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Gamification
for
Second Language Acquisition
The good,
the bad,
and unusable
Geraldine Exton, James Patten, Liam Murray
CS...
Introduction
• The immersive capability & thus inherent
massive influence of games
• “All learning has to be based on expe...
Introduction - Gamification
• Gee: “Gamification can be good and
gamification can be evil. It has been taken
over, at leas...
Focus
• Focus of game design entertainment
• Focus of gamification engagement
• Engagement ≠ Entertainment
• Entertainment...
Game design
• Game design nuanced, creative activity
– Mechanics only a small part of what works
– Uncertainty and our com...
Gamification – the term
• “Gamification” – term designed to elicit
positive association
• Divisive
– Chocolate covered bro...
Gamification – potential negatives
• Motivation of those behind it
– Business analytics
– Data mining
– User manipulation
...
What is Gamification?
• Confusion about what constitutes gamification
Supermarket clubcards/loyalty programmes
• Just usi...
Gamification in education
• Educational perspective different from
commercial application
• Criticisms valid
– Ferrara: ga...
Gamification in education
• Core experience/key goals in system to
influence entire design process (Romero)
• Use Guiding ...
Gamification and Motivation
• Self Determination Theory
• Ryan and Deci
• Three components to be fulfilled:
• Spectrum of ...
Gamification in Duolingo
Gamification in Duolingo
COMPETENCE
• Duolingo home page:
skills tree
(achievements)
• High emphasis on
mastery of skills
...
Gamification in Duolingo
AUTONOMY
• Duolingo “lingot” store
• Choice re: avatars,
discussion forums,
gifting and virtual g...
Gamification in Duolingo
RELATEDNESS
• Duolingo discussion
page
• Discussion forums:
communities of practice
• Avatars, ba...
Conclusion
• Caveats
– Longevity vs novelty
• “framification” works – but does it maintain interest?
– External motivators...
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Gamification for Second Language Acquisition

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Some arguments for and against gamification, with a specific emphasis on how to make it work well in second language acquisition settings

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Gamification for Second Language Acquisition

  1. 1. Gamification for Second Language Acquisition The good, the bad, and unusable Geraldine Exton, James Patten, Liam Murray CSIS Department, University of Limerick, Ireland {geraldine.exton; james.patten; liam.murray} @ul.ie
  2. 2. Introduction • The immersive capability & thus inherent massive influence of games • “All learning has to be based on experience, no matter what tools we’re using” (Gee, 2015) • Classic games are well designed “problem spaces” where we can tackle challenging problems • GFI – (goodness of fit index) – –Games = well designed a/effect spaces
  3. 3. Introduction - Gamification • Gee: “Gamification can be good and gamification can be evil. It has been taken over, at least in America by business.” • Motivation? Or manipulation? • Gaming + education – can they be blended? • Definition: “the use of game-like elements in non-game contexts” (Deterding et al, 2011)
  4. 4. Focus • Focus of game design entertainment • Focus of gamification engagement • Engagement ≠ Entertainment • Entertainment – Is elusive – No clear road map for entertainment
  5. 5. Game design • Game design nuanced, creative activity – Mechanics only a small part of what works – Uncertainty and our compulsion to master it (Costikyan) – Learning and mastery (Koster) – Joy of gameplay – meaningful choices (Juul) • “Myth” of game design as a solved problem – Cannot guarantee effectiveness of a small part applied elsewhere
  6. 6. Gamification – the term • “Gamification” – term designed to elicit positive association • Divisive – Chocolate covered broccoli (Gee, Bogost) – Exploitationware (Bogost) – Pointsification (Robertson) • Splintering of advocates – “gameful design” as against gamification
  7. 7. Gamification – potential negatives • Motivation of those behind it – Business analytics – Data mining – User manipulation – Commodification – Make mundane tasks worse – Data collection/usage/privacy
  8. 8. What is Gamification? • Confusion about what constitutes gamification Supermarket clubcards/loyalty programmes • Just using badges, etc, not gamification? Games already in use in the classroom, but are they gamification? • Class charts/leaderboards • Badges/stickers • Games, eg. Bingo • Remember the core
  9. 9. Gamification in education • Educational perspective different from commercial application • Criticisms valid – Ferrara: gamification has an “impoverished, cynical, and exploitative view of games as inherently frivolous and mostly useless.” – Slap elements on and hope for the best!
  10. 10. Gamification in education • Core experience/key goals in system to influence entire design process (Romero) • Use Guiding Principles – Ferrara – Define core message – Tie message to win strategy – Meaningful choices – Keep it real – Self-directed discovery • Tie elements to motivation
  11. 11. Gamification and Motivation • Self Determination Theory • Ryan and Deci • Three components to be fulfilled: • Spectrum of motivation From amotivation to intrinsic motivation Competence Autonomy Relatedness Skill mastery Choice Social connectedness
  12. 12. Gamification in Duolingo
  13. 13. Gamification in Duolingo COMPETENCE • Duolingo home page: skills tree (achievements) • High emphasis on mastery of skills • Achievements, badges, content-unlocking, discussion forums, leaderboards, levels, points, social graphs, virtual goods
  14. 14. Gamification in Duolingo AUTONOMY • Duolingo “lingot” store • Choice re: avatars, discussion forums, gifting and virtual goods (lingots) • Avatars, discussion forums, gifting, virtual goods
  15. 15. Gamification in Duolingo RELATEDNESS • Duolingo discussion page • Discussion forums: communities of practice • Avatars, badges, content- unlocking, discussion forums, gifting, leaderboards, levels, social graphs, virtual goods
  16. 16. Conclusion • Caveats – Longevity vs novelty • “framification” works – but does it maintain interest? – External motivators detracting from intrinsic motivation • Future – One tool in a “motivation suite” – Social/face-to-face (Duolingo/Decker & Lawley)

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