course of action is unclear.
  77. 2.Pace setting: A pace setting leader is one who sets the pace or the rate of achieving the predetermined goals. The goals of the organization, on the whole, dictate the policies and the targets that have to be accomplished by all the team members under the supervision of the leader. A pace setting leader often disregards the potential of the employees while allocating targets. In other words, personal and professional aspirations and growth may be sacrificed at the altar of beliefs and convictions of the team leader.
  78. 3. Coaching: This style of leadership involves a bit of hand-holding. The leader aims to provide the necessary support and reassurance to the team members in order to help them develop their strengths and make straight their goals with the goals of the organization. In other words, the leader adopts a focused approach and coaches the team members thus minimizing the risk of possible deviations from predetermined goals.
  79. 3. Visionary: A visionary leader is one who envisions the future, revels in the possibilities of what could be and inspires people to perceive things the way they ought to be. A visionary leader has the capacity to foresee the future and hopes to accomplish a distant dream. In other words, these leaders chart their own path and undertake calculated risks hoping to make today's dream tomorrow's reality.
  80. 4. Affiliative: This style of leadership focuses on renewing a sense of kinship and building trust among various factions whose cooperation is desirable for promoting the goals of the organization. An affiliative leader tends to adopt an empathetic approach. However, in an effort to appease people and help them realize their true potential, there is a danger of the goals of the organization getting side tracked.
  81. 5. Commanding: The futility of this style of leadership has been realized over time and has resulted in dwindling the popularity of this style of leadership. Commanding style of leadership is akin to dictatorship where there is no room for expression or willful action. A commanding leader is effective in war like situations where time is of the essence. Communicating decisions and waiting for the appropriate response is a luxury that cannot be afforded. Depending on the situation, one has to choose between the different leadership styles and settle on an effective leadership style.
  82. Leadership styles, which a leader employs to get the work done are: Authoritarian Leadership: Authoritarian leadership is a type of leadership where the leader has control over all the actions of the group. There is a clear line between the management and the employees, and the flow of communication is largely up-to-down i.e. the employees have no say in the decision making process, and all the orders of the management need to be followed unquestioningly.
  83. Participative Leadership: The next style is known as participative leadership. In this style, there is still a cear line of difference between employees and employers, but the employees are encouraged to come up with suggestions and take an active part in the decision making process. This style fosters a good employee-employer relationship and isn't as extreme as authoritarian or laissez- faire style of leadership.
  84. Laissez-Faire Leadership: In a way, this isn't a style of leadership at all! Laissez-faire style of leadership means that anyone and everyone is empowered with the opportunity to take their own decisions. It may sound good, but more often than not, it leads to a chaotic situation. Laissez-faire leadership is best implemented only within a group which shows good group- dynamics, is highly motivated and needs its creative space, for e.g. a research and development department.
  85. Assignment from Chapter 6 1. Discuss Basic Styles of Leadership 5% 2. Discuss Leadership styles, which a leader employs to get the work done 5%
  86. Chapter 7 Biblical Leadership Definition of Biblical Leadership •Biblical leadership is distinctly different from that described and defined by the world. •The distinctive help Christian leaders understand the unique way the Bible describes one person’s influence upon another, the motivation behind that influence, the eventual outcome of that influence, and the source of power to guide and sustain that influence. This is biblical leadership!
  87. •A Biblical leader is a person of character and competence who influences a community of people to achieve a God-honoring calling by means of the power of Christ. •Leadership is the act of influencing/serving others out of Christ's interests in their lives so they accomplish God's purposes for and through them,” according to Bill Lawrence, president of Leader Formation International, at 2, 2018
  88. Distinctive/Character of Biblical Leadership •The Scriptures indicate that there is no authority except what has been established by God (Rom 13:1). •He sets over the realm of humankind whomever he wishes (Dan 4:32 ; 5:21) to be his minister to us for good. Moses and Joshua were assigned their leadership by God (Exude 4 ; Joshua 1);
  89. •Aaron and his sons were singled out for the priesthood (Exod 28:1); the judges were raised up by God (Judges 2:16) •Biblical leadership involves at least five distinctive that set it in sharp contrast to the leadership theories and definitions of the modern world. The following tips from the Bible.
  90. 1. Character •Character is that set of moral qualities that distinguishes one person from others. •These qualities include things such as honesty, courage, integrity, humility, perseverance, and decisiveness. •Yet it’s important to understand that these traits do not just happen. •They actually flow from a deeper structure within the individual. •In order to be authentic, these qualities must be connected to a person’s identity—i.e., how that person sees and defines him or herself.
  91. •As the Scripture says, it is from the heart of a person that proper attitudes and actions flow (Proverbs 4:23). •But this identity or sense of self should not be the result of our own invention. •It’s not ultimately important who we say we are, nor is it important who others say we are.
  92. •What is vitally important is who God says we are. •This is true especially for leaders, because in time, our true selves will show through to those we lead.In the life of Jesus, we see ways he viewed and defined himself that have particular relevance to leadership. As leaders seeking to lead like Jesus, we must also desire to assimilate his character and self-definition into our lives.
  93. The character of the biblical leader may be summarized by three images directly connected to who Jesus was and how he led. These images are the ways that Jesus defined himself in his leadership (influence) toward others. They are the images of the servant, the steward, and the shepherd.
  94. These dimensions provide the Christian leader with metaphors by which to grasp the Bible’s teaching about how leaders should see themselves. Leaders who seek to walk in integrity and assimilate Jesus’s character into their being will more naturally express traits of moral character as well as be more naturally empowered to know what to do in practice as they go about leading others.
  95. Additionally, we must be careful to apply these images to the idea of character first and not to conduct—lest we fall into the mind-set that so often typifies the world’s approach— namely, that leadership is merely something we do on the outside. The Bible student will make a big error if he or she only seeks to act as a servant, a steward, and a shepherd without becoming those things—that is, without taking on the character of each. Can a person serve others without a servant’s heart?
  96. Well, possibly and temporarily. But that equates to acting a part rather than developing a disposition of servanthood in their person. In time, without full integration and character development, the leader is not able to continue to prop up the character traits necessary for biblical leadership. They are simply too difficult to pretend.
  97. Christlike character, then, is the first distinctive of biblical influence. This is true because it is the primary work of the Holy Spirit after salvation to build that character in the believer. Without it, leaders are merely empty shells, actors who play a part, void of substance and lasting spiritual impact. Leaders like this might impress people with their skills and thus gain a following. But they have the potential to enduringly transform others only through character. When manifested, character creates the credibility for a leader to be respected and trusted and to earn the right to influence others.
  98. 2. Calling •Biblical leaders must not only concern themselves with how to lead, but they must also address why they are leading—for what purpose. •They must find their why before they know their what. Most authors use the term vision to describe a leader’s purpose and the future state for which they influence others.
  99. •While the idea of vision is at the heart of leading others, to comprehend Biblical leadership we must realize that in a biblical paradigm, vision flows first from God’s call to the leader. If we’re not careful, vision will turn out to be something we invent rather than something we discover from God.
  100. •The term “calling” possesses the inherent idea that purpose comes from God to us—not the other way around. •With a calling, after all, there must be a Caller. (See Genesis 12:1–4, Exodus 3:1–6, 1 Samuel 16:12, Isaiah 6:1–13, Jeremiah 1:4–7, Mark 3:14– 15, John 15:16, Acts 9:1–16, Romans 15:15–18). •Often, a leader’s plans get confused with God’s plan. We have a dream, an aspiration, or a goal, and it becomes what we believe is God’s vision. •We then go to God to convince him to get on board with what we want to see happen in the world.
  101. •This leads to failure, frustration, and misguided achievements, since God did not author the vision in the first place. •Here, leaders achieve only to realize the achievements were not of God. As Howard Hendricks profoundly said, “The fear is not for leaders to fail, but to succeed at doing the wrong thing.” •The fact is, God has not committed himself to finance our dreams. He’s not a genie in the bottle who exists to grant our wishes.
  102. •He wants us to get involved in his plans. Calling therefore communicates something received from God (the One calling) to us (the ones called)—and God is always faithful to supply and sustain that which he initiates. •The great promise to leaders who follow God’s call is that he will be faithful to resource it. Calling is an inherent biblical concept, as compared to the modern idea of “vision.” •The actual word vision in the Bible almost always refers to prophetic visions. This is different from the way vision is described in modern leadership.
  103. •The term today, mostly used in business and corporate settings, blurs the lines between the purposes of a business and that of the church. •Calling, on the other hand, is unique to people of faith. •While vision (a mental idea of a preferable future) certainly flows from calling, leaders should first process and possess a strong sense of God’s compelling call to join him in the work he is doing.
  104. •After their response of faith to God’s call, vision will begin to develop within the hearts and minds of the leaders—and most importantly, that vision will be rooted in a call from God, not in self-centered ambition. •Calling, therefore, is the force that drives and inspires biblical leaders to influence. •It keeps them focused, provides accountability to act consistently, inspires them to endure hardships, and ensures that one’s leadership results only in what God wants.
  105. 3. Competence Psalm 78:72 states, “And David shepherded them with integrity of heart; with skillful hands he led them.” Just as integrity of heart (i.e. character) is vital to biblical leadership, so are skillful hands (i.e. competence). Yet in the Scripture, skills are not mere cosmetics to be put on and taken off, nor are they disconnected from the leader’s character.
  106. Rather, they are congruent complements to his or her inner person, and as such, they allow the leader to manifest God’s calling in the world. Imagine Moses without the skill of delegating to others (Exodus 18:13–27), Nehemiah without the ability to manage projects and people (Nehemiah 4:13–23), or Paul without the skill of communicating spiritual truth to his readers (Colossians 1:28–29).
  107. These competencies provided for the success of their God-given callings and were used mightily by the Lord in their particular leadership contexts. In this sense, outer competence is related to inner character. Not every leader has every skill. Students of leadership must come to understand both the skills common to effective, Christlike leadership and the skills unique to who they are.
  108. To do the former, students must discover from God’s Word common competencies of effective leaders. To do the latter, one must give attention to discovering his or her spiritual gifts, natural competencies, unique personality, and God- given passions.
  109. 4. Community •While secular leaders might concern themselves with profits and material productivity, biblical leadership is seen in terms of impact upon and relationship to people. The idea of community applies in two ways.
  110. 1.The outcome of biblical leadership is always about transforming the lives of human beings. Always. In the Scripture, every time God called a leader to a leadership task, God’s purpose was to redeem and restore his people through the instrument of the leader. Therefore, biblical leadership does not ever exist in a vacuum.
  111. A biblical leader is an individual called of God to interact with and impact people. Biblical leadership is not primarily about developing a ministry program, sitting behind a computer, or constructing a building. It is not about profits, widgets, or organization size.
  112. Those may be a means toward a people- transforming end, but they are never the end in themselves—and if we are not careful, leaders can easily lose our way as to the real goal of leadership. People are of immense value to God, more important than anything numeric or material, and our leadership should have the development and transformation of people as its object.
  113. 2.Biblical leadership takes place in the context of Christian community. •Jesus didn’t simply tell the disciples to show up at the temple once a week, and there he would lecture them on principles of leadership. •Jesus did life with those he led. He chose to impart himself, not just his teaching. •It was out of the context of that community between him and his disciples, with failures and victories alike, that they grew to achieve something of great value together. •Consequently, biblical leaders seek to develop open, authentic relationships with those they lead.
  114. •Biblical leaders love the people they lead—they don’t just use them. •In the closest of relationships that a leader can possess with his or her followers, there is deep connection, vulnerability, understanding, and personal investment.
  115. •Paul described his relationship to the Thessalonians just so: “Having so fond an affection for you, we were well-pleased to impart to you not only the gospel of God but also our own lives, because you had become very dear to us” (1 Thessalonians 2:8). •Community breathes life into leadership and grounds it in the supreme moral virtue that must accompany all truly biblical leaders—namely, agape love
  116. 5. Christ Finally, worldly leaders may operate in their own strength and in their own wisdom, and they might be able to accomplish good and even noble things. •But biblical leadership produces eternal results because it comes from a different source. •It’s not based upon the world’s wisdom or the meager human resources of the leader. •These sources can only accomplish what can be explained in natural and human ways and through the limited skills of the leader. •By contrast, the inner fuel, guide, and force at work for the biblical leader is the very power of Christ!
  117. •Since this is so, Biblical leadership must always be a walk of faith. •Leadership acted upon with trust in God is then fueled by a supernatural force—Jesus himself! •Christ accomplishes through the humble and obedient leader that which can only be ascribed to God’s ability. •In the end, the leader sees limitless possibilities for what can be achieved. •When the task is complete it is God, not the leader, who receives the credit.
  118. Assignment from Chapter 7 1. Define Biblical Leadership 10% 2. Discuss at least five distinctive of Biblical Leadership 10%
  119. Thank you ! Thank you !