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The Intersection between One Health and WaSH

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GRF 2nd One Health Summit 2013: Presentation by Janet Hering, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science & Techology EAWAG

Publicada em: Tecnologia, Saúde e medicina
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The Intersection between One Health and WaSH

  1. 1. The Intersection between One Health and WaSH Prof. Dr. Janet Hering, Director GRF Davos One Health Summit Davos, Switzerland, 17-20 November 2013 Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
  2. 2. An idea from 400 BCE “And I wish to give an account of the other kinds of waters, namely, of such as are wholesome and such as are unwholesome, and what bad and what good effects may be derived from water; for water contributes much towards health.” (emphasis added) Hippocrates (trans. F. Adams) On Airs, Waters and Places http://classics.mit.edu//Hippocrates/airwatpl.html
  3. 3. One Health includes "the environment" sanitation
  4. 4. but not sanitation
  5. 5. Why should we care? http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/vsp/pub/norovirus/norovirus.htm http://www.cruiselawnews.com/2012/11/articles/norovirus/norovirus-outbreak-on-royal-caribbeans-voyager-of-the-seas/ http://www.cruiselawnews.com/2010/02/articles/norovirus/can-sick-cruise-ships-cause-norovirus-outbreaks-in-ports/
  6. 6. Poor sanitation contributes to disease transmission in feces in urine http://www.onhealth.com/schistosomiasis/article.htm http://oneinsevenpeople.co.uk/urogenital-schistosomiasis/
  7. 7. Global sanitation coverage 1990-2010 (projected to 2015) http://www.unicef.org/media/files/JMPreport2012.pdf
  8. 8. The open defecation problem http://www.unicef.org/media/files/JMPreport2012.pdf
  9. 9. No shortage of sanitation technologies http://www.eawag.ch/forschung/sandec/publikationen/compendium_e/index_EN
  10. 10. Technology is not enough – an enabling environment is also necessary government support social and cultural acceptance legal and regulatory framework implementation of technical solutions financing Two examples institutions skills and capacities 1. Promoting good hygiene 2. Converting waste to a resource Source: Sandec/Eawag
  11. 11. Example 1: Good hygiene practices http://water.worldbank.org/shw-resource-guide/sanitation-and-hygiene-why-they-matter
  12. 12. Haitian earthquake – cholera outbreak http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/figures/m5948a4f2.gif http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2010/01/15/article-1243540-07DCFE9B000005DC-496_964x659.jpg
  13. 13. Good hygiene is an important part of cholera prevention What activities are effective in promoting hand washing? http://www.unicef.org/cholera/
  14. 14. Promotional activities used in Haiti effect on handwashing faeces-related positive Radio spot  Radio program negative food-related positive negative   Announcement using megaphone Group discussion Hygiene training  Home visit Demonstration and material distribution   Information from neighbor   Focus group   Cinema show  Theater  Special hygiene day Quiz Stickers/posters/paintings   Community club Hygiene songs   Contzen and Mosler (2013) J. Public Health, DOI 10.1007/s10389-013-0577-4 activity
  15. 15. Behavioral factors and corresponding change techniques R A N A S http://www.eawag.ch/forschung/sandec/publikationen/general/dl/sandec_news_13.pdf
  16. 16. Example 2: Converting waste to a resource closing the loop "one-way" nutrients are lost the environment is polluted nutrients are recovered the environment is protected
  17. 17. Dry toilets in Durban, South Africa Urine discharged to soil • loss of nutrients • (eventual) pollution of groundwater Contact: Kai.Udert@eawag.ch
  18. 18. VUNA - Nutrient harvesting in South Africa Project elements • Reactor technology • Network management • Socio-economic opportunities Cooperation with eThekwini Water and Sanitation and the University of KwaZulu-Natal http://www.eawag.ch/forschung/eng/gruppen/vuna/index_EN
  19. 19. Alternative models for urine collection Institutionalized approach • utility collects urine from households Incentive approach • households are paid to drop-off urine tanks at a collection point
  20. 20. Pilot studies and optimization Institutionalized approach Pilot study (2012-2013) Incentive approach 1.6 ZAR per liter Urine collected 600-700 liter per round (45 households) Urine produced by household (3 liters per day) 2100 ZAR per household per year Optimized system (start 2014) 2 ZAR per liter 1100 ZAR per household per year (Preliminary results) Work in progress 0.8 ZAR per liter 590 ZAR per household per year Challenges – difficult terrain, rural area with long distances, limited acceptance of dry toilets, low usage and limited urine production Optimization potential – institutional: transportation frequency and distances, the collection procedures; incentive: number and density of collection points, monetary incentive per household VUNA Meeting September 2013: Elizabeth Tilley, Theresa Rossboth, Hope Joseph, Heiko Gebauer
  21. 21. Costs of alternative sanitation systems Dodane et al. (2012) Environ. Sci. Technol. 46: 3705-3711. http://www.susana.org/images/documents/07-cap-dev/b-conferences/12-FSM2/p2.1-fsm2-strande-eawag-switzerland.pdf
  22. 22. Little (SB) or no (FSM) valorisation of endproducts Dodane et al. (2012) Environ. Sci. Technol. 46: 3705-3711. Distribution of costs
  23. 23. Opportunity for valorisation through use as fuel http://www.eawag.ch/forschung/sandec/publikationen/general/dl/sandec_news_14.pdf
  24. 24. Pilot-scale project with industry http://www.susana.org/images/documents/07-cap-dev/b-conferences/12-FSM2/p2.1-fsm2-strande-eawag-switzerland.pdf
  25. 25. Concluding comments The importance of sanitation and hygiene as key components of One Health deserves greater recognition, promotion and study. Adequate sanitation and hygiene require good technologies and technological concepts but ALSO an enabling environment. Enabling and incentivizing sanitation and hygiene can profit from good business models and financing plans, including valorisation of end-products.
  26. 26. Thanks to…. Heiko Gebauer business management Department: ESS Hans-Joachim Mosler environmental psychology Department: ESS Linde Strande environmental engineering Department: Sandec Kai Udert process engineering Department: ENG
  27. 27. Visitors welcome! Dübendorf http://www.eawag.ch/index_EN http://www.eawag.ch/medien/publ/index_EN Kastanienbaum Contact: anke.poiger@eawag.ch