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Sports Science Congress at Al-Ahli Saudi

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- Pre-cooling strategies
- Functional strength
- Organization of a sports science department
- Fatigue management

Publicada em: Esportes
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Sports Science Congress at Al-Ahli Saudi

  2. 2. Program Time Subject Who 10.00 – 10.45 Effect of heat and cooling strategies on performance / Off-season intervention to reduce injuries Round-a-table 11.00 – 11.45 Functional strength training Lieven De Veirman 12.00 – 13.00 Lunch 13.00 – 13.30 Organization of Sports Science department in de EPL Jelle Van Camp 13.30 – 14.00 SAQ – Quo vadis Renaldo Landburg 14.10 – 15.30 Fatigue Management Jan Van Winckel
  4. 4. Heat  In energy production, the largest portion of the chemical energy released is converted into heat. This heat has to be emitted through physical transfer, although the most significant part is discharged through perspiration.  Although a higher ambient temperature is a hindrance because of the reduced physical transfer possibilities, the bigger concern is an excessively high level of humidity, because this makes sweating much more difficult.
  5. 5. Heat and Precooling  The use of pre-cooling strategies prior to exercise significantly delays the occurrence of fatigue and improves performance (Duffield et al., 2010; Quod et al., 2008; Castle et al., 2006).  The logic for this is that pre-cooling will extend the time before reaching the critical core temperature (Price et al., 2009). Although evidence for the transfer of these findings to a valid soccer environment is limited. Precooling may reduce physiological and perceptual loads to improve performance for soccer training and competition in hot environmental conditions (Duffield et al., 2013).
  6. 6. Heat and Precooling  Pre-cooling effects are largely lost during the first half. Direct skin cooling with wet/cold towels (Marsh et al., 1999) or holding the hands in cold water during the break is a cheap method for keeping the body temperature as low as possible (Goosey-Tolfrey, 2008).  Drinking ice-slushies and water can also improve performance in very warm environments (Ross et al., 2011). Duffield et al. (2013) investigated the effects of field-based pre-cooling strategies (icevests, cold towels, and 350 mL ice-slushie drinks) for professional soccer players during training and competition in the heat. The researchers presented equivocal findings for the effects of precooling for professional soccer players during competitive training and matches in the heat.  However, performance and thermoregulatory response trends showed the same positive similarities to previous laboratory evidence.
  7. 7. Aim Football in the Middle East is often played in hot and humid conditions. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of heat and cooling strategies on football specific intermittent endurance capacity.
  8. 8. Methods Twenty five well-trained adolescent (age= 15±1 yr) male football players (Al-Ahli Saudi FC) performed the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 Test (Yo-Yo IR2) on two separate occasions separated by 7 days in a randomized crossover design. The first test (T1) was completed in 32.0 °C and 43% humidity while the second one (T2) was executed in 26.0 °C and 17% humidity. The pre-cooling intervention during T2 involved 300 mL ice-slushie drink administration pre and post warm up. Nude mass pre- and post-test and distance covered, heart rate exercise (HRex) and heart rate recovery (HRR) during the Yo-Yo IR2 test were recorded.
  9. 9. Results test 1 (7 dec) Distance Results test 2a (14 dec) Distance Results test 1 (7 dec) Weight loss Results test 2a (14 dec) Weight loss 0.78 0.83 0.73 0.98 0.58 0.83 0.63 0.83 0.73 0.88 0.83 0.83 1.61 0.851538462 0.25039456 0.20 0.50 0.50 0.80 0.50 0.50 0.35 0.50 0.50 -0.30 0.70 0.55 1.30 0.507692308 0.356397574 0.93 0.88 0.88 0.78 0.83 0.93 1.38 0.53 0.88 0.88 1.43 0.98 0.9425 0.244135767 0.70 0.60 0.55 0.40 0.55 0.60 0.75 0.35 0.55 0.50 0.90 0.70 0.595833333 0.15144506 Group 1 (Slushie) Player Player Player Player Player Player Player Player Player Player Player Player Player Average Standard Deviation 880 920 1000 1120 1200 1360 880 920 1200 1880 680 960 1680 1129.230769 340.2563136 1000 1480 1800 1720 1280 1520 920 1160 1600 2040 1520 1320 1960 1486.153846 345.5801514 Group 2 (Control) Player Player Player Player Player Player Player Player Player Player Player Player Average Standard Deviation 880 960 960 1040 1120 1320 1520 800 1080 1240 1400 1480 1150 239.4691098 1240 1720 1640 1160 1320 1240 1200 920 1160 1440 1440 1600 1340 234.1716542
  10. 10. Results Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine differences between the intervention group (IG) and the control group (CG). No differences were found between both groups for any of the variables measured. A Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, with Bonferroni correction was used to determine differences between the two environmental conditions (T1 and T2) for both groups. Within group differences were found between T1 and T2 for nude mass (less sweat loss) (p IG =0,001; p CG =0,002). However HRex and distance covered during the Yo-Yo IR2 test differed for the intervention group but not for the control group. HRex was lower (p=0,001) and the covered distance during the Yo-YoIR2 test was higher (p=0,001) for the intervention group (T1= 1129 ±340m; T2= 1486±346m). Effect size was calculated (Cohen's d) to determine the magnitude of difference of the ice slushie intervention on football specific performance. A small to moderate (d = 0.386) effect was found.
  11. 11. Conclusions: These results show that football specific intermittent endurance performance was impaired during hot and humid conditions. These negative effects can be counteracted by ice slushie administration although some practical issues were experienced such as “brain freeze” (spheno palatine gangleoneuralgia), stomach ache and time needed to consume an ice slushie.
  12. 12. Discussion  How would you prepare your team to play and perform in heat?
  15. 15. The core in soccer  Functional anatomy of the core  Principles of core functioning in soccer  Chain reaction  Three dimensional  Dynamic (load-unload)  Gravity and Ground Reaction Forces  Unconscious  Task driven  The core in training  Gym and field examples
  16. 16. Functional anatomy of the core
  17. 17. Functional anatomy of the core  Recturs abdominis  Mainly sagittal plane  Internal/External obliques  Frontal and transverse plane  Transversus abdominis  Transverse direction  Layers collectively give strength and movement in all three planes
  18. 18. Rectus Abdominis Fascial bands “Six pack” Xiphoid and ribs 5-7 Linea alba Pelvic base
  19. 19. Internal obliques Ribs 9-12 Iliac crest and inguinal ligament
  20. 20. External obliques Ribs 4-12 Iliac crest
  21. 21. Transversus abdominis Ribs 6-12 Iliac crest and Thoraco-lumbar fascia
  22. 22. Thoracolumbar fascia
  23. 23. Functional anatomy of the core  Origins and insertions explain need for movement  Lengthening rectus abdominis in SP
  24. 24. Functional anatomy of the core  Origins and insertions explain need for movement   Lengthening rectus abdominis in SP Shortening/lengthening obliques in FP
  25. 25. Functional anatomy of the core  Origins and insertions explain need for movement    Lengthening rectus abdominis in SP Shortening/lengthening obliques in FP Lengthening/shortening transversus abdominis in TP
  26. 26. The core on the field Principles
  27. 27. Soccer kick / Throwing / Saving
  28. 28. The core is part of a chain  Bones, muscles,      ligaments,… All connected One influences the other Focus on relationship between core and other muscles Concentric? Eccentric? Train isolated on the ground or…?
  29. 29. The core‟s neighbors
  30. 30. The core functions in three dimensions  Three planes of motion  SP, FP, TP  Machines?  When do injuries occur?  3D muscles  3D joints  Train in 3D
  31. 31. Train the core in 3D
  32. 32. The core is very dynamic  Body is made to move  Go through neutral  Not staying in  Load to unload  Eccentric to concentric  Transformational zones - injuries
  33. 33. Load to unload the core
  34. 34. Train in transformational zones
  35. 35. The core is influenced by Gravity and Ground Reaction Forces  Caused by gravity  Hip flexion standing/lying down
  36. 36. The core is influenced by Gravity and Ground Reaction Forces  Caused by gravity  Hip flexion standing/lying down
  37. 37. The core is influenced by Gravity and Ground Reaction Forces  Caused by gravity  Hip flexion standing/lying down
  38. 38. The core is influenced by Gravity and Ground Reaction Forces  Caused by gravity  Hip flexion standing/lying down  Result of GRF  When the foot hits the ground everything changes
  39. 39. Use GRF to train the core
  40. 40. The core function unconsciously  Think about tasks     (passing, throwing, kicking) Brain recognizes (bone) movements Muscles react to movements Path of least resistance Ask players to consciously contract there abdominals?
  41. 41. Abs are driven by tasks  Looking at the ball  Swinging arms for throw  Reaching to catch the ball  Kicking the ball
  42. 42. Think about the ball
  43. 43. Abdominals in the gym – Design movements
  44. 44. Wrong? Right? Think movements  Important questions:  How can isolated and stabilized movements improve dynamic function in soccer?  How does isolated and stabilized exercise deal with dynamic and bottom up or top down influences in soccer?  How does concentric sagittal plane dominant machine exercises contribute to soccer?
  45. 45. Do we need planking?
  46. 46. Plank and move
  47. 47. The core – gym and field examples
  48. 48. Any questions about my core?
  49. 49. Al-Ahli Saudi FC Organization of the Sports Science Department in English Football Academies Jelle Van Camp 23-02-2014
  50. 50. Organization of the Sports Science Department in English Football Academies  Organization  Role of Sports Science Department (SSC)  Multidisciplinary Approach (MD)
  51. 51. EPPP  EPPP = Elite Player Performance Plan More (English) homegrown players in the EPL  CATEGORISATION CAT I II III IV % ≥ 75 74 -65 64 – 50 49 - 35 # Mandatories … … … … also for STAFFING also for SPORTS SCIENCE
  52. 52. GROUP ASSIGNMENT  Draw the organization chart for the SSC Department of Al Ahli Saudi FC (Center + Academy)  5 min.  Groups of 3 or 4  One group example?
  53. 53. Head of Strength Jan Van Winckel FITNESS COORDINATOR Renaldo Landburg Laboratory Measurements and Kinetic Analysis Dr. Ahmed Alsukari Physical Coach U21 Najih Physical Coach U19 Bart Deroover Physical Coach U17 Steven Vanharen Physical Coach U15 Jelle Van Camp Strength Coach Lieven De Veirman Individual Program Specialist Mathieu Gram Rehab Team Center Doctors Doctor Center Amar Nutrition Official Hani Wahbo Nutrition official Academy & Al Ahli House Ehab Doctor Academy Mohamed Balder Berckmans Physical Therapy Pieter Jabobs CENTER U21 M. Sakhal U19 A. Rawabh U17 F. Ghraibia Massage 1 Kamal Massage 2 Abdulfata ACADEMY Hesham
  54. 54. SSC Staffing Mandatories of the EPPP I II III IV 1 Head of Sports Science and Medicine FTE FTE PTE PTE 2 Lead Sports Scientist FTE FTE PTE PTE 3 Lead Strength & Conditioning Coach FTE PTE 4 Medical Doctor 1 5 Medical Doctor 2 6 Senior Academy Physiotherapist FTE FTE FTE PTE 7 Chartered Physiotherapist FTE FTE 8 Performance Analyst 1 FTE FTE 9 Performance Analyst 2 FTE PTE 10 Psychologist 11 Anthropometrics / Physiologist 12 Diet & Nutritionist
  55. 55. Organization of the Sports Science Department in English Football Academies ? What is missing in the Al Ahli structure?
  56. 56. The structure for match analyzer unit in the center Technical Director in the center Mr. Rui Gomes Analyzer unit manager Pedro bisho Assistant unit manager unoccupied Analyzer Pedro bisho Video maker Emad salim Analyzer Daniel Fernandez
  57. 57. The structure for the development performance unit in the academy & center Mental training expert and General Coordinator of the Performance Development Unit Mr. Mohamed al- arabi Socializing Specialist Ahmad barabaa Psychologist Falih abo rehla center academy Performance Development Laboratory and sports psychology Dr. ahmad alseyofe Olympic Dr.Moham ed alarabi Youth Junior Dr. ahmad salah Dr. amr abdulraza q
  58. 58. Organization of the Sports Science Department in English Football Academies ? What is the role of the SSC Department?
  59. 59. What is the role of the SSC Department?  Medical support  Physiotherapy  Treatment & rehabilitation  Screening  Injury prevention  Athletic Development  Develop Training Programs  Performance Analysis …
  60. 60. ? What is a „Multidisciplinary approach‟ ?
  61. 61. ? Examples of a „Multidisciplinary approach‟ ? Coaching SSC ? Recruitment Education ? ?
  62. 62. ? Optimize the MD approach in practice?
  63. 63. Working Groups Now Previously  Offices per department  Coaching  Sports Science  Education  Recruitment  Administration  Offices per phase  Foundation Phase  Youth Dev. Phase  Prof. Dev. Phase  WORKING GROUPS Representatives of each department sharing the same working space on a daily basis
  64. 64. Food for thoughts  Integrate psychology and match analysis within the SSC department of Al Ahli?  Formalize and Implement the MD approach through the creation of „working groups‟ ?
  66. 66. What is SAQ  Speed. The speed of handling of the players. How fast are they during trainings and games when necessary.  Agility. Soccer is tossing,turning,stopping,accelerating etc.  Quickness. The game became faster and faster over the years. It is necessary to act quick at all times.
  67. 67. Video Werder Bremen – Real Madrid (2007) Arsenal- Man U.(2009)
  68. 68. Match  Professional players during match 8-13 km  Most sprints are around 15 m. =3”  During match 10% = sprinting  Ball contact =1 -2,5%  Important in football =Speed and power/strength  Respect the work and rest load
  69. 69. Specific Football Running  Short distance  Knee not too high  Frequency  Running in sharp angles  Movement start from different angles en positions
  70. 70. Analyse of mistakes  Heel landing  “Proning”  Walking in sitting position  Leap-like walking  Backward leant over trunk  Forward leant over trunk  Feet are placed outwards too far  Inefficient arm action  Restless head position  Example: Walking in sitting position Cause: Insufficient extension at the take –off in ankle, knee and hip. Correction:Walkingleaps/bounce leaps/skipping with hip extension/Skip stretch leaps.
  71. 71. Speed  4 components 1) 2) 3) 4) Reaction/start speed Acceleration Speed endurance Short repeat sprinting Example : Start-Reaction speed training Time = 1-2” Int. = 100% S = 2-4 Reps = 8-10 Rest = 30” between reps 4-6‟ between sessions
  72. 72. Tips for running  Bodyweight on front feet  Centre gravity slightly forward  Lightfoot running  Coordination arm-hips-legs  Not blocked  Slightly bending by start position and moving
  73. 73. LTAD  Fundamentals(6-9)  Learning to train (9-12)  Training to train (12-16)  Training to compete (16-18)  Training to win (18+)
  74. 74. Fundamentals(6-9)  Fun  Playing wise  Variation  Concentration(time)  Creativity  No perfection Reaction games  Tag-/circle-/contact-/running games 
  75. 75. Learning to train(9-12)  Ideal age for coordination  Training more serious then fundamentals  Attention for running technique  Many variation  Different jump forms(1-2)leg  Space for discovery  General condition playing wise  Reaction-/tag-/relay-/attention games  Rythem and change direction
  76. 76. Training to train(12-16)  Developping the reaction /explosif capacity  Startreaction  Acceleration and stopping  Extra attention to the coordination  High impuls freqeuncy training  Different starting forms  Basic forms with change direction  Basic forms with materials(sticks ,rings etc.)  Jog ABC exercises  Growth spurth/differentation
  77. 77. Training to compete(16-18)  Integrated work  Periodization  Good cooperation with head coach      All sprint components in combination with and without ball Maintening coordination Basic forms with change of direction Accent= high freqeuncy Use of material in warming up
  78. 78. Training to win(18+)  Finalizing the process  Explosif capacity  Periodizing  Team training  Individual training
  79. 79. Tests  Sprint 10/20/40 m.  Agility T test left/right  Agility Illinois  Standing Broad jump  Triple Hop left/right   3 x in the year Topsport Lab. input
  80. 80. Player Infosheet  Each player has his Personal infosheet  Indicator of his score per parameter  Overview of players Strenghts and weakness (points to work on)
  81. 81. Team progression
  82. 82. Tips  Good warming up  No static stretching in beginning  Respect the work and rest load  When SAQ  Integration SAQ andTechnical/Tactical  Aspects in microcycle
  84. 84. Performance stabilisation
  85. 85. Fitness – Fatigue model
  86. 86. Match Microcycle – Week planning Recovery Strategies Fatigue management Loading Strategies Tapering Strategies Match
  87. 87. Fatigue management
  88. 88. ADQUISITION DAYS RECOVERY DAYS RECOVERY DAY GAME GAME Main principles Sub-subprinciples ENDURANCE Subprinciples STRENGHT OFF Subprinciples SPEED ACTIVATION RECOVERY SUNDAY MONDAY TUESDAY Sub-subprinciples WEDNESD AY THURSDA Y Figure X. Standard Weekly Pattern (Adapted from Oliveira, G. 2007) FRIDAY SATURDA Y SUNDAY
  91. 91. Fatigue  Professional soccer players are exposed to demanding competition schedules and can be easily exposed to 70 games in a single competitive season (King and Duffield, 2009).
  92. 92. Effects of match play  Playing competitive soccer involves eccentric work, particularly during competition, resulting in varying levels of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD).  This EIMD is characterized by delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) (Impellizzeri et al., 2008), decreased muscle function (Jakeman et al., 2009), impaired performance (Reilly and Ekblom, 2005), and increased perceived fatigue (Twist and Eston, 2009).
  93. 93. EIMD / DOMS http://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/304/5/E453
  94. 94. Recovery strategies  Although the recovery process is initiated automatically, it can be assisted by appropriate recovery strategies.  The capacity to recover from training and competition is therefore an important determinant in soccer performance (Kellmann, 2002; Odetoyinbo et al., 2009).
  95. 95. Autonomic nervous system Gas pedal Brake Parasympathetic Sympathetic
  96. 96. Autonomic Nervous System
  97. 97. Recovery between high-intensity efforts  In conclusion, it seems better to recover passively between intensive bouts during a match, but the recommendation that players should walk or stand still during and following bouts of repeated sprinting needs to be coordinated with tactical windows of opportunity.
  98. 98. Recovery post-match  Several studies have demonstrated that it takes more than 72 hours to reach prematch values for physical performance and normalize muscle damage and inflammation (Andersson et al., 2008).  The magnitude of match-induced fatigue, extrinsic factors (e.g., match result, quality of the opponent, match location, playing surface, environmental conditions) and/or intrinsic factors (e.g., training status, age, sex, muscle fiber typology), could influence the time course of recovery (Nédélec et al. 2012).
  99. 99. Classification  Recovery strategies are broadly classified into two categories (Bompa, 1999): active and passive recovery.
  100. 100. Timing of recovery  Recovery commences immediately after the match by using nutritional strategies to replenish glycogen stores and drinking water or carbohydrate beverages to restore fluid balance. With the next competitive match 3–7 days away, a recovery training session is often planned the next day as well. It is still unclear whether immediate post-match recovery offers additional benefits when compared to a traditional next-day recovery.  Is it really necessary to start active recovery sessions immediately after the game, or can this wait until the next day?
  101. 101. Post match recovery  Dawson and colleagues (2005) investigated four types of immediate post-match      recoveries: 1. Control (i.e., no proactive recovery): The players were instructed to perform no recovery procedures other than eating (fruit), drinking (water and soft drinks), and showering. 2. Stretching: The players were led through 15 minutes of gentle static stretching of the legs and back, involving two or three reps of 30s-held stretches across several muscle groups and joints. 3. Pool walking: The players were taken through 15 minutes of easy walking (moving forwards, backwards and sideways) in the shallow end of a 28°C swimming pool. 4. Hot/Cold cycling: The players alternated between standing in a hot (~ 45°C) shower for two minutes and standing waist deep in icy water (~12°C) for one minute, repeated until five hot and four cold exposures had been completed. Additional ice was added to the cold water as required to maintain a constant temperature. The authors concluded that performing any form of immediate post-match recovery did not significantly enhance the recovery of muscle soreness, flexibility and power within the first 48 hours following a game when compared to just performing a “next-day” recovery training session.
  102. 102. Recovery between mid-week matches  The recovery time between two matches in a week seems sufficient to maintain levels of physical performance, but it is not long enough to maintain a low injury rate. Adequate recovery strategies are necessary to maintain a low injury rate among soccer players during periods of congested match fixtures (Dupont, 2010).
  103. 103. Am J Sports Med 2010 38: 1752 originally published online April 16, 2010 Gregory Dupont, Mathieu Nedelec, Alan McCall, Derek McCormack, Serge Berthoin and Ulrik Wisløff Effect of 2 Soccer Matches in a Week on Physical Performance and Injury Rate
  104. 104. Active recovery  Active recovery (Baldari et al., 2004; Tessitore et al., 2007): • reduces muscle soreness (Reilly, 1998) • increases muscle-damage recovery (Gill et al., 2006) • prevents venous pooling in the muscles after maximal effort • restores metabolic perturbations (Bangsbo et al., 1994; Bogdanis et al., 1996) • increases lactate clearance. (Maximum clearance occurred at active recovery close to the lactate threshold (Menzies et al., 2010). However, for team sports like soccer, lactate removal is not a determining factor, as matches are generally 3–9 days apart.)
  105. 105. Running activities  Running activities followed by static stretching could reduce delayed onset muscle soreness. However, the research is inconclusive about the effects of lowintensity running exercises on recovery.
  106. 106. Pool sessions  Exercising in water has been suggested by some researchers (Dowzer and Reilly, 1998; Oda et al., 1999; Suzuki et al., 2004).  The advantages of running in water (aquajogging or deep-water running) over normal running are numerous: • It avoids excessive eccentric actions, especially in deep water. • It naturally massages the muscles (via the water turbulence). • It reduces mechanical load on the joints. • It aids recovery from musculoskeletal fatigue. • It increases the physiological and psychological indices of relaxation.
  107. 107. Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery in elite female soccer: effects of active recovery Andersson, Helena ; Raastad, Truls ; Nilsson, Johnny ; Paulsen, Gøran ; Garthe, Ina ; Kadi, Fawzi Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 2008, Vol.40(2), pp.372-80
  108. 108. Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery in elite female soccer: effects of active recovery Andersson, Helena ; Raastad, Truls ; Nilsson, Johnny ; Paulsen, Gøran ; Garthe, Ina ; Kadi, Fawzi Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 2008, Vol.40(2), pp.372-80
  109. 109. Stretching
  110. 110. Stretching  Sometimes recommended as a recovery strategy in order to prevent delayed onset muscle soreness and improve range of motion.  Contradicted findings were published by Wessel and Wan (1994) who found that stretching before or after exercise did not improve DOMS.  Coaches should be careful in applying stretching after intensive training or match play. This causes exerciseinduced muscle damage, and post-exercise stretching can potentially cause further trauma.  In conclusion, serious stretching after an intensive training or game is contraindicated for recovery.
  111. 111. Cold water immersion
  112. 112. Cold-water immersion (CWI)  These are the possible mechanisms of post-exercise cooling:     It reduces pain and swelling, having an anti-inflammatory effect and reducing the potential for DOMS. It causes vaso-constriction, which increases blood flow and metabolic transportation post-exercise. Additionally, CWI may decrease nerve transmission speed (Wilcock, 2006) and alter the receptor threshold, leading to decreased pain perception. There may also be a psychological mechanism whereby the body feels more “awake” and perceives a reduced sensation of fatigue after exercise (Cochrane, 2004). Based on the available literature, the recommendation is for a whole-body immersion lasting 10–20 minutes in a water temperature of 10–15°C (Halson, 2011).
  113. 113. Compression garments
  114. 114. Compression garments  Various research has suggested that CGs: increase the removal of cellular debris,  moderate the formation of oedema associated with EIMD,  attenuate muscle oscillation,  change sub-maximal oxygen usage during exercise,  alleviate swelling, and  reduce perceived muscle soreness during post-exercise recovery  offer mechanical support (dynamic casting effect) to the muscle, allowing faster recovery following damaging exercise (Kraemer et al., 2001). In conclusion, wearing CGs might support recovery and reduce DOMS, and no detrimental effects have been reported. Players could be encouraged to use compression socks during recovery or taper, particularly when travelling by car or plane. 
  115. 115. Sleep  Research speculates that sleep supports improvements in sport performance, because during phases of deep sleep, growth hormone is released.  Sleep deprivation: • reduces the ability to store glycogen • reduces decision-making quality and reflexes • increases stress hormones (cortisol) • negatively affects recovery. (Skein et al. (2013) examined the effects of overnight sleep deprivation on recovery following competitive rugby league matches. They found that sleep deprivation negatively affects recovery, specifically impairing CMJ distance and cognitive function.) • lowers levels of growth hormone needed to help repair the body
  116. 116. Recommendations for females aged 18+ and males aged 19+ (Samuels, 2008)  Ensure a comfortable sleep environment when travelling and          competing. Monitor for competition stress and anxiety insomnia. Observe sleep to identify sleep disorders. Maintain a regular sleeping and napping routine. Monitor for a delayed sleep phase, such as difficulty falling asleep and waking up for school. Get early-morning light exposure for 30 minutes daily. Maintain reliable nutrition routines. Breakfast is the most important meal of the day. Focus on reducing sleep debt. Get 56–70 hours of sleep per week. Do not train if unrested and sleep deprived. Avoid technology (e.g., PCs, smartphones, tablets) before bed.
  117. 117. Psychological strategies  In this regard, the athlete has been described as a “psychosocio-physiological entity” (Kenttä and Hassmén, 2002).  Venter (2012) investigated the perceptions of team athletes on the importance of recovery modalities. The results from this study demonstrated that team players do perceive psychosocial aspects to be among the most important recovery modalities.
  118. 118. “psychosocio-physiological entity”
  119. 119. Psychological strategies  Organize a debriefing after each game.  Set realistic goals.  Social networks can help players deal with the problems, disappointments, joys and         stresses of life (Quinn and Fallon, 1999). Appoint players carefully for media demands and sponsor needs. Reframe goals if long-term goals look difficult to reach. Give players space to develop effective pre- and post-match strategies. Social support may increase performance (Freeman and Rees, 2008). Try to protect players from the negative impact of stressors (Botterill and Wilson, 2002; Rees and Hardy, 2004). Encourage players to create a playlist of music they enjoy that generates a range of moods and atmospheres so as to produce a stimulating or calming effect (Calder, 2000). Do not force players into post-match recovery strategies that are perceived as stressful. Encourage friends and teammates to provide listening and emotional support; challenge evaluation of attitudes, values and feelings; express appreciation; and motivate other players to greater excitement and involvement (Barefield and McCallister, 1997).
  120. 120. Massage  There is limited scientific evidence showing that massage might assist in recovery strategies (Monedero and Donne, 2000).  Recent research by Jakeman et al. (2010) reported that a combined treatment of a 30-minute manual massage and a 12-hour lowerlimb compression significantly decreased perceived soreness at 48 and 72 hours after plyometric exercise when compared to passive recovery or compression alone. This was confirmed by Hilbert et al. (2003) when they reported moderated muscle-soreness ratings 48 hours after exercise when a massage was administered 2 hours after eccentric exercise.  Massage should be carefully administered after intensive training or match play, since massage can possibly counter the natural recovery process of the body. Some researchers even suggest that a massage should not be applied after training or a match because postexercise massage could cause further trauma when training or match play has caused EIMD (Barnett, 2006).  Finally , it seems that the training level of the therapist affects the effectiveness of massage (Moraska, 2007).
  121. 121. Recommendations:  Replenish glycogen stores immediately after a match (intake of        carbohydrates). (Metabolic window) Consume proteins to assist muscle regeneration. Don‟t drink alcohol before or after a match. Warm up properly, because this will decrease post-match DOMS. Restore fluid balance. Do not use massage immediately after the match Replenish electrolytes. Sleep a minimum of 10 hours for each of the two days following a match (sleep extension).
  122. 122. Recommendations:  Take a daily nap of 25 minutes after lunch (between 1pm and 4pm).  Avoid any eccentric work in the two days following the match.  Avoid explosive actions, such as sprinting or shooting drills, in the 48 hours       after a match. Organize a debriefing and set realistic goals after the match. Organize whole-body, cold-water immersion lasting 10–20 minutes at a water temperature of 10–15°C. (This may be after the game or the day after.) Avoid stressful situations. Customize recovery and don‟t oblige players to participate in recovery strategies that could be perceived as stressful. Explain the use of the recovery strategies. Focus on mental recovery after the game.
  123. 123. Take home lesson  Recovery = manipulating the autonomic nervous system -> stimulating parasympathetic dominance Reduce psychosocio-physiological stress
  124. 124. Thank you