5. INTRODUCTION TO SOLID WASTE :
It is defined as:
“Non-liquid, non-soluble materials ranging from municipal garbage to industrial wastes that
contain complex and sometimes hazardous substances.”
Some of the images showing dumping of solid waste in Pakistan.
6. TYPES OF SOLID WASTE
Broadly there are 3 types of waste which are as follows:
Household waste that is generally classified as Municipal waste.
Industrial waste as Hazardous waste.
Biomedical waste or Hospital waste as Infectious waste.
7. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
Municipal solid waste consists of:
Construction and demolition debris
Waste from streets
Household wastes that can be categorized as hazardous waste include:
9. INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTE
Industrial is considered hazardous as they may contain toxic
Hazardous wastes could be highly toxic to humans, animals, and
• Highly inflammable, or explosive
• React when exposed to certain things e.g. gases
In the industrial sector, the major generators of hazardous waste
are the metal, chemical, paper, pesticide, dye, refining, and rubber
10. HOSPITAL SOLID WASTE
Hospital waste is generated during the diagnosis, treatment, or
immunization of human beings or animals.
It may include wastes like:
• Soiled waste
• Discarded medicines
• Chemical wastes
This waste is highly infectious and can be a serious threat to human
health if not managed in a scientific and discriminate manner.
It has been roughly estimated that of the 4 kg of waste generated in
a hospital at least 1 kg would be infected.
11. SOURCES OF SOLID WASTE
The main sources for solid wastes are domestic,
commercial, industrial, municipal, and agricultural
The composition of a city waste is as follows:
• Paper, wood, cardboard 53 %
• Garbage 22 %
• Ceramics, glass, crockery 10 %
• Metals 8 %
• Rubber, plastics, discarded textiles 7 %
12. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN
Major problems are result of the difference between how nature
works and the way people think.
13. POOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN
Solid Waste management situation in Pakistan is a
matter of grave concern.
20 million tons of solid waste is generated annually,
with annual growth rate of 2.4 percent.
Karachi being the largest city generates more than
9,000 tons of municipal waste daily.
All major cities of Pakistan faces including
Islamabad, Lahore and Peshawar are facing
enormous challenges in tackling the problem of
Harsh reality of how Karachi is being
14. CONTRIBUTING FACTORS
In the country, more waste is being produced than the number of
facilities available to manage it. Some of the major problems are:
• There is no proper waste collection system.
• Waste is dumped on the streets.
• Different types of waste are not collected separately.
• There are no controlled sanitary landfill sites. Opening burning is common.
• Citizens are not aware of the relationship between reckless waste disposal
and resulting environmental and public health problems.
• High waste era and non-working of exsisting frameworks.
• Absence of open mindfullness and unplanned city development.
15. As a result of these problems, waste is accumulating and building up on roadsides, canals, and other
common areas and burning trash is common, causing hazardous toxins to be exposed thereby
threatening human and environmental health. Among the already few landfill sites that are present, even
fewer are in operation. Even within Pakistan’s capital, Islamabad, there are no permanent landfills to be
The waste on the roads allows for an ideal environment for various flies to thrive which effects both
human health and the health of the environment for other species. The poor solid waste management in
Pakistan has caused numerous diseases and environmental problems to rise.
ANALYSIS ON THE CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATION
16. STATUS OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
PRACTICES IN PAKISTAN
The ecological and sterile conditions have gotten to be more genuine year by
The extent of issues regarding to robust waste administration is wide and
includes the attention of every last one of angles identifying with strong waste
and its administration.
The normal rate of waste era from all sort of civil controlled ranges differs from
1.896kg/hpuse/day to 4.29kg/house/day.
The waste era development is 2.4 rate every year.
17. CAUSES OF SOLID WASTE
The increase in the quantity of solid waste is
Affluence (material comfort).
Lack of technological advancements.
18. EFFECT OF INCREASING POPULATION ON WASTE
The number and growth of population and households is the foremost factor affecting the
solid waste at various stages.
The selected cities are growing at a rate ranging between 3.67% to 7.42%, which is much
higher than the overall growth rate of Pakistan, i.e. 2.8% (EPMC, 1996).
Major cities of them are estimated to double their population in next ten years means
double the waste.
19. EFFECTS OF SOLID WASTE
A) HEALTH HAZARDS
B) ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
20. HEALTH HAZARDS
If solid wastes are not collected and allowed to accumulate, they may
create unsanitary conditions.
Many diseases like cholera, diarrhea, dysentery, plague, gastro-intestinal
diseases may spread and cause loss of human lives.
More than 5 million people to die each year due to waste related diseases.
In addition, improper handling of the solid wastes is a health hazard for the
workers who come in direct contact with the waste.
21. A) Landslides of waste dump have buried homes and people under piles of waste. And it is the
poorest or working labors who often live near waste dumps leaving them susceptible to serious
B) Effects human health and livelihoods, the environment, and prosperity which means it badly
effects the man power of the country.
C) Left unmanaged, dumped or burnt, waste hinders economic growth in poor and rich countries
alike but it is more of a challenge for developing countries like Pakistan.
D) Cities which plays important role in Pakistan’s GDP are at the forefront of tackling the waste
IT’S EFFECT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
22. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
If the solid wastes are not treated properly, decomposition and decay may take
The organic solid waste during decomposition may generate obnoxious
Ground water pollution.
Air pollution and global warming which is also the cause of climatic changes
and the problems arising due to that.
23. THINGS TO DO FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling
or disposal, and monitoring of waste materials.
4 R’s CONCEPT : Four R’s (Recreate, Reuse, Recycle and Reduce)
to be followed for waste management.
The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and
is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the
Raising awareness about consequences caused by solid waste
Role of organizations of government sectors, NGO’s and private
Legislation should be done which would be effect and find ways to
implement it effectively.
REFUSE OR RECREATE
• Instead of buying new containers from the market, use the ones that are in the house.
• Refuse to buy new items though you may think they are prettier than the ones you
• Do not throw away the soft drink cans or the bottles; cover them with homemade
paper or paint on them and use them as pencil stands or small vases.
• Use shopping bags made of cloth or jute, which can be used over and over again.
• Reduce the generation of unnecessary waste, e.g. carry your own shopping bag when
you go to the market and put all your purchases directly into it.
25. CONTROL MEASURES
The main purpose of solid waste management is to minimize the adverse effects on the environment.
The steps involved are:
• Collection of solid wastes
• Proper disposal of solid wastes
• Utilization of wastes
26. COLLECTION OF SOLID WASTES
Collection of waste includes gathering the waste,
transporting it to a centralized location, and then
moving it to the site of disposal.
The collected waste is then separated into:
• Non-hazardous materials.
27. DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTES
Before the final disposal of the solid wastes, it is processed to recover the usable resources
and to improve the efficiency of the solid waste disposal system. The main processing
28. BENEFITS OF UTILIZATION OF WASTE
The solid wastes can be properly utilized to gather
the benefits such as:
Conservation of natural resources
Generate many useful products
Control of air pollution
29. BIOLOGICAL PROCESS
Waste materials that are organic in nature, such as:
Plant material, Food scraps, Paper products
Can be recycled using biological composting and digestion
processes to decompose the organic matter.
The resulting organic material is then recycled as much or
compost for agricultural or landscaping purposes.
30. “Solid waste management is everyone’s business. Ensuring
effective and proper solid waste management is critical to
the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals."
SENIOR DIRECTOR OF THE SOCIAL, URBAN, RURAL AND
RESILIENCE GLOBAL PRACTICE OF THE WORLD BANK.
31. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT AND POLICY
Waste collection methods vary widely among different countries and regions.
Domestic waste collection services are often provided by local government authorities, or by
private companies in the industry.
Solid waste collection by government owned and operated services in Pakistan's cities currently
averages only 50 percent of waste quantities generated; however, for cities to be relatively clean,
at least 75 percent of these quantities should be collected.
Unfortunately, none of the cities in Pakistan has a proper solid waste management system right
from collection of solid waste up to its proper disposal.
The Government of Pakistan enacted the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act (PEPA) in 1997
which is the most recent and updated legislation on environment.
It provides a framework for establishing federal and provincial Environmental Protection
32. MEANS AND END ANALYSIS
There are many national, international, governmental and non-governmental organizations
that are working on solid waste management.
SCOPE(Society for conservation and protection of environment).
Solid Waste Management Guidelines (draft) prepared with the support of Japan
International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Japan.
The International Solid Waste Association: ISWA.
North Sindh Urban Services Corporation Limited (NSUSC).
Karachi Metropolitan Corporation.
Lahore Compost (Pvt.) Ltd. only dealing with the organic waste with the cooperation of
city district government Lahore, Pakistan.
Alamgir Welfare Trust International.
JDC (Jafaria Disaster Management Cell) Foundation Pakistan.
33. NGO(NON GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION)
The involvement of people and private sector through NGOs could improve the
efficiency of SWM.
Aims and goals
• Public awareness should be created especially at primary school.
• Littering of SW should be prohibited in cities, towns and urban areas.
• The collection bins must have a large enough capacity to accommodate 20% more
than the expected waste generation in the area.
34. JDC FOUNDATION PAKISTAN
Jafaria Disaster Management Cell (JDC) a Welfare and Non-
Governmental Organization (NGO) commonly known as JDC Welfare
Organization was established in 2009 by Syed Shehanshah Hussain
Naqvi and some like minded youths of Karachi.
Although, its working potential mainly covers Karachi and other cities
of Sindh, however, JDC attempts to connect it with all people affected
by any disasters in any corner of Pakistan.
They also started Safai muhim in Karachi.
35. OBECTIVES AND GOALS OF ORGANIZATION
They are working in more than 54 areas of Karachi to collect the littered waste.
The main objective is to clean the roads of Karachi which are more than half way
covered with dirt and garbage causing health issues as well as dangerous for the
environment and other sanity problems.
Many heavy machinaries are sent to different areas of karachi for this purpose.
People who are unable to come to open air spaces like parks due to polluted area
will be able to enjoy peacefully.
CASE STUDY (SAFAI MUHIM)
36. Statistics indicate that on a daily basis, about 14,000/16,000 tons of solid waste is generated
in Karachi alone, of which forty percent can be found on the city streets. It is estimated that
by the year 2020, the solid waste generation may approach 18,000 to 20,000 tons each day.
The campaing consisted of more than 100 machinaries that were sent in different areas of
Karachi to eradicate the garbage which filled the roads, streets, playing grounds etc.
The sevage system are blocked after rain possess the threat of urban flooding which are now
being cleaned by the organization.
The other problem was to aware the people of the colonies to support them, and they spread
awareness through various social media platforms such as Youtube, Facebook and news
Through these methods they invited people to come and join hands with them to work
together for this starting from small scale which will sooner led to greater causes.
THREATS FACED BY THE ORGANIZATION AND
38. Currently two landfill sites are available for solid waste management.
The area available at these sites is not adequate to fulfill the landfilling of
waste generated by the city. Moreover, these sites are located far away and
it is not economically viable to transport waste over such large distances.
Modern techniques can be used to improve the existing overloaded
system. For example;
- Introducing skips.
- Providing separate bins for recyclable waste and disposable waste.
- Designated waste collection points.
Waste collection mechanism and its transportation from the household,
defining services level provided by municipal authorities.
OPPORTUNITIES BASED ON THE CASE STUDY
39. A) House to house collection of solid waste should be organized.
B) Littering of solid waste should be prohibited in the area or the
town (it should be also applied for the other cities and urban area).
C) Proper segregation would be vital for scientific disposal of waste.
D) Developing legal framework and national guidelines for solid
waste management and that includes waste management rules and
basic recycling rules.
E) The people are unable to understand the concepts of waste
management and recycling.
F) The government must take stand, place a sufficient budget for
the municipal agencies to carry out their good work.
EFFECTIVE INTERVENTIONS BASED ON ANALYSIS OF CASE
Lifting 10 years of garbage in
40. PUTTING GARBAGE TO GOOD USE
Market chain analysis for recyclables.
Organic fraction of municipal solid waste from household and fruit and
vegetable markets can be used as feedstocks for energy production and bio
Avoid producing waste by reducing consumption and packaging. the next
best option is to recycle; composting organic waste comes next. this is
followed by combusting the post-recycled waste for energy and then finally,
The best way to promote the conversion technologies would be to separate
out more of the 10,000 different kinds of plastics in municipal solid waste.
Introduction to Waste to energy plants which help a lot in economic
development since our country is also energy deficient. The world’s largest
waste-to-energy plant is being built in Shenzhen, China.
Pak-EPA, Guidelinesfor solid waste management, Pak-EPA in collaboration with JICA,
ministry of Environment, PEP and UNDP.