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FAMILY ASSESSMENT
Gayatri Ist M.Phil PSW
NIMHANS
Family history
• Socio demographic details of the family
Type of the family
Family size
Consanguinity
Family constellation
1. Father
2. Mother
3. Siblings
4. Spouse
5. Children
Age
Educational status
Occupation
Marital statu...
Genogram
• A genogram is a graphic representation of a family tree
that displays detailed data on relationships among
indi...
cont…
• The genogram maps out relationships and traits that may
otherwise be missed on a pedigree chart.
• Genograms were ...
Genogram format
A. Symbols: to describe basic family membership and
structure
B. Family interactions: least precise inform...
Signs and symbols
Genogram
Standard Symbols for Genogram
54 50
Death Date – to the right of the symbol
’1996 -
Male Female
- 2009
Birth Date – to the...
Marriage Living Together
m. 1970
LT : 1970
Marital Separation
m. 1970 s.1980
Divorce
m. 1970 s.1980 d.1985
Getting Back together after divorce
d 1970 remarr.1980
Lesbian Couple
Gay Couple
Children in Birth Order from Left to Right
Biological
Child
Foster
Child
Adopted
Child
Still Birth Miscarriage Abortion
Identical Twins PregnancyTwins
Symbols Denoting Interactional Patterns
Between People
Close
Enmeshed
Sexual Abuse
Physical Abuse
Current Family
Family interaction patterns
Husband and wife as marital partners
Father and mother as parents
Parent and children
Sibl...
Boundaries
• the function of boundary is to protect the
differentiation of the system and to allow
for the emergence of a ...
I. Clear / open – it is well defined enough to allow
subsystem members to carry out their functions without
undue interfer...
Sub-system
It is one element of the total system. It
comprises a single person or several persons
joined together by commo...
Alignment
Consists of coalitions and alliances
1.Coalition: when alignments stand in
opposition to another part of the sys...
Family development stage
The family life cycle (Duvall, 1977)
1. Married couples without children.
2. Child bearing famili...
5.  Families with teenagers – oldest child
13 to 20 years.
6. Families launching young adults – from
first child’s to last...
Leadership patterns 
1.      Power structure:
        Is it gender and/or authority specific
•        Acceptance
•        ...
Decision making process
Authoritarian: Firmness,  Self assurance,
Domination of others
Democratic : Responsiveness, Part...
Role structure and functioning 
The idea of role has been used to denote
prescription, description, evaluation and
action,...
3. Role expectation : refers to a concept held about
a behavior likely to be exhibited by a person in a
given situation.
4...
6. Role Diffusion: refers to more than one
person being allotted the same role.
7.Role Ambiguity occurs when no place
has ...
9. Role Explicit: role are those which are open
to observation, they are conscious and both
participants of the transactin...
12. Role Acceptance: It refers to duly
acknowledging and accepting the role allocated.
13. Instrumental role : this role i...
• Direct/indirect, verbal/non-verbal
• Equality of participation, Clarity of communication, Noise 
level
• Listening skill...
Channels of communication:“who speaks to
whom” among all family members.
Direct communication: the message is
spoken dire...
• Ambiguous communication: the nature of the
communication is flexible and words and phases can
have different meanings in...
Switchboard communication occurs
when communication is through third
parties with the avoidance of
confrontation and with ...
Reinforcement
Cohesion
• Commitment & Intimacy- family rituals, ‘we’
feeling, dependence-independence, activities
(social, emotional, pe...
• Emotional Bonding: Emotional separateness, limited
closeness, occasional family loyalty.
• Family involvement: Involveme...
Adaptive Patterns
• Conflict Resolution
• Problem solving ability
• Coping strategies
Flexibility:
– rigid (very low)
– st...
Social Support
• Primary (immediate family)
• Secondary (relatives, friends, neighbors)
• Tertiary (hospitals, agencies, r...
Other aspects
• Any legal issues (related to marriage,
property, etc.)
• Expectations from treatment (Patient’s and
family...
Thank You
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Family assessment

mostly used in psychiatric setting from social work perspective

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Family assessment

  1. 1. FAMILY ASSESSMENT Gayatri Ist M.Phil PSW NIMHANS
  2. 2. Family history • Socio demographic details of the family Type of the family Family size Consanguinity
  3. 3. Family constellation 1. Father 2. Mother 3. Siblings 4. Spouse 5. Children Age Educational status Occupation Marital status Income Heath status Any other significant family history
  4. 4. Genogram • A genogram is a graphic representation of a family tree that displays detailed data on relationships among individuals. • It goes beyond a traditional family tree by allowing the user to analyze hereditary patterns and psychological factors that punctuate relationships. • Genograms allow a therapist and his patient to quickly identify and understand various patterns in the patient's family history which may have had an influence on the patient's current state of mind.
  5. 5. cont… • The genogram maps out relationships and traits that may otherwise be missed on a pedigree chart. • Genograms were first developed and popularized in clinical settings by Monica McGoldrick and Randy Gerson through the publication of a book in 1985. • Genograms are now used by various groups of people in a variety of fields such as medicine, psychology, social work, genealogy, genetic research, and education.
  6. 6. Genogram format A. Symbols: to describe basic family membership and structure B. Family interactions: least precise information on the genogram but key indicator of relation ship patterns C. Medical history: only major or chronic illness and problems. D. Other family information
  7. 7. Signs and symbols
  8. 8. Genogram
  9. 9. Standard Symbols for Genogram 54 50 Death Date – to the right of the symbol ’1996 - Male Female - 2009 Birth Date – to the left of the symbol
  10. 10. Marriage Living Together m. 1970 LT : 1970
  11. 11. Marital Separation m. 1970 s.1980 Divorce m. 1970 s.1980 d.1985
  12. 12. Getting Back together after divorce d 1970 remarr.1980 Lesbian Couple Gay Couple
  13. 13. Children in Birth Order from Left to Right Biological Child Foster Child Adopted Child Still Birth Miscarriage Abortion
  14. 14. Identical Twins PregnancyTwins
  15. 15. Symbols Denoting Interactional Patterns Between People Close Enmeshed
  16. 16. Sexual Abuse Physical Abuse
  17. 17. Current Family
  18. 18. Family interaction patterns Husband and wife as marital partners Father and mother as parents Parent and children Siblings Significant others
  19. 19. Boundaries • the function of boundary is to protect the differentiation of the system and to allow for the emergence of a structure. • Boundaries are the rules defining who participates in the system and how i.e., the degree of access outsiders have to the system.
  20. 20. I. Clear / open – it is well defined enough to allow subsystem members to carry out their functions without undue interference but still allow contact between members of the subsystem and others. II. Diffuse – where distance decreases and boundaries are blurred. The extreme sensitivity of its individual members to each other and to their primary subsystem. III. Closed/rigid which prevent the individual the individual members from having predictable / meaningful contact with each other.
  21. 21. Sub-system It is one element of the total system. It comprises a single person or several persons joined together by common membership criteria e.g. age, sex or shared purpose. parent sub system sibling sub system parent child sub system grand parent and grand child sub system
  22. 22. Alignment Consists of coalitions and alliances 1.Coalition: when alignments stand in opposition to another part of the system. 2.Alliance: The joining together of two or more members. It popularly designates a positive affinity between two units of a system. Triangulation (cross-generational alliance) Detouring (attacking and supportive) Scapegoating (blaming)
  23. 23. Family development stage The family life cycle (Duvall, 1977) 1. Married couples without children. 2. Child bearing families – oldest child from birth to 30 months. 3. Families with pre school children – oldest child 21/2 to 6 years. 4. Families with school children – oldest child – 6 to 13 years.
  24. 24. 5.  Families with teenagers – oldest child 13 to 20 years. 6. Families launching young adults – from first child’s to last child’s leaving house. 7.  Middle aged parents – empty nest to retirement. 8. Aging family members – retirement to death of both spouses.
  25. 25. Leadership patterns  1.      Power structure:         Is it gender and/or authority specific •        Acceptance •        Nominal •        Functional
  26. 26. Decision making process Authoritarian: Firmness,  Self assurance, Domination of others Democratic : Responsiveness, Participation, Mutual interaction Chaotic : (Participants Implementation )  
  27. 27. Role structure and functioning  The idea of role has been used to denote prescription, description, evaluation and action, it has referred to covert and overt processes, to the behavior of the self and others. 1. Multiplicity role : refers to different roles being given to one family member. 2. Complementarily role : It exists when the reciprocal role of role partner is carried out automatically without difficulty and in the expected way.
  28. 28. 3. Role expectation : refers to a concept held about a behavior likely to be exhibited by a person in a given situation. 4. Role Performance: refers to how well a person performs a role relative to the expectation for the role. 5. Role Conflict : refers to a felt difficulty in fulfilling role obligations. Any situation in which the incumbent of focal position perceives that he is confronted within compatible expectations.
  29. 29. 6. Role Diffusion: refers to more than one person being allotted the same role. 7.Role Ambiguity occurs when no place has been made in the social system, no formal recognition given that particular status exists. 8.Role prescription refers to behavior which is socially prescribed and defined on a normative basis.
  30. 30. 9. Role Explicit: role are those which are open to observation, they are conscious and both participants of the transacting system are aware of them. 10. Role Implicit : roles are those roles which the person is not aware of and are usually unconscious. 11. Role accountability :It refers to the process of holding members accountable for the functions that have been allocated to them.
  31. 31. 12. Role Acceptance: It refers to duly acknowledging and accepting the role allocated. 13. Instrumental role : this role is final court of appeals, final judge and execution of punishment, discipline and control over the children of the family. 14. Expressive role : refers to the role of the mediator, conciliator of the family, the person who smoothes over disputes, resolves hostilities in the family.
  32. 32. • Direct/indirect, verbal/non-verbal • Equality of participation, Clarity of communication, Noise  level • Listening skills, speaking skills, self-disclosure, clarity,  continuity tracking, and respect and regard. • Affective communication:  – Welfare feelings (love, joy) – Emergency feelings (fear, anger Communication
  33. 33. Channels of communication:“who speaks to whom” among all family members. Direct communication: the message is spoken directly to the person for whom it is intended. Indirect communication: when the messages are unclear which is received differently.
  34. 34. • Ambiguous communication: the nature of the communication is flexible and words and phases can have different meanings in different context • Paradoxical communication :A paradox is a special kind of contradiction, where the incompatible statements exist on different “logical levels.” That is, one of the statements is part of the context of the other statement. These are significantly more difficult to decode and comment on. The two logical levels in human communication are usually verbal and non- verbal behavior, where the non-verbal behavior is the context for the verbal.
  35. 35. Switchboard communication occurs when communication is through third parties with the avoidance of confrontation and with the risk that the message will be distorted enroot
  36. 36. Reinforcement
  37. 37. Cohesion • Commitment & Intimacy- family rituals, ‘we’ feeling, dependence-independence, activities (social, emotional, personal). • Cohesion often is expressed in terms of commitment and the degree of intimacy in the interpersonal dimension. • Enmeshed –refers to families in which there is extreme sensitivity among the individual members to each other and to their primary subsystem.
  38. 38. • Emotional Bonding: Emotional separateness, limited closeness, occasional family loyalty. • Family involvement: Involvement acceptable, personal distance preferred, some affective responsiveness. • Marital relationship: Emotional separateness, some closeness. • Internal boundaries: More separateness than togetherness. • Parent child relationship: Clear generational boundaries, some parent child closeness.
  39. 39. Adaptive Patterns • Conflict Resolution • Problem solving ability • Coping strategies Flexibility: – rigid (very low) – structured (low to moderate) – flexible (moderate to high) – chaotic (very high)
  40. 40. Social Support • Primary (immediate family) • Secondary (relatives, friends, neighbors) • Tertiary (hospitals, agencies, religious) – Availability – Utilization
  41. 41. Other aspects • Any legal issues (related to marriage, property, etc.) • Expectations from treatment (Patient’s and family members’ expectations)
  42. 42. Thank You

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