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ROLE OF AGROFORESTRY IN MITIGATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE

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ROLE OF AGROFORESTRY IN MITIGATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE

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Climate change and climatic variability's are real and their impacts have already been felt in agriculture.
The tree components in agroforestry system can be significant sinks of atmospheric carbon and it will reduce the stress and dependence on natural forest.

Climate change and climatic variability's are real and their impacts have already been felt in agriculture.
The tree components in agroforestry system can be significant sinks of atmospheric carbon and it will reduce the stress and dependence on natural forest.

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ROLE OF AGROFORESTRY IN MITIGATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE

  1. 1. ROLE OF AGROFORESTRY IN MITIGATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADVISOR: Dr.RAJESH KUMAR SINGH SEMINAR INCHARGE: Dr.SAVITA DEWANGAN SUBMITTED BY: GANDLA MANTHESH Id NO:20430AGF005 M.Sc. (Ag.) Agroforestry Course Seminar On BANARAS HINDU UNIVERSITY INSTITUE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
  2. 2. CONTENT CLIMATE CHANGE :CAUSES AND IMPACT INTRODUCTION STRATEGIES AGROFORESTRY AGROFORESTRY MODELS CASE STUDY CONCLUSION
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  Climate change refers to significant changes in average weather parameters — such as temperature, wind and rain experienced in a region over a long period of time.  According to the IPCC report, (2014) changes in climate are unequivocal and anthropogenic green house gases are the major drivers of this change. The emission of greenhouse gases has become a matter of great concern because of the future projection of the global warming and related effects on biological life. Human activities accelerating the de-glaciation process.
  4. 4. Climate Change : causes and impacts Deforestation Pollution Threatened Biodiversity Drought Flood Land Degradation Hunger Increasing Population Malnutrition
  5. 5. Impact of climate change in agriculture  Productivity of most cereals would decrease due to increase in temperature, CO and decrease in water availability.  A projected loss of 10-40% in crop production by 21st Century  increase in 10c temperature may reduce yields of major food crops by 3-7%.  Length of growing period in rainfed areas is likely to reduce, especially in peninsular regions. NRCA, (2012)
  6. 6. Contribution of greenhouse gases to global warming • Greenhouse gases constitute CO2, CH4, NO2, HFCs, PFCs and SF6. • CO2 is the most important GHS constitute 60% of total emission. • Deforestation or depletion of land resources are adding much more of CO2 in atmosphere. HFC= Hydroflorocarbon PFC= Perfluorocarbon SF6 = Sulphur hexafloride
  7. 7. 25% 21% 24% 14% 6% 10% GLOBAL GREEN HOUSE GAS EMISSION BY ECONOMIC SECTOR ELECTRICITY&HEAT PRODUCTION INDUSTRY AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY &LAND USE TRANSPORTATION BUILDINGS OTHER ENERGY Source: IPCC,2014
  8. 8. F=Florinated gases RELATIVE CUNTRIBUTION 0F MAJOR GREENHOUSE TO GLOBAL WARMING Carbon dioxide Methane Florinated gases Nitrous oxide C02 60% CH4 20% F-gases 14% N2O 6% sources: WRI, 2021; FAO, 2020
  9. 9. ANNUAL CARBON EMISSION Source: Global carbon project
  10. 10. Carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change  Technically and economically feasible strategies are needed to mitigate the consequences of increased atmospheric CO2. This increase in atmospheric CO2 — from about 280 to more than 380 parts per million (ppm) over the last few decades is causing measurable global warming. Scientific information is needed to develop ways to reduce human-caused CO2 emissions and to remove CO2 from the atmosphere.
  11. 11. Strategies Reduce fossil fuel consumption Identify sinks and sequestration rate Improve efficiency Renewable energy sources Terrestrial Aquatic Soils Plants Geologic Strategies to Reduce Atmospheric CO2
  12. 12. Land use SOC store Mitigation Potential (up to 30 cm soil depth) Barren land 20.0 t / ha 1.00% Pasture 40.0 t / ha 2.00% Agriculture 66.0 t / ha 3.30% Plantations 80.5 t / ha 4.02% Agro-forestry 83.6 t / ha 4.18% Forest 120.0 t / ha 6.00% GHG Mitigation potential of different lands with barren land as base. SOC = Soil organic carbon Source: Jha et al., 2003
  13. 13. Forestry Agriculture
  14. 14. AGROFORESTRY According to Nair(1979) defines agroforestry as a land use system that integrates trees, crops and animals in way that is scientifically sound, ecologically desirabale, practically feasible, and socially acceptable to the farmers.
  15. 15. WHY & HOW  The tree components in agroforestry systems can be significant sinks of atmospheric carbon.  Agroforestry provide secondary environmental benefits such as food security, increasing farm income, maintaining above ground and below ground biodiversity.  It will reduce the stress and dependence on natural forest.  Studies shown that 43% of all agricultural land has at least 10% of the total tree cover. (IPCC,2014)  Agroforestry has a wide scope in mitigation of climate change, this was internationally supported in the 17th meeting by the conference of parties (COP).
  16. 16. CARBON SEQUESTRATION OPTION FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION Agroforestry system recognized as a carbon sequestration strategy because of its applicability in agricultural lands as well as in reforestation programs. Agroforestry offers the highest potential for carbon sequestration Direct role: Carbon sequestration rates ranging from 1.5 to 3.5 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 in agroforestry systems • Indirect role: Agroforestry has also some indirect effects on C sequestration since it helps to reduce pressure on natural forests. . . Nair et al., 2011
  17. 17. AREA UNDER AGROFORESTRY IN INDIA Traditional AFS = 8.52 Mha Shifting cultivation = 2.28 Mha Home gardens = 2.42 Mha Scattered trees on field bunds, etc. = 4.45 Mha •Area brought under AFS in past 20 yr = 16.8 Mha •Planning Commission’s estimate of additional area that could be brought under AFS = 28.0 Mha Total (potential) area under AFS = 53.32 Mha = 17.5 % of total geographical area. Dagar et al., 2014
  18. 18. Traditional agroforestry systems AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS NORTHEAST INDIA NORTHWEST INDIA WESTERN GHATS SOUTHERN INDIA in india SHIFTING CULTIVATION (JHUM) AGRI-SILVICULTURE AGRI-SILVICULTURE SILVI-PASTORAL HOME GARDENS AGRI-SILVICULTURE AGRI-HORTICULTURE ENERGY PLANTATIONS Murthy et al., 2013
  19. 19. AGROFORESTRY MODELS Agri-silviculture model Silvopastoral model Agrisilvipastoral model Alley-cropping (hedgerow intercropping)
  20. 20. CASE STUDY: SILVIPASTORAL SYSTEM Comparative studies conducted by NRCAF on biomass production from natural grassland.  Woody species as Albizia amara and Leucaena leucocephala with Chrysopogon fulvus as grass and Salvia scabra as legume. Revealed that rate of biomass carbon stored in this system was 6.72 t c/ha/yr, two times more than 3.14 t c/ha/yr from natural grassland. Rohith et al.,2019
  21. 21. Total above ground biomass (t/ha) in teak plantations as influenced by agro climatic zones and age gradations Chiranjeeva reddy et al.
  22. 22. Carbon storage capacity as per agroforestry model in different regions of India Agroforestry model Carbon storage capacity Region Author Silvopastoral system (5 years) 9.5–19.7 t C/ha Semiarid region Rai et al., (2001) Silvopastoral system (aged 6 years) 1.5–18.5 t C/ha Northwestern India Karur et al., (2002) Block plantation (aged 6 years) 24.1–31.1 t C/ha Central India Swamy et al., (2003) Agrisilviculture system (aged 8 years) 4.7–13.0 t C/ha Arid region Singh (2005) Agrisilviculture system (aged 11 years) 26.0 t C/ha Semiarid region NRCAF (2005) Eucalyptus bund plantation 59,361 t Punjab (Rupnagar district) Gera et al., (2006) Poplar block plantation 330,510 t Populus deltoides ‘G-48’ + wheat 18.53 t C/ha Tarai region of central Himalaya Yadava (2010) P. deltoides + wheat boundary plantation 4.66 t C/ha Silvopasture 31.71 t C/ha Himachal Pradesh Verma et al., Natural grassland 19.2 t C/ha Agrihorti silviculture 18.81 t C/ha Hortipastoral 17.16 t C/ha Agrisilviculture 13.37 t C/ha (AICRPAF. 2006)
  23. 23. Climate change and climatic variability's are real and their impacts have already been felt in agriculture. The tree components in agroforestry system can be significant sinks of atmospheric carbon and it will reduce the stress and dependence on natural forest. CONCLUSION
  24. 24. THANK YOU

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