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Act With Her Ethiopia: Regional findings from Amhara.pptx

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Act With Her Ethiopia: Regional findings from Amhara.pptx

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Findings from a GAGE study on the Act With Her intervention programme's outcomes for adolescent girls.

Findings from a GAGE study on the Act With Her intervention programme's outcomes for adolescent girls.


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Act With Her Ethiopia: Regional findings from Amhara.pptx

  1. 1. April 2021 Regional findings from Amhara Primary school students in Ebenat, Ethiopia © Nathalie Bertrams / GAGE 2020 Act With Her Ethiopia:
  2. 2. Presentation outline 1 • Introduction: GAGE, Act with Her, Amhara 2 • Findings 3 • Questions and next steps
  3. 3. Group of children in Afar, Ethiopia © Nathalie Bertrams / GAGE 2019 Introduction Student during a break, Amhara, Ethiopia© Nathalie Bertrams / GAGE 2020
  4. 4. GAGE Overview
  5. 5. Adolescent girl with her grandmother © Nathalie Bertrams GAGE 2020 Act with Her – Intervention arms
  6. 6. Desired outcomes of AWH for girls We hope to see improvements in: • Education • Bodily integrity • Physical health, nutrition and SRH • Psychosocial wellbeing • Voice and agency • Economic empowerment • Cross-cutting: attitudes, knowledge, support systems
  7. 7. Other desired AWH outcomes Desired outcomes for adolescent boys: • Reduced peer violence (perpetration and victimization) • Improved psychosocial wellbeing • Cross-cutting: attitudes, knowledge, support systems Desired outcomes for female caregivers: • Improved aspirations for adolescents • Improved support for adolescent education, nutrition, psychosocial wellbeing • Improved attitudes
  8. 8. Amhara: research sample Quantitative sample: • 74 kebeles • 1,113 girls • 819 boys Qualitative sample: • 248 adolescents • 208 parents • 30 mentors/supervisors • 77 government officials Primary school students, Ebenat, Ethiopia © Nathalie Bertrams GAGE 2020
  9. 9. Amhara: context snapshot Education statistics: • Net enrolment in grades 4-8 is 77% for girls and 72% for boys (MoE, 2020) • Net enrolment in grades 9-10 is 31% for girls and 25% for boys (ibid.) • Gender Parity at secondary level is 1.05— compared to .87 nationally Rising levels of unrest at midline —more violence and sexual violence in study communities. Gender statistics: • Median age of marriage for women is 16.2—compared to 17.5 nationally (2016 DHS) • Marriages are usually arranged • Prevalence of FGM for girls 10-14 is 39% compared to 28% nationally • Usually Type 1 in infancy • Teenage motherhood: 8.3% of girls 15-19 have begun childbearing, compared to 12.5% nationally • Current use of contraception among women is 47%%--compared to 36% nationally
  10. 10. Amhara: GAGE baseline snapshot Overall HH size 5.653 HH head literate 0.375 HH currently receives PSNP benefits 0.330 Girls Boys Age 10.968 10.981 Enrolled in school during most recent session 0.975 0.899 Reported having control over money in past 12 months 0.092 0.082 Has savings 0.039 0.039 Has not experienced or witnessed HH violence in last 12 months 0.343 0.277
  11. 11. Findings Adolescent girls fetching water, Amhara, Ethiopia© Nathalie Bertrams / GAGE 2020
  12. 12. Positive effects on girls’ knowledge ‘If a girl is raped, they told us that she has to get an examination at the clinic.’ (13-year-old girl) ‘We think it will be important for girls to be given these lessons on a more permanent basis’. (mother)
  13. 13. Girls in all arms of AWH saw approximately a 30% increase in knowledge about menstruation. ‘I would be ashamed when I had my menstruation and become absent from school. But after I joined Pathfinder, I understand that menstruation is nature’s gift and I don’t get ashamed.’ (13-year-old girl) Normalisation of menstruation—for girls and boys ‘When they are on their period, we shouldn’t make them feel embarrassed. The company provide pads for them and there will be no problem if they use that. We also have to let them know that it is a blessing.’ (12-year-old boy) Teacher showing the sanitary kit, Ethiopia © Nathalie Bertrams / GAGE 2020
  14. 14. Positive effects on girls’ voice ‘I can speak up in class when I have a comment or question or if I see something wrong in school or in the neighbourhood, I feel I can tell someone and they will listen and can ask adults for help.’ (12-year-old girl) ‘Before it was hard to stay peacefully with my friends. …I started to play and live peacefully with friends.’ (13-year-old girl) ‘They make us to stand up and talk to the group.’ (14-year-old girl)
  15. 15. Positive impacts on girls’ economic empowerment ‘My child began saving money… They learn in the Act With Her training by mentors… She [the daughter] asked me for money and I gave her money – for instance, I gave her 10 birr when she opened a bank account.’ (mother) • 11% of girls in control communities report control over money • Compared to 24% in Arm 1 and 26% in Arms 2 and 3 Girls report increased control over money • In Arms 2 and 3, girls are 22% more likely to have savings • Arm 3 (systems strengthening) has larger impacts than Arm 2 Girls report increased savings
  16. 16. Positive impacts on boys  Some boys are doing more household chores.  Boys are less likely to report having perpetrated peer violence in the last year.  Boys are more likely to believe that boys should be able to show feelings. ‘Our sons are now willing to assist their sisters.’ (mother)
  17. 17. Positive impacts on parents  Some fathers report improved attitudes on child marriage and GBV— and suggested that that programming for boys is a key driver. ‘I have two daughters who are now in school…Though it is our culture, I have a firm stand so as not to marry my daughters before completing their education.’ (father) ‘As a result of the training, husbands are no longer punishing their wives, which is mainly due to the advice that we got from our sons [participating in the programme].’ (father)  Some mothers report handing out chores more equitably. ‘We are now sharing household jobs to our sons and daughters without any gender bias.’ (mother)
  18. 18. Positive impacts on mentors  Mentors are learning:  about reproductive biology and gender inequality  soft skills including communication and perseverance  hard skills such as money management ‘The change is not only for the trainee girls but also for myself… When I was in school and also before I joined Act With Her, I was so shy; I was not even sharing ideas with others. However, after I joined this programme I began to communicate with everyone without fear and shyness.’ (female mentor)  Many are also just pleased to be helping children learn. ‘What makes me happier is children laughing and getting happier due to the training. They never want to go home even after we complete the time of our sessions. Always I remember children’s happiness during the training.’ (female mentor)
  19. 19. Mixed effects on girls’ gender attitudes Dancing adolescents, Amhara © Nathalie Bertrams GAGE 2020  No change—or even negative change-- on another scale. Boys should be able to show feelings. Girls should be humble.  Improvements on one scale of gender- equitable attitudes—driven by Arm 3. Girls and boys should share work equally It is OK to tease a boy who acts like a girl (or a girl who acts like a boy)  No change on gendered attitudes towards education.
  20. 20. Girl-parent communication: some positives but… ‘I think the problem was that we weren’t appreciative enough when it comes to our mothers… We weren’t able to show affection for our mothers.’ ‘If they’re planning to make me skip school so that I’ll do something for them, I’ll tell them whatever it is they want me to do, I’ll get it done after school.’ ‘Since I joined this [AWH] programme, I understand that child marriage is a harmful tradition. Therefore, I would tell them that I will only marry once I complete my education and once I am self- sufficient.’ (12-year-old girl)
  21. 21. Also some negative aspects to changes in girl-parent communication • ‘ I used to say no and be rebellious… But now… I will always say yes.’ • ‘Whenever they order us something we used to disobey them but now that we took the lessons we don’t do that anymore.’ Care is needed to make sure girls’ communication is improving in the ‘right way’ • Women are more proactively targeted • Fathers are too busy with farm work • The girl-focused framing limits fathers’ interest • Stepped up programming for boys might help Fathers have only limited engagement with AWH ‘Parents asked us to train their sons every Sunday and Saturday, because they fear that their sons may go to nightclubs and engage in evil acts like drinking alcohol, spending in bad places.’ (male mentor)
  22. 22. Mixed effects on girls’ education and mobility ‘When the exam period gets closer, we woke up early morning and perform our major household tasks.’ (12-year-old girl) Likely because of the ceiling effect there were no quantitative effects on girls’ educational aspirations or enrolment. Girls emphasized that they had learned how to juggle short-term demands on their time so they could study more. In Arm 1, girls were 13 % more likely to have recently gone to the market—possible because of field trips. ‘We visited a local health post together with our facilitators. We discussed with the health extension worker of the health post about the service provision, constraints and on how she can help girls and women to get the services [sexual and reproductive health services]’. (13-year-old girl)
  23. 23. Non-effects on boys  Participant boys were no more likely to know:  How often girls have periods  That early pregnancy is bad for health  That boys are not smarter than girls  That FGM/C has risks ‘They told us to help our mothers… I just sit by the side of the fire… I haven’t helped… There are girls.’ (13-year-old boy)  Many boys openly admitted that they were no more likely to help their sisters and mothers do housework.
  24. 24. Some negative effects on boys Participant boys had LESS equitable beliefs on some gender attitudes. Boys playing table football, Amhara © Nathalie Bertrams GAGE 2020
  25. 25. Mixed effects of the asset transfer ‘Why they made a gap between females and the males? We were feeling very angry. Everybody feels angry when they give the solar lamps to the girls only.’ (12-year-old boy) • Strong positive impacts on girls’ voice, agency and knowledge. • Economic empowerment impacts are especially large. • Female caregiver more likely to supervise girls’ homework. BUT • No still impacts on gender equitable attitudes. • Mothers are actually less likely to hold equitable attitudes in this arm. • Engendered hostility in boys—who in South Gondar are less likely to be in school than girls.
  26. 26. Conclusions and recommendations For girls: 1 More—and more in-depth—sessions to improve learning. 2 Include field trips in all arms. 3 Re-think asset transfers and provide to all—or more clearly explain reasoning. 4 More focussed attention on sexual violence—teach girls how to protect themselves and their peers and how to report. 1 Provide boys with the same number of sessions as girls to improve learning. 2 Take account of boys’ gendered needs (e.g. peer pressure to drink or gamble) 3 Encourage boys to speak out against SGBV. For boys:
  27. 27. Conclusions and recommendations For parents: For communities: 1 Target mothers with lessons on parent-child communication that do not emphasise simple obedience. 2 Proactively engage fathers. 3 Provide joint sessions for mothers and fathers to help them learn how to support their children through adolescence. 1 Engage clan and religious leaders to tackle cultural practices and gender norms. 2 Work with kebele leaders and service providers to tackle SGBV and child marriage and FGM/C. 3 Programme implementers should support improved access to more remote communities (e.g. though investing in transportation).
  28. 28. For mentors: Conclusions and recommendations 1 Programme goals should include empowering mentors. 2 Mentors need mentorship. 3 Encourage mentors to be champions of change even after the programme ends.
  29. 29. Questions and discussion Download the report: Transforming gender norms through life-skills programming in rural Ethiopia: short-term impacts and emerging lessons for adaptive programming (Amhara case study) | GAGE (odi.org)
  30. 30. Contact Us WEBSITE www.gage.odi.org TWITTER @GAGE_programme FACEBOOK GenderandAdolescence About GAGE:  Gender and Adolescence: Global Evidence (GAGE) is a nine-year (2015-2024) mixed- methods longitudinal research programme focused on what works to support adolescent girls’ and boys’ capabilities in the second decade of life and beyond.  We are following the lives of 20,000 adolescents in six focal countries in Africa, Asia and the Middle East.

Notas do Editor

  • As a quick recap—

    Recall that GAGE is working is three regions of Ethiopia: Afar, Amhara and Oromia.

    And that the broader research programme is following approximately 7,500 adolescents as they grow up and transition into adulthood.

    We are interested in a wide range of outcome—including education, health, bodily integrity, psychosocial wellbeing, voice and agency and economic empowerment.

  • Act with Her is a life skills programme that aims improve adolescent girls’ lives.

    The broader programme has four arms:

    All include weekly sessions for young adolescent girls that are run by young adult mentors.

    Session topics include a wide range of puberty and menstruation, health, nutrition, education, safety, gender, communication, and economic empowerment themes.

    2) Some also include session for boys and parents.

    3) Some also include sessions aimed at shifting community norms and strengthening local systems.

    4) The last arm also includes an asset transfer for girls.

    There is also a control arm.

    It is worth noting that programming was still ongoing when the midline data was collected. In Amhara, all adolescent and parents’ groups were completed and the asset transfer had been distributed. The community-level work, however, was only about 25% complete.

  • We look at overall indices (pre-specified) that basically answer the question: Did this intervention find an impact on this domain.
    Underlying each of these indices are a lot of specific outcomes.
    Will show how this works for Amhara only to give a better idea of the
  • At baseline, we found that:

    Adolescents were living in households that included 5.6 people

    38% of HH heads were literate

    33% of households were receiving PSNP

    98% of girls but only 90% of boys were enrolled in school

    Less then 10% of girls and boys had controlled any money in the last year

    Less than 4% had any savings

    About 2/3 of adolescents lived in HHs where they had experienced or witnessed violence over the last year.
  • Our research found mixed effects of AWH on girls and boys and their parents.

    Some were positives.

    Some were null.

    A few were even negative.

    We will start with the positives.
  • Girls are more likely to be able to speak up in class

    19% more likely in Arm 1 (Her Spaces)

    13% more likely in Arms 2 and 3

    Girls —esp in Arms 2 and 3--are also more comfortable talking to their peers.

    Girls are more willing to speak out when they see someone being hurt.

    And they are 9% more likely to be comfortable asking a friend for advice

  • Girls in AWH are 11% more likely to feel comfortable asking their parents for their opinion.

    They also report that they are better able to negotiate for study time.

    And some report that they will be able to refuse child marriage.

    Several girls reported that they are emotionally closer to their mothers—which has significant potential to improve girls’ overall wellbeing.

  • Many girls reported that closer mother-daughter relationships and improved communication were effectively one way—and that what was making communication “better” was that girls were obeying more.