21. AN EARTHQUAKE IS A WEAK TO VIOLENT
SHAKING OF THE GROUND PRODUCED BY THE
SUDDEN MOVEMENT OF ROCK MATERIALS BELOW
THE EARTH’S SURFACE.
22. -Induced Earthquakes. Induced quakes are caused by
human activity, like tunnel construction, filling
reservoirs and implementing geothermal or fracking
- Volcanic Earthquakes. Volcanic quakes are associated
with active volcanism.
27. In addition to loss of life and mass injuries, other potential
impacts include damage to and destruction of homes and
businesses, ports and harbors, cultural resources,
utilities, and critical infrastructure and facilities. There
may be loss of access to basic services such as power,
sewer, and water.
While the winds themselves are
destructive, the debris they pick up
is often quite dangerous as well.
Most injuries and deaths caused by
tornadoes are from collapsing
buildings and flying debris.
Tornadoes may produce strong,
violent winds, lightening, heavy
rains and flooding
Go to the basement or an
inside room without
windows on the lowest
floor (bathroom, closet,
center hallway). If
possible, avoid sheltering
in any room with windows.
35. A heat wave is simply
a period of unusually
hot weather that
typically lasts two or
36. A heat wave occurs when there is
high pressure in the atmosphere
that forces hot air downward and
traps it near the ground.
Heatwaves can burden health andemergency services and
also increase strain on water, energy and transportation
resulting in power shortages or even blackouts. Food and
livelihood security may also be strained if people lose their
crops or livestock due to extreme heat.
Installing cool and green roofs
and cool pavement to reduce the
urban heat island effect. Planting
trees to provide shade and to cool
the air through
energy efficiency to reduce
demand on the electricity grid,
especially during heat waves.
40. a storm with thunder
and lightning and
typically also heavy rain
41. •Thunderstorms form when warm, moist air rises
into cold air. The warm air becomes cooler,
which causes moisture, called water vapor, to
form small water droplets - a process called
condensation. The cooled air drops lower in the
atmosphere, warms, and rises again. This circuit
of rising and falling air is called a "convection
cell". If this happens a small amount, a cloud will
form. If this happens with large amounts of air
and moisture, a thunderstorm can form
42. •Most indoor lightning casualties and
some outdoor casualties are due to
conduction. Whether inside or
outside, anyone in contact with
anything connected to metal wires,
plumbing, or metal surfaces that
extend outside is at risk. This
includes anything that plugs into an
electrical outlet, water faucets and
showers, corded phones, and
windows and doors.
What causes lightning to strike a person?
43. •Learn indoor and
outdoor safety tips
to protect yourself
and your loved ones
How to protect yourself from lightning?
44. INDOOR SAFETY TIPS
Don't touch electronic
•Avoid windows, doors,
porches, and concrete.
•Don't use corded phones.
45. OUTDOOR SAFETY TIPS
•Seek shelter immediately, even if caught out in the open.
•Separate from others.
•Avoid open spaces.
•Don’t stay near tall structures.
46. A thunderstorm can be even hazardous if accompanied
by lightning, gusty winds, and heavy rain. It can affect
humans, animals, public properties, and even nature
•Impact on Humans:
•Impact on Animals:
•Impact on Properties:
•Impact on Nature:
48. A cold wave is a weather event
involving a cooling of the air, or the
invasion of very cold air, over a large
area.. It is marked by a drop of
average temperature well below the
averages of a region.
49. •In the Northern Hemisphere, cold waves occur when very
cold, dense air near the surface moves out of its source
region in northern Canada or northern Asia. The core of a
cold wave at the surface is a strong high-pressure center
that forms during winter in high latitudes.
WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF HEAT AND COLD WAVE?
50. •Cold waves can have negative impacts on
people, crops, properties and services.
•cause extreme thermal stress to human body,
which may lead to devastating impacts on human
health and well-being.
•Cold waves can cause death and injury to
livestock and wildlife
53. Is a prolonged dry period in the natural climate
cycle that can occur anywhere in the world. It is
a slow-onset disaster characterized by the lack
of precipitation, resulting in a water shortage.
Drought can have a serious impact on health,
agriculture, economies, energy and the
55. A wildfire, forest fire, bushfire,
wildland fire or rural fire is an
unplanned, uncontrolled and
unpredictable fire in an area of
56. Wildfires can severely impact rural
communities in a number of ways. Fires can
significantly damage infrastructure- homes,
barns, sheds, fencing – as well as farm
equipment, vehicles, and structural damage
to essential services such as electricity and
WHY WILDFIRE IS A NATURAL
60. There are many examples of human failure to use
land resources sustainably. Deforestation occurs
when humans clear forests to use the land either for
agriculture or for habitation. Consequently, forest
cover dwindles significantly, leading to soil erosion
and extinction of plant species. Land animals also
decline in numbers and even face extinction due to
human expansion that encroaches on their natural
habitat and limits their ability to spread geographically.
62. One of the biggest environmental impacts of human
activities is air quality. The transportation sector
contributes heavily to air pollution because most forms
of transportation, including cars, planes and ocean
vessels, use fossil fuels. When burned, fossil fuels
release carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases
into the environment. burning fossil fuels, and
deforestation. Changes like these have triggered
climate change, soil erosion, poor air quality, and
64. Industry grows exponentially with the expansion of the
human population.Manufacturing plants emit carbons
and sulfurs that do not occur naturally in the
environment, causing an imbalance in the quality and
composition of air. Some air pollutants deplete the
ozone layer and expose the Earth to dangerous
radiation from the sun.
66. Human intervention in the environment also jeopardizes
the supply and flow of clean drinking water. Activities like
waste disposal from residential, commercial and
industrial areas, oil spills and runoff from agriculture all
contaminate bodies of water. The direct deposit of
pollutants into lakes, rivers, seas and streams and
indirect runoff of hazardous substances during the rainy
seasons both impact water sources. Another
environmental issue impacting water systems is
overfishing, which causes a reduction in diversity of
67. Prevention in Human Intervention
How can you prevent man-made disaster?
Locating hazardous sites and materials away from centres of
population. A safe environmental health structure, to ensure e.g.
clean, uncontaminated drinking water. Pilot studies and the
taking of independent environmental health advice before
making potentially hazardous changes.
68. Prevention in Human Intervention
What can the government do to prevent man made and
Awareness, education, preparedness, and prediction and
warning systems can reduce the disruptive impacts of a
natural disaster on communities. Mitigation measures such
as adoption of zoning, land-use practices, and building
codes are needed, however, to prevent or reduce actual
damage from hazards.
1-2: What are the two different kinds of calamities?
3.It is an event causing great and often sudden damage or distress
4-5 give me atleast 2 different types of landslide
6-9.4 types of flood
10. a weak to violent shaking of the ground produced by the sudden
movement of rock materials below the earth’s surface.
11.a series of extremely long waves
caused by a large and sudden displacement of the ocean
71. 12.Nature’s most violent storms
13.It occurs when there is high pressure in the atmosphere that forces hot air
downward and traps it near the ground.
14: A rain-bearing cloud that also produces lightning. All thunderstorms are
dangerous every thunderstorm produces lightning.
15: It is marked by a drop of average temperature well below the averages of a
16.A prolonged dry period in the natural climate cycle that can occur anywhere in
17-18: 2 types of manmade calamities
19-20: 2 types of natural calamities