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Managerial skills

6 de Feb de 2019
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Managerial skills

  1. Developing MANAGERIAL & ORGANISATIONAL skills for entrepreneurs Dr G S Biradar Copyright © 2018 GSBiradar AEX-301 ED&BC. All rights reserved.
  2. Terminologies used in MANAGEEMNT 1. Management: getting things done by the employees. 2. Planning: 3. Organizing: 4. Controlling: 5. Subordinates: 6. Budgeting: 7. Authority: the legal right to give the command, order 8. Responsibility: a duty to deal with something or accountable. 9. Efficiency: 10.Effectiveness: Copyright © 2018 GSBiradar ED&BC. All rights reserved.
  3. Management can be defined as followings: Management as a Process Management as an Activity Management as a Discipline Management as a Group Management as a Science Management as an Art Management as a Profession
  4. History of management 1. Classical Theorists 1. Focus on the job and management functions to determine the best way to manage in all organizations. 2. Scientific Management 1. Best way to maximize job performance 2. Fredrick Winslow Taylor 1. Father of Scientific Management 3. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth 1. Work efficiency 4. Henry Gantt 1. Work scheduling
  5. 3.Administrative Theory – Henri Fayol • Father of Modern Management • Principles and functions of management – Max Weber • Bureaucracy concept – Chester Barnard • Authority and power in organizations – Mary Parker Follett • Worker participation, conflict resolution, and shared goals
  6. 4.Behavioral Theory • Behavioral Theorists – Focus on people to determine the best way to manage in all organizations. • Human Relations Movement (later, the Behavioral Science Approach) 1. Elton Mayo- Hawthorne studies 2. Abraham Maslow- Hierarchy of needs theory 3. Douglas McGregor- Theory X and Theory Y
  7. 5.Management Science theories – Focus on the use of mathematics to aid in problem solving and decision making. – Mathematical models are used in the areas of finance, management information systems (MIS), and operations management. • Systems Theory – Focuses on viewing the organization as a whole and as the interrelationship of its parts (subsystems). 1. Socio-technical Theory 1. Focuses on integrating people and technology. 2. Contingency Theory – Focuses on determining the best management approach for a given situation. 6. Integrative Theories
  8. Comparing Theories Classical Behavioral Management Science Systems Theory Attempts to develop the best way to manage in all organizations by focusing on the jobs and structure of the firm. Attempts to develop a single best way to manage in all organizations by focusing on people and making them productive. Recommends using math (computers) to aid in problem solving and decision making. Manages by focusing on the organization as a whole and the interrelationship of its departments, rather than on individual parts. Socio-technical Theory Recommends focusing on the integration of people and technology. Contingency Theory Recommends using the theory or the combination of theories that best meets the given situation.
  9. What is management? • Management is an art of getting things done through others by directing their efforts towards achievement of pre-determined goals. • Management is an executing function. • Management decides who should & how should he dot it. • Management is a doing function because managers get work done under their supervision. • Skills required are Technical and Human skills. • Mgt is middle & lower level function.
  10. Why ????? --Importance of management 1. It helps in Achieving Group Goals: arranges the factors of production, assembles and organizes the resources, integrates the resources in effective manner to achieve goals. 2. Optimum Utilization of Resources: This leads to efficacy in management. Management provides maximum utilization of scarce resources by selecting its best possible alternate use in industry from out of various uses. It makes use of experts, professional and these services leads to use of their skills, knowledge, and proper utilization and avoids wastage. 3. Reduces Costs: It gets maximum results through minimum input by proper planning 4.Establishes Sound Organization: No overlapping of efforts (smooth and coordinated functions. it establishes effective authority & responsibility relationship i.e. who is accountable to whom, who can give instructions to whom, who are superiors & who are subordinates. Management fills up various positions with right persons, having right skills, training and qualification. 5. Establishes Equilibrium: It enables the organization to survive in changing by keeping in touch with the changing environment. 6. Essentials for Prosperity of Society: better economical production which helps in turn to increase the welfare of people.
  11. Objectives of management: 1. Getting Maximum Results with Minimum Efforts - The main objective of management is to secure maximum outputs with minimum efforts & resources. Management is basically concerned with thinking & utilizing human, material & financial resources in such a manner that would result in best combination. This combination results in reduction of various cost 2. Increasing the Efficiency of factors of Production - Through proper utilization of various factors of production, their efficiency can be increased to a great extent which can be obtained by reducing spoilage, wastages and breakage of all kinds, this in turn leads to saving of time, effort and money which is essential for the growth & prosperity of the enterprise 3. Maximum Prosperity for Employer & Employees - Management ensures smooth and coordinated functioning of the enterprise. This in turn helps in providing maximum benefits to the employee in the shape of good working condition, suitable wage system, incentive plans on the one hand and higher profits to the employer on the other hand. 4. Human betterment & Social Justice - Management serves as a tool for the upliftment as well as betterment of the society. Through increased productivity & employment, management ensures better standards of living for the society. It provides justice through its uniform policies.
  12. Management v/s Administration
  13. 1–14 Management Roles • Role – A set of expectations of how one will behave in a given situation. • Management Role Categories (Mintzberg) 1. Interpersonal roles Figurehead, leader, and liaison 2. Informational roles Monitor, disseminator, and spokesperson 3. Decisional roles Entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator
  14. Ten Roles Managers Play Managers play various roles as necessary while performing their management functions so as to achieve organizational objectives.
  15. Functions of Management • Different experts have classified functions of management. According to George & Jerry, “There are four fundamental functions of management i.e. planning, organizing, actuating and controlling”. • According to Henry Fayol, “To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, & to control”. • Whereas Luther Gullick has given a keyword ’POSDCORB’ where P stands for Planning, O for Organizing, S for Staffing, D for Directing, Co for Co-ordination, R for reporting & B for Budgeting. • But the most widely accepted are functions of management given by KOONTZ and O’DONNEL i.e. Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing and Controlli ng.
  16. Functions of management given by KOONTZ and O’DONNEL For theoretical purposes, it may be convenient to separate the function of management but practically these functions are overlapping in nature i.e. they are highly inseparable. Each function blends into the other & each affects the performance of others Manpower Planning Supervision Motivation Leadership Communication
  17. According to George & Jerry
  18. Functions of Management . 1. Planning – Setting objectives and determining in advance exactly (?) how the objectives will be met. – Monitor for Change and Anticipate or React – PDCA – Plan – Do – Check - Act 2. Organizing – Delegating and coordinating tasks – and allocating resources to achieve objectives. 3. Leading – Influencing employees to work toward achieving objectives. 4. Controlling – Establishing and implementing mechanisms to ensure that objectives to be achieved
  19. Levels of Management • The term “Levels of Management’ refers to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an organization. • The number of levels in management increases when the size of the business and work force increases and vice versa. • The level of management determines a chain of command, the amount of authority & status enjoyed by any managerial position. • The levels of management can be classified in three broad categories: 1. Top level / Administrative level 2. Middle level / Executory 3. Low level / Supervisory / Operative / First-line managers
  20. Managers at all these levels perform different functions. The role of managers at all the three levels is discussed below:
  21. Organizational performance • Efficiency: A measure of how well or productively resources are used to achieve goal. • Effectiveness: A measure of the appropriateness of the goals an organization is pursuing and the degree to which they are achieved.
  22. What are the general management skills? 1. Management skills– planning, organizing, supervising, directing, networking 2. Marketing/Sales skills– identifying customers, distribution channels, supply chain 3. Financial skills– managing financial resources, accounting, budgeting 4. Legal skills– organization form, risk management, privacy and security 5. Administrative skills – people relations, advisory board relations 6. Higher-order skills -learning, problem-solving
  23. Management skills
  24. Managerial skills • A manager’s job is complex and multidimensional. • It requires a range of skill to perform the duties and activities associated with it. • Regardless of the level of management, managers must possess and seek to further develop many critical skills. • A skill is an ability or proficiency in performing a particular task. • Management skills are learned and developed. • An effective manager must possess the following skills to perform his job well: 1. Technical skills 2. Human or Psychological Skill 3. Conceptual Skill 4. Diagnostic Skill: 5. Design Skill 6. Analytical Skill: 7. Decision Making Skill: 8.Digital Skill: 9.Interpersonal Skill: 10.Planning and Administration Skill: 11.Teamwork Skill: 12. Strategic Action Skill: 13. Global Awareness Skill: 14. Self-Management Skill:
  25. Managerial skills (contd…) 1. Technical Skill (practicability): – Technical skill is the ability to use the procedures, techniques and knowledge of a specialized field. – Eg: Engineers, accountants, doctors, and musicians all have technical skills in their respective fields. – Technical skill also includes analytical ability and the competent use of tools and work equipments to solve problems in that specific discipline. – Technical skills are especially important for first-line managers. These skills become less important than human and conceptual skills as managers move up the hierarchy.
  26. 2. Human or Psychological Skill:  Human skill is the ability to work with people by getting along with them.  It is the ability to motivate, lead and to communicate effectively with others.  It is also known as ‘people’, ‘interpersonal’ or ‘behavioural’ skill.  This skill is important as the managers spend considerable time interacting with people both inside and outside the firm. • Managers require such skill for the following specific reasons: – To get the best out of their people or To get the job done. – To communicate, motivate, lead and inspire enthusiasm and trust. – To coordinate and resolve conflicts. – To allow subordinates to express themselves. – To take care of the human side of the organization. – To face the challenges of globalization, workforce diversity and competition. – To keep people busy. – To retain good workers in the firm. – To improve overall organizational performance. • Human skills are equally important at all levels of management. A related aspect of human skill is political skill which is a distinct type of social skill that is important for managerial success..
  27. 3. Conceptual Skill:  Conceptual skills are most important at the top management levels. More specifically, conceptual skills refer to the ability: – To organize information and to judge relationships within a complex whole. – To think and to conceptualize about complex situations. – To see organization as a whole. – To understand the relationships among various sub-units. – To visualize how organization fits into its broader environment. – To recognize significant elements in a situation and to understand the relationships among the elements. – To understand how a change in one unit will impact the other units. – To coordinate and integrated the entire organization’s interests and activities. – To think in the abstract. • Conceptual skill is often called the ability to see the ‘big picture’. It means the ability to ‘think strategically’- to take the broad, long-term view. • The importance of conceptual skills increases as the manager is promoted higher in the organization.
  28. Management Skills and Functions • Differences among management levels in skill needed and the functions performed:
  29. Management Levels and Functional Areas INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTORS OFTEN REPORT ANYWHERE SOME ORGANIZATIONS “FLIP” THIS CHART UPSIDE DOWN
  30. What Is a Manager’s Responsibility? • Manager – The individual responsible for achieving organizational objectives through efficient and effective utilization of resources. Participative? • The Manager’s Resources – Human, financial, physical, and informational • Performance – Means of evaluating how effectively and efficiently managers use resources to achieve objectives.
  31. What Does It Take to Be a Successful Manager? • Management Qualities – Integrity, industriousness and the ability to get along with people • Management Skills – Technical Skills – Human and communication (Teaming) – Conceptual and decision-making skills • The Ghiselli Study(6 Traits of Manager Success – Inverse Order) 6) Initiative, 5)self-assurance,4) decisiveness, 3) intelligence, 2) need for occupational achievement, and 1) supervisory ability Copyright © 2018 GSBiradar ED&BC. All rights reserved.
  32. Types of Managers 1. General Managers Supervise the activities of several departments. 2. Functional Managers – Supervise the activities of related tasks. – Common functional areas: 1. Marketing/Sales/Product Development 2. Operations/Production/Services Delivery 3. Finance/Accounting 4. Human Resources/personnel management 5. Infrastructure (IT, Real Estate, Legal) 3. Project Managers – Coordinate employees across several functional departments to accomplish a specific task.
  33. Thank you
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