Departamento de Biologia Animal
Araneofauna (Arachnida: Araneae) do Parque
Natural da Serra de São Mamede: Faunística e
Mé...
NOTA INTRODUTÓRIA
Este estudo surgiu no seguimento do projecto “Inventariação e Caracterização da Entomofauna
de Coleópter...
AGRADECIMENTOS
Ao Prof. Doutor Artur Serrano por ter aceite a proposta de realização deste trabalho pondo à
minha disposiç...
À minha mãe, por mesmo nos momentos de maior stress me ter apoiado e nunca ter duvidado
do meu trabalho, mesmo que às veze...
ÍNDICE
Introdução Geral .....................................................................................................
1
INTRODUÇÃO GERAL
A Conservação da Biodiversidade é um assunto que está na ordem do dia. As medidas para a
sua protecção ...
2
Assim, este trabalho tem como principais objectivos:
• Ampliar o conhecimento da fauna de aranhas (Arachnida: Araneae) d...
3
A CHECKLIST OF THE SPIDERS (ARACHNIDA, ARANEAE) OF “SERRA DE SÃO
MAMEDE” NATURAL PARK (PORTUGAL)
A.F. GOUVEIA, P. CARDOS...
4
Figure 1 – Study areas in
“Serra de São Mamede”
Natural Park (black dots).
MATERIAL AND METHODS
All the specimens were c...
5
RESULTS
A total of 5,416 specimens, from 140 species or morphospecies, were sampled. Of these, 1,124
were males, 822 fem...
6
Roberts, 1995). Thirty species were reported in Iberian Peninsula and 11 in Portugal (Barrientos,
2003; Cardoso, 2003). ...
7
tinho de Anta (Bacelar, 1928); Reguengos de Monsaraz (Nobre, 1998); Algozinho, Palão, Paúl do
Boquilobo, Picote (Cardoso...
8
Simitidion simile (C. L. Koch, 1836)
It lives on gorse bushes, heather and other vegetation (Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTIO...
9
Centromerus sp.
Fifteen species were reported in Iberian Peninsula and 5 in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso,
2003). ...
10
Micrargus laudatus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1881)
This species is very similar to the others of the genus. DISTRIBUTION: Europ...
11
Walckenaeria sp.
Males distinguished from the other genera by the elevated protuberance in the prossoma. Eleven
species...
12
Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772)
Males of this species are frequently eaten by the females during mating. Females hav...
13
Zilla diodia (Walckenaer, 1802)
This spider waits for prey at the centre of the web. This has a large latticed area of ...
14
Bacelar, 1928); Cete, S. Mamede de Recezinhos, Senhora da Hora, Valongo (Simon, 1898 in Bace-
lar, 1927a; Bacelar, 1928...
15
Trochosa sp.
Spiders of this genus are nocturnal hunters and during the day are found in undergrowth and
amongst moss a...
16
Agelenidae C. L. Koch, 1837
Malthonica sp.
Only one species is known to the Iberian fauna, but this species does not fi...
17
deia, Freixiosa, Limas, Mazouco, Palão, Picotino, São Domingos, Tó, Vale Garcia (Cardoso, Sub.).
NEW LOCALI-TIES: VLM.
...
18
Miturgidae Simon, 1885
Cheiracanthium C. L. Koch, 1839
Species from this genus are usually found in a silk retreat duri...
19
(Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Cosmopolitan (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES:
SSM and VLM.
Clubiona r...
20
Zodarion alacre (Simon, 1870)
It is the most abundant species of the genus in Portugal (Pekár et al., 2003). DISTRIBUTI...
21
rian Peninsula and 5 in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Cosmopolitan
(Platnick, 2004). NEW LO...
22
Micaria guttigera Simon, 1878
It can be found at ground level and builds silken retreats under stones or barks (Roberts...
23
Peninsula and 15 in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Cosmopolitan (Plat-
nick, 2004). NEW LOCA...
24
Philodromus emarginatus (Schrank, 1803)
Also similar to P. aureolus. It is found on heather and the lower branches of c...
25
Thomisidae Sundevall, 1833
Misumena vatia (Clerck, 1757)
This species sits in flowers and ambushes visiting insects. It...
26
1928); Odivelas (Schenkel, 1938); Reguengos de Monsaraz (Nobre, 1998); Mértola, Paúl do Boqui-
lobo, Picote, Tó (Cardos...
27
and 22 in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Cosmopolitan (Platnick,
2004) NEW LOCALITIES: VLM.
...
28
Euophrys spp.
They are fairly small spiders and many have attractive markings. The egg sac in many species is
loosely a...
29
Phlegra loripes Simon, 1876
It is found amongst low vegetation (Jones, 1985; Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Portugal, Sp...
30
BIBLIOGRAPHY
ALDERWEIRELDT, M. & R. BOSMANS. 2001. A contribution to the knowledge of the Aracnofauna
(Araneae) of Port...
31
DI FRANCO, F. 1992. Gnaphosidae di Castelporziano e del Parco Nazionale del Circeo (Arachnida,
Araneae). Fragmenta Ento...
32
ROBERTS, M.J. 1987. The spiders of Britain & Northern Europe – Linyphiidae and Check List.
Harper-Collins Publishers, L...
33
SPIDER COMMUNITY THROUGH TIME IN “SERRA DE SÃO MAMEDE” NATURAL
PARK (PORTUGAL)
A.F. GOUVEIA, P. CARDOSO, N.G. OLIVEIRA ...
34
Figure 1 – Study areas in
“Serra de São Mamede”
Natural Park (black dots).
genus level analysis if the species:genus ra...
35
Data analysis
For all calculus, we used the percentage of specimens, species or genera captured in each
sample, compare...
36
Species and genera richness data show the same pattern as abundance (Fig. 3a-d). There is an
increase until June, reach...
37
siidae have an abundance and richness peak in October; (b) Many species have notorious population
outbreaks during shor...
38
GREEN, J. 1999. Sampling method and time determines composition of spider collections. Journal
of Arachnology, 27: 176-...
39
HIGHER TAXA SURROGATES OF SPIDERS (ARANEAE) DIVERSITY: A CASE-STUDY
A.F. GOUVEIA, P. CARDOSO, N.G. de OLIVEIRA, I. SILV...
40
Figure 1 – Study areas in
“Serra de São Mamede”
Natural Park (black dots).
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Study area
From March 2...
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  1. 1. Departamento de Biologia Animal Araneofauna (Arachnida: Araneae) do Parque Natural da Serra de São Mamede: Faunística e Métodos de Avaliação de Riqueza Específica Ana Filipa Vieira de Jesus Gouveia Estágio Profissionalizante da Licenciatura em Biologia Aplicada aos Recursos Animais, variante Terrestres Orientador: Prof. Doutor Artur Serrano DBA/FCUL 2004
  2. 2. NOTA INTRODUTÓRIA Este estudo surgiu no seguimento do projecto “Inventariação e Caracterização da Entomofauna de Coleópteros” realizado no Parque Natural da Serra de São Mamede. Este projecto, da responsabilidade do Professor Doutor Artur Serrano, tal como o presente trabalho pretenderam contribuir para um melhor conhecimento da fauna de artrópodes do nosso país e da sua ecologia. Os dados resultantes deste trabalho já foram apresentados sob a forma de três comunicações nas recentes “V Jornadas Ibéricas de Aracnologia” que se realizaram em Múrcia (Espanha) no início deste mês de Outubro. Foram elas: “Aranhas do Parque Natural da Serra de São Mamede”, “Variação temporal da comunidade de aranhas da Serra de São Mamede” e “El género Harpactocrates (Araneae: Dysderidae) en Portugal”. Aqui o trabalho será apresentado sob a forma de três artigos científicos, seguindo as normas da revista Portugaliae Zoologica e o regulamento de estágios de licenciatura do Departamento de Biologia Animal. Oportunamente estes artigos serão submetidos para publicação.
  3. 3. AGRADECIMENTOS Ao Prof. Doutor Artur Serrano por ter aceite a proposta de realização deste trabalho pondo à minha disposição todo o material recolhido aquando da execução do projecto, pelo interesse e apoio manifestados, tanto no relativamente a este estudo como em questões de âmbito profissional. Ao Pedro Cardoso, por ter aceite ajudar-me neste trabalho, pois sem ele teria sido muito difícil chegar a este ponto. Pela ajuda tanto científica como na redacção deste trabalho. Ao Nuno Oliveira, pela sua amizade, pelos bons momentos passados no laboratório e pela sua disponibilidade em me ajudar sempre que precisei assim como nas sugestões durante a redacção deste relatório. Obrigado também pelo apoio que está e continuará a prestar daqui em diante como colega de trabalho. Ao Doutor Miguél-Angel Ferrández pelo tempo que disponibilizou para identificar alguns espécimens e pela oportunidade de elaborar consigo um trabalho em co-autoria. Ao Israel Silva, pelo seu companheirismo durante as viagens até ao Alentejo e todos os dias no laboratório. A todas as pessoas do Laboratório de Entomologia, pela amizade com que me acolheram e me fizeram sentir parte deste grupo. Um agradecimento especial à Carla, ao Mário e ao Carlos pela sua amizade e pelos conhecimentos partilhados. Aos futuros aracnólogos de Portugal pelos divertidos momentos que passamos juntos: Ricardo Ramos da Silva, Pedro Sousa, Luís Carlos Pereira e Sérgio Henriques. A todos os meus Amigos, da faculdade e não só, por sempre ter sentido o seu apoio e pelo bons momentos que proporcionaram ao longo destes anos. Principalmente, à Catarina, à Ana Guerra, à Elisa Barreto, à Inês Morte e à Inês Farias pelos momentos de descontracção e diversão que partilhamos. Ao meu pai, pois é ele o principal responsável pelo gosto que tenho por esta carreira. Se não tivesses sido tu provavelmente não estaria aqui agora.
  4. 4. À minha mãe, por mesmo nos momentos de maior stress me ter apoiado e nunca ter duvidado do meu trabalho, mesmo que às vezes não o compreenda. À minha querida avó, pela simpática companhia ao longo da minha vida e especialmente enquanto escrevi este trabalho. Ao Fernando, por estar sempre presente e por tudo aquilo que é e representa para mim. A todos estes, e a muitas outras pessoas que, de alguma forma, sempre me apoiaram e contribuiram para que este trabalho se tornasse possível, o mais sincero obrigada!
  5. 5. ÍNDICE Introdução Geral ..................................................................................................................................1 A Check-List of the spiders (Arachnida, Araneae) of “Serra de São Mamede” Natural Park (Portugal) .............................................................................................................................................3 Introduction....................................................................................................................................3 Material and Methods ....................................................................................................................4 Results............................................................................................................................................5 Spider community through time in “Serra de São Mamede” Natural Park (Portugal)......................33 Introduction..................................................................................................................................33 Material and Methods ..................................................................................................................34 Study area ..............................................................................................................................34 Sampling methods..................................................................................................................34 Data analysis .........................................................................................................................35 Results..........................................................................................................................................35 Discussion....................................................................................................................................36 Acknowledgments........................................................................................................................37 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................37 Higher taxa surrogates of spiders (Araneae) diversity: A case-study................................................39 Introduction..................................................................................................................................39 Material and Methods ..................................................................................................................40 Study area ..............................................................................................................................40 Sampling methods..................................................................................................................40 Data analysis .........................................................................................................................40 Results..........................................................................................................................................41 Discussion....................................................................................................................................42 Acknowledgments........................................................................................................................42 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................43 Conclusões Gerais..............................................................................................................................45 Bibliografia Citada.............................................................................................................................46 Appendix............................................................................................................................................48
  6. 6. 1 INTRODUÇÃO GERAL A Conservação da Biodiversidade é um assunto que está na ordem do dia. As medidas para a sua protecção e travagem do seu declínio têm vindo a ocorrer com alguma premência, quer a nível mundial e europeu, como até mesmo a nível nacional, como por exemplo a Agenda 2000 (European Commission, 1999), EEA Signals 2004 or Malahide Conference (Presidency of European Union, 2004). Mas para se poder conservar e gerir a Biodiversidade, antes de tudo há que conhecê-la. Se para os grupos de animais superiores e plantas o conhecimento é exaustivo, no que diz respeito aos gru- pos megadiversos (e.g. Arachnida, Insecta) muito há ainda por conhecer. Nestes grupos dos “esque- cidos” as aranhas são talvez um sobre o qual menos se sabe, nomeadamente em Portugal. Neste país o seu o estu-do esteve votado ao esquecimento em Portugal durante meio século. Desde os trabalhos de Bacelar (e.g. 1927a, 1927b, 1928, 1933, 1935, 1940) e Machado (e.g. 1937, 1941, 1949) pouco se deu a conhe-cer sobre a aracnofauna portuguesa. Em 1998 Cardoso e Nobre retomaram a investi- gação da fauna araneológica, abrindo as portas para que um grupo crescente de estudantes se dedica a estes animais. Este trabalho tenta ser mais um contributo para o conhecimento da aracnofauna portuguesa, especialmente porque foi realizado numa região – Parque Natural da Serra de São Mamede (PNSSM) – da qual nada se conhecia. Sem surpresa, todos os elementos encontrados constituíram novidades faunísticas para a mesma. No entanto, só o conhecimento qualitativo da Biodiversidade não é suficiente. Esta pode tam- bém ser quantificada. O número de espécies e as suas abundâncias relativas são duas das medidas clássicas de descrição de comunidades (e.g. Magurran, 1988). Assim sendo, estas medidas são usa- das para estabelecer planos de conservação e gestão dos recursos naturais (Sorensen et al., 2002). Para que estes planos sejam realizados em tempo útil e com gastos de recursos humanos, financei- ros e temporais reduzidos, as metodologias de avaliação da Biodiversidade deverão ser criteriosa- mente planificadas (Oliver & Beattie, 1996; Duelli, 1997; Duelli et al., 1999; Finn et al., 1999; Nor- ris, 1999; Heikkinen, 2002; Hobohm, 2003). Desta forma, novos protocolos de amostragem e moni- torização têm sido concebidos de forma a determinar a riqueza específica de um local num determi- nado intervalo de tempo (Relys et al., 2002; Sorensen et al., 2002). Para além da optimização dos períodos de amostragem também se tem sugerido a realização de avaliações de Biodiversidade com base em taxa superiores (e.g. Gaston & Williams, 1993; Borges et al., 2002; Wilkie et al., 2003; Cardoso et al., 2004). Com este tipo de avaliação os resultados ob- tidos são de grande fiabilidade sem ser fundamental a consulta de especialistas, o que contribui para a redução do consumo de recursos, tanto monetários como de tempo.
  7. 7. 2 Assim, este trabalho tem como principais objectivos: • Ampliar o conhecimento da fauna de aranhas (Arachnida: Araneae) de Portugal; • Analisar qual o melhor período para amostrar aranhas na área do PNSSM; • Testar o uso de taxa superiores na avaliação de riqueza específica.
  8. 8. 3 A CHECKLIST OF THE SPIDERS (ARACHNIDA, ARANEAE) OF “SERRA DE SÃO MAMEDE” NATURAL PARK (PORTUGAL) A.F. GOUVEIA, P. CARDOSO, A.R.M. SERRANO Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa. Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal. ABSTRACT: The aim of this work is to give a list of all the species that were captured during standardized fieldwork done at “Serra de São Mamede” Natural Park (Portugal). Moreover the reference to each species, is complemented with some general remarks, its geographic distribution, previous citations for Portugal, and the new localities added to its known national distribution. A total of 5,416 specimens, from 140 morphospe- cies, were sampled in the study areas. From these, 1,124 were males, 822 females and 3,470 juveniles. All the species are new to this protected area, which puts in evidence the lack of knowledge about this group in Portugal. RESUMO: Neste trabalho pretende-se apresentar uma lista de todas espécies que foram capturadas durante trabalho de campo padronizado efectuado no Parque Natural da Serra de São Mamede (Portugal). Para além da citação de cada espécie, essa informação é complementada com algumas notas sobre a mesma, sua distri- buição geográfica, citações prévias para Portugal e os locais adicionados à sua distribuição nacional conheci- da. Foram recolhidos um total de 5.416 indivíduos distribuídos por 140 morfoespécies, dos quais 1.124 eram machos, 822 fêmeas e 3.470 juvenis. Todas as espécies constituíram novidades faunísticas para esta Área Protegida, o que coloca em evidência a falta de conhecimento que existe sobre este grupo em Portugal. INTRODUCTION The known spider fauna includes 3,565 genera and 38,663 species described all over the world (Platnick, 2004). In the Iberian Peninsula 334 genera and 1,210 species of spiders are reported (Bar- rientos, 2003). In Portugal, the knowledge of spider fauna is very scarce. Nevertheless, Portugal has potential conditions to show one of the Europe’s richest faunas due to its ecologically diverse mosaic type landscapes. The study of Portuguese spiders had its peak in the second decade of the 20th century by the hands of Bacelar (e.g. 1927a, 1927b, 1928, 1933, 1935, 1940), and Machado (e.g. 1937, 1941, 1949). Fortunately in the last decade the Portuguese spiders were put back into evidence thanks to an emerging group of students. At present, the current number of species reported to Por- tugal is close to 700 (Alderweireldt & Bosmans, 2001; Cardoso, 2003; Telfer et al., 2003). How- ever, further work is still needed, to achieve the real number of species that probably is much higher. The main aim of this work is to increase our faunistic knowledge in what concerns to spiders presence and distribution, particularly in the “Serra de São Mamede” Natural Park.
  9. 9. 4 Figure 1 – Study areas in “Serra de São Mamede” Natural Park (black dots). MATERIAL AND METHODS All the specimens were collected in “Serra de São Mamede” Natural Park (PNSSM – Portugal) (Fig. 1) from March 2000 to March 2002. Two different sampling methods were used. One was sweeping with a sweep- net on the arboreal and herbaceous stratus. The other method was pitfall trapping and as fieldwork was primarily directed to ground dwelling beetles the preservative solution was Turquin. All the samples were pre- served in ethanol (70%) with 4% glycerine. Three sampling stations were established, each one corresponding to a different habitat and altitude (Table I). Sweeping was performed once a month in each station with a 53cm diameter sweep-net. Each sampling had 10 sessions of 5 sweeps. Eight pitfall traps with 9cm diameter were placed at each station and samples were collected every two weeks. The species were identified using several identification keys (Simon, 1914, 1926, 1929, 1932, 1937; Roberts, 1985, 1987, 1995; Barrientos, 2003), and classified according to the nomenclature of Platnick (2004). Some of the morphospecies still lack positive identification due to unindentifiable features or disagree with the author’s description. This may eventually be proven to be undescribed species. Some remarks, geographic distribution, previous citations for Portugal and new localities added to its known Portuguese distribution are given for each species. The complete faunistic data for each species, including the localities, sampling period and used sampling method, are presented in Appendix 1. Table I – Details of sampling sites: codes, locations, type of habitat and main vegetation, altitude and Universal Transverse Mercator square (10x10km) Code Location Habitat (Vegetation) Altitude (m) UTM PES Porto de Espada (Marvão) Olive groove (Olea europaea, Bellis sylvestris, Carduus tenuiflorus, Cistus spp, Daphne gnidium, Helichrysum stoechas, Lavandula sampaioana, Origanum virens, Salvia verbenaca, Silybum marianum) 760 29SPD45 SSM Serra São Mamede (Portalegre) Pine forest (Pinus pinaster,Cistus spp, Cytisus striatus, Digitalis thapsi, Erica spp, Halimium ocymoides, Phillyrea angustifolia) 1025 29SPD45 VLM Vale Mouro (Alegrete) “Montado” (Quercus suber, Calluna vulgaris, Chamaespartium tridentatum, Cistus spp, Erica spp, Genista triacanthos, Lavandula luisieri, Halimium ocymoides) 434 29SPD44
  10. 10. 5 RESULTS A total of 5,416 specimens, from 140 species or morphospecies, were sampled. Of these, 1,124 were males, 822 females and 3,470 juveniles. The remaining 91 were unidentifiable specimens and were not considered. Seventy one species were identified for PES, 60 for SSM, and 74 for VLM. During the study one species was added to Iberian fauna (Clubiona reclusa), to Portuguese fauna were added three genera (Agyneta, Entelecara and Gongylidium) and four species (Agyneta subtilis, Drassodes cupreus, Philodromus longipalpis and P. praedatus). It also was added a new species to Dysderidae family, Harpactocrates machadoi. Species assemblage SUBORDER THERAPHOSOMORPHAE Family Nemesiidae Simon, 1892 Nemesia spp. Nemesia is the dominant trapdoor spider genus in southern Europe (Decae, 1995). Twenty spe- cies were reported in Iberian Peninsula and 10 in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DIS- TRIBUTION: Southern Europe, Northern Africa and China (Raven, 1985). NEW LOCALITIES: PES, SSM and VLM. SUBORDER ARANEOMORPHAE Family Scytodidae Blackwall, 1852 Scytodes velutina Heineken & Lowe, 1832 The spiders of genus Scytodes are called the “spiting spiders” and they have a characteristic appearance. There is no web and the female carries her bundle of eggs under the body (Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Mediterranean Region and Cape Verde Islands (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CI- TATIONS: Coimbra (Bacelar, 1927a); Lisboa (Karsch, 1893 in Bacelar, 1928); Algodôr, Algozinho, Barca d’Alva, Braciais, Cerro das Antenas, Corredoura, Limas, Mértola, Palão, São Domingos, Va- le Garcia (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES. Family Dysderidae C.L.Koch, 1837 Dysdera spp. This genus is the most diverse of the family Dysderidae. Dysdera is very specious in the Iberian Peninsula (29 species) and is possible that a lot of species are not yet described. The number of en- demic species is very high (Ferrández, 1985, 1996). These spiders wander during the night and during daytime they hide in their silken nests in which the females also lay their eggs (Jones, 1985;
  11. 11. 6 Roberts, 1995). Thirty species were reported in Iberian Peninsula and 11 in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Mediterranean Region (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: PES, SSM and VLM. Harpactea spp. Like in Dysdera, the high diversity of this genus (16 species) may lead to a large number of un- described species in the Iberian Peninsula. They behave like Dysdera species, but are smaller than these (Ferrández, 1985; Jones, 1985). Seven species were reported in Portugal (Cardoso, 2003). DIS- TRIBUTION: Mediterranean Region (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: PES, SSM and VLM. Harpactocrates machadoi n. sp. Species from this genus are found in the higher altitudes of the Mediterranean Region (Fer- rández, 1986). Usually are found under stones and inside trees (Jones, 1985). This new species is added to this Mediterranean genus (Ferrández & Gouveia, In prep.). DISTRIBUTION: “Serra de São Mamede”. NEW LOCALITIES: PES and SMM. Family Oonopidae Simon, 1892 Oonops sp. Spiders of Oonops are small and pink and have a highly characteristic way of walking. They are nocturnal wanderers and spend the daytime in a loose silken cell where the eggs are laid (Roberts, 1995). Five were reported in Iberian Peninsula and 3 in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Cosmopolitan (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: PES. Family Palpimanidae Thorell, 1870 Palpimanus gibbulus Dufour, 1820 It is found under stones in arid areas, with its cribellate web (Jones, 1985). DISTRIBUTION: Me- diterranean Region and Central Asia (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Barro (Kulczynski, 1909 in Bacelar, 1928); Coimbra, Sines (Bacelar, 1928, 1935); Monsanto (Bacelar, 1935); Sintra (Schenkel, 1938); Cerro das Antenas, Corredoura, Mértola, Limas, Palão, Santo António, São Do- mingos, Vale Garcia (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: VLM. Family Uloboridae Thorell, 1869 Uloborus walckenaerius Latreille, 1806 Spins a horizontal orb web on low plants, particularly heather. The spider hangs below its web in a band of silk that runs across it (Jones, 1985; Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Paleartic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Coimbra (Karsch, 1893 in Bacelar, 1928); S. Mamede de Recezinhos (Simon, 1898 in Bacelar, 1928); Arruda dos Vinhos (Bacelar, 1927a); Guarda, S. Mar-
  12. 12. 7 tinho de Anta (Bacelar, 1928); Reguengos de Monsaraz (Nobre, 1998); Algozinho, Palão, Paúl do Boquilobo, Picote (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: SSM. Theridiidae Sundevall, 1833 Anelosimus aulicus (C. L. Koch, 1838) Spiders are found on low plants and bushes, particularly gorse. The egg sac is circular and with three spots (Jones, 1985; Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Canary Islands, Cape Verde Islands to Azerbeijan (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Foz do Douro (Simon, 1898 in Bacelar, 1928); S. Mamede de Recezinhos (Simon, 1898 in Bacelar, 1929); Senhora da Hora (Simon, 1898 in Bacelar, 1930); Valongo (Simon, 1898 in Bacelar, 1931); S. Martinho de Anta (Bacelar, 1928); Mira (Bace- lar, 1940); Mértola, Paúl do Boquilobo (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: VLM. Enoplognatha sp. The commonest species of this genus live in vegetation, other in ground level (Roberts, 1995). Fifteen species were reported in Iberian Peninsula and 7 in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Holoarctic Region (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: VLM. Enoplognatha thoracica (Hahn, 1833) It is found under stones and detritus in a variety of habitats, including woodland and heathland (Jones, 1985; Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Holarctic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITA- TIONS: S. Pedro da Cova, Serra de Minde (Machado, 1949); Corredoura, Limas (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES. Euryopis episinoides (Walckenaer, 1847) The knowledge about this genus is sparse but is thought that its species do not build hunting webs. Instead, they hunt actively and feed on ants and other small arthropods (Jones, 1985). DISTRI- BUTION: Mediterranean Region and China (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Algarve (Simon, 1881 in Bacelar, 1928; Bacelar, 1928); Coimbra (Bertkau, 1893 in Bacelar, 1928); Fagilde, Figuei- ra de Foz (Bacelar, 1933); Limas, Mértola, Moreanes (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES. Paidiscura pallens (Blackwall, 1834) They live on low vegetation, bushes and the lower branches of trees. The female builds white egg sacs which carry several pointed projections and are guarded amongst a few threads under the shelter of a leaf (Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Europe and Russia (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CI- TATIONS: Coimbra (Bertkau, 1893 in Bacelar, 1928); S. Mamede de Recezinhos (Simon, 1898 in Bacelar, 1928); Valdera, Coutada da Areia, Aviz (Bacelar, 1940); Reguengos de Monsaraz (Nobre, 1998); Fonte d’Aldeia, Paúl do Boquilobo (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES and VLM.
  13. 13. 8 Simitidion simile (C. L. Koch, 1836) It lives on gorse bushes, heather and other vegetation (Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Holarctic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Coimbra (Bertkau, 1893 in Bacelar, 1928); Figueira da Foz (Bacelar, 1928); Barca d’Alva, Constantim, Freixiosa, Palão, Paúl do Boquilobo, Picote, Mértola, Tó, Vila Chã da Braciosa (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES and VLM. Theridion impressum L. Koch, 1881 These spiders build webs on bushes and low vegetation. The retreat, near the top of the web, is covered with bits of vegetation and prey remains. The greenish-blue egg sac is guarded by the fe- male, which later feeds the young by regurgitation and shares large prey items with them (Jones, 1985). DISTRIBUTION: Holarctic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Undetermined in Portugal (Simon, 1914; Bacelar, 1928). NEW LOCALITIES: VLM. Theridion melanurum Hahn, 1831 Usually found on vegetation away from houses. DISTRIBUTION: Holarctic Region and the Azores Islands (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Coimbra (Bertkau, 1893 in Bacelar, 1928); S. Mame- de de Recezinhos (Simon, 1898 in Bacelar, 1927b; Bacelar, 1928); Lisboa, S. Martinho da Anta (Bacelar, 1927b); Reguengos de Monsaraz (Nobre, 1998); Paúl do Boquilobo (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: VLM. Theridion nigropunctatum Lucas, 1846 The species spins webs of criss-cross strands which may be on bushes and trees and in low ve- getation. DISTRIBUTION: Mediterranean Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Guarda (Ba- celar, 1928, 1933); Sintra (Bacelar, 1933; Schenkel, 1938); Constantim, Mazouco, Mértola, Paúl do Boquilobo (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: SSM. Family Linyphiidae Blackwall, 1859 Agyneta subtilis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1863) This is the first time that this species and genus are reported in Portugal. DISTRIBUTION: Palearc- tic Region (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: VLM. Batyphantes gracilis (Menge, 1841) It is found in moss, undergrowth and grass (Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Holarctic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Porto, Joane (Machado, 1937); Bairro, Paúl do Boquilobo (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES.
  14. 14. 9 Centromerus sp. Fifteen species were reported in Iberian Peninsula and 5 in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Holoarctic Region (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: SSM and VLM. Entelecara sp. Males have the head elevated into a lobe which carries the posterior median eyes. Two species were reported in Iberian Peninsula (Barrientos, 2003). For Portugal this is the first record. DISTRIBU- TION: Holoarctic Region (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: SSM. Erigone dentipalpis (Wider, 1834) Like other species of the genus Erigone uses the wind for dispersal (Jones, 1985). DISTRIBU- TION: Holarctic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Coimbra (Bertkau, 1893 in Bacelar, 1928); Paúl do Boquilobo (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES. Gongylidium Menge, 1868 It is found in trees and high bushes (Jones, 1985). Three species were reported in Iberian Penin- sula (Barrientos, 2003). For Portugal this is the first record. DISTRIBUTION: Palearctic Region (Plat- nick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: PES. Lepthyphantes sp. It spins sheet webs typical to the family, but the size of it depends on the species and the situa- tion (Roberts, 1995). Twenty seven species were reported in Iberian Peninsula and 3 in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Cosmopolitan (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: PES and VLM. Linyphia sp. This genus typical web has a horizontal sheet under which the spider stands (Jones, 1985). Four species were reported in Iberian Peninsula and 2 in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DIS- TRIBUTION: Cosmopolitan (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: PES, SSM and VLM. Meioneta fuscipalpa (C. L. Koch, 1836) Some authors consider the genus Meioneta as a synonymy of Agyneta (Roberts, 1987). DISTRI- BUTION: Palearctic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Esmoriz (Machado, 1941); Algo- dôr, Barrenta, Braciais, Corredoura, Limas, Mértola, Mira d’Aire, Paúl do Boquilobo, Vila Chã da Braciosa (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES.
  15. 15. 10 Micrargus laudatus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1881) This species is very similar to the others of the genus. DISTRIBUTION: Europe (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Tapada de Mafra (Telfer et al., 2003). NEW LOCALITIES: SSM. Oedothorax fuscus (Blackwall, 1834) They are small spiders with an orange carapace and legs. DISTRIBUTION: Europe, Russia, North Africa and Azores Islands (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Porto, Ermesinde, Praia de Pam- pelido (Machado, 1937); Bemposta, Limas, Mira d’Aire, Paúl do Boquilobo (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES and SSM. Pelecopsis sp. Like all the Erigoninae is a small dark spider about which little is known. Ten species were re- ported in Iberian Peninsula and 3 in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Cosmopolitan (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: PES and VLM. Savignia sp. It also belongs to the Erigoninae group. Only one species was reported in Iberian Peninsula and Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Cosmopolitan (Platnick, 2004). NEW LO- CALITIES: VLM. Sintula furcifer (Simon, 1911) It occurs in moss, grass and litter in a variety of habitats (Roberts, 1987). DISTRIBUTION: Spain, Morocco and Algeria (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Algodor, Algozinho, Corredoura, Fon- te d’Aldeia, Mazouco, Mértola, Palão, Picote, Tó e Vila Chã da Braciosa (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LO- CALITIES: SSM and VLM. Tenuiphantes tenuis (Blackwall, 1852) They live in low vegetation, moss and leaflitter in a wide variety of habitats (Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Europe and North Africa (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Lisboa (Bacelar, 1935); Reguengos de Monsaraz (Nobre, 1998); Algodôr, Algozinho, Braciais, Bruçó, Cerro das Na- tenas, Corredoura, Fonte d’Aldeia, Limas, Mazouco, Mértola, Palão, Paúl do Boquilobo, Picotino, Tó, Vila Chã da Braciosa (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES and VLM. Typhochrestus sp. It can be found in a wide variety of habitats (Roberts, 1997). Four species were reported in Ibe- rian Peninsula and 2 in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, Sub). DISTRIBUTION: Holoarctic Re- gion (Platnick, 2004) NEW LOCALITIES: SSM.
  16. 16. 11 Walckenaeria sp. Males distinguished from the other genera by the elevated protuberance in the prossoma. Eleven species were reported in Iberian Peninsula and 4 in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DIS- TRIBUTION: Cosmopolitan (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: VLM. Walckenaeria corniculans (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875) The male head presents a blunt protuberance carrying a crest of clavate hairs (Roberts, 1987). DISTRIBUTION: Europe and North Africa (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Serra da Cabreira, S. Pedro, Porto, Leça do Bailio, Salzedas, Serra do Caramulo, Serra de Minde, Monchique (Macha- do, 1949); Bairro, Barrenta, Bruçó, Fonte d’Aldeia, Mazouco, Palão (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALI- TIES: SSM. Araneidae Simon, 1895 Araneus sp. The species of Araneus are known as “garden spiders”, but they are commoner on gorse bushes away from houses. Nine species were reported in Iberian Peninsula and 10 in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Cosmopolitan (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: SSM and VLM. Araneus triguttatus (Fabricius, 1793) They are found on deciduous trees and bushes (Jones, 1985; Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Pa- learctic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: S. Mamede de Recezinhos (Simon, 1898 in Bacelar, 1928); Coimbra, Sines (Bacelar, 1928). NEW LOCALITIES: PES. Araniella cucurbitina (Clerck, 1757) This species lives on low vegetation, bushes and trees, in a wide variety of situations. The small orb web is found around 1.5m above the ground (Jones, 1985; Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Pa- learctic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Algarve (Simon, 1881 in Bacelar, 1928; Ba- celar, 1928); Coimbra (Karsch, 1893 in Bacelar, 1928); Cete, Foz do Douro, Guifões, S. Ma-mede de Recezinhos, Valongo (Simon, 1898 in Bacelar, 1927a; Bacelar, 1928); Tapada da Ajuda (Fran- ganillo, 1920 in Bacelar, 1928); Marinha Grande, S. Pedro de Muel (Bacelar, 1927a); Serra do Ge- rês (Bacelar, 1927a; Bacelar, 1928); Sintra (Bacelar, 1927a; Schenkel, 1938); Guarda, S. Martinho da Anta (Bacelar, 1928); Reguengos de Monsaraz (Nobre, 1998); Constantim, Fonte d’Aldeia, Frei- xiosa, Lagoaça, Paúl do Boquilobo, Tó, Vila Chã da Braciosa (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: SSM and VLM.
  17. 17. 12 Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772) Males of this species are frequently eaten by the females during mating. Females have a quite unmistakable appearance and make large orb webs (30cm diameter), near ground level amongst long grass, which have a zig-zag ribbon of silk running from side to side. They carry a large brown flask-shaped egg sac. They occur at the edge of fields, clearings and wasteland (Roberts, 1995). DIS- TRIBUTION: Palearctic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Coimbra (Karsch, 1893 in Ba- celar, 1928); Foz do Douro, Valongo (Simon, 1898 in Bacelar, 1927a; Bacelar, 1928); Paúl do Bo- quilobo (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: VLM. Hypsosinga sp. The species of this genus spin orb webs very close to the ground amongst low vegetation, often near water (Roberts, 1995). Four species were reported in Iberian Peninsula as well as in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Cosmopolitan (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: SSM. Mangora acalypha (Walckenaer, 1802) The single European species of Mangora has an unmistakable appearance. Spins an orb web on low vegetation, heather, gorse and other bushes and sits and wait for prey at the centre of the hub (Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Palearctic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Algarve (Simon, 1881 in Bacelar, 1928; Bacelar, 1928); Coimbra (Karsch, 1893 in Bacelar, 1928); Cete, Foz do Douro, Guifões, S. Mamede de Recezinhos, Porto (Simon, 1898 in Bacelar, 1927a; Bacelar, 1928); Agualva (Franganillo, 1920 in Bacelar, 1927a; Bacelar, 1928); Sintra, Marinha Grande, Ser- ra da Boa Viagem, Sanfins, Lagos, (Bacelar, 1927a); Serra do Gerês (Bacelar, 1927a; Bacelar, 1928); S. Martinho de Anta, Guarda (Bacelar, 1928); Cabo da Roca, Buçaco (Schenkel, 1938); Re- guengos de Monsaraz (Nobre, 1998); Algozinho, Barca d’Alva, Bemposta, Constantim, Fonte d’Al- deia, Freixiosa, Lagoaça, Lamoso, Mazouco, Mértola, Palão, Paúl do Boquilobo, Picote, Tó, Vila Chã da Braciosa (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: VLM. Neoscona sp. The spiders of Neoscona wait for prey on a platform of fine silk. The web is spun on low vege- tation and usually has a damaged appearance (Roberts, 1985). Two species were reported in Iberian Peninsula as well as in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Cosmopolitan (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: SSM.
  18. 18. 13 Zilla diodia (Walckenaer, 1802) This spider waits for prey at the centre of the web. This has a large latticed area of the threads at the hub and there is no signal-line or retreat. They occur on heather, bushes and the lower branches of trees, often in rather dark, shaded situations (Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: From Mediterranean to Azerbaijan (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Coimbra (Karsch, 1893 in Bacelar, 1928); S. Mamede de Recezinhos (Simon, 1898 in Bacelar, 1927b; Bacelar, 1928); Sintra (Bacelar, 1927b; Schenkel, 1938); Figueira da Foz (Bacelar, 1928); Cabo da Roca (Schenkel, 1938); Reguengos de Monsaraz (Nobre, 1998). NEW LOCALITIES: VLM. Lycosidae Sundevall, 1833 Alopecosa sp. Females of this genus remain with their egg sac in a burrow and periodically expose the sac to the sunlight near the opening (Roberts, 1995). Twelve species were reported in Iberian Peninsula and 6 in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Cosmopolitan (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: SSM. Alopecosa albofasciata (Brullé, 1832) This species is similar to the others of the genus but with distinguishable white marks. DISTRI- BUTION: Mediterranean Region to Central Asia (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Algarve (Si- mon, 1881 in Bacelar, 1928; Bacelar, 1928); Coimbra, Condeixa (Bertkau, 1893 in Bacelar, 1928); Marinha Grande (Bacelar, 1927a); Serra da Estrela (Bacelar, 1928); Algodôr, Algozinho, Barca d’Alva, Barrenta, Braciais, Cerro das Antenas, Constantim, Corredoura, Fonte d’Aldeia, Freixiosa, Mazouco, Mira d’Aire, Palão, Paúl do Boquilobo, Picote, Picotino, São Domingos, Serro Ventoso, Tó (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES, SSM and VLM. Alopecosa cuneata (Clerk, 1757) It is found mainly on chalk grassland and dunes (Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Palearctic Re- gion. PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Guarda (Bacelar, 1928). NEW LOCALITIES: VLM. Alopecosa simoni (Thorell, 1872) This species is similar to the others of the genus. DISTRIBUTION: Mediterranean Region (Plat- nick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Algarve (Simon, 1881 in Bacelar, 1928; Bacelar, 1928); São Ma- mede, Vila Chã da Braciosa (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: SSM and VLM. Hogna radiata (Latreille, 1817) It is found under stones in arid areas (Jones, 1985). DISTRIBUTION: Mediterranean Region up to Central Asia and Central Africa (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Coimbra (Bertkau, 1893 in
  19. 19. 14 Bacelar, 1928); Cete, S. Mamede de Recezinhos, Senhora da Hora, Valongo (Simon, 1898 in Bace- lar, 1927a; Bacelar, 1928); S. Pedro de Muel, Lisboa, Fagilde (Bacelar, 1927a); Guarda, Serra da Estrela (Bacelar, 1928); Sintra (Schenkel, 1938); Algozinho, Fonte d’Aldeia, Mazouco, Palão, Paúl do Boquilobo, Picotino, Tó, Vila Chã da Braciosa (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES, SSM and VLM. Pardosa spp. Spiders of this genus are the most abundant and common from all Lycosidae family in Europe. Most species are found running rapidly on the ground in warm, sunny conditions, but on cold, dull days are more likely to be found by sieving leaflitter, detritus and moss (Roberts, 1995). Twenty se- ven species were reported in Iberian Peninsula and 10 in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Cosmopolitan (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: SSM and VLM. Pardosa hortensis (Thorell, 1872) This species occur in a variety of situations, in woodland clearings, open ground and on beaches (Jones, 1985; Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Palearctic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITA- TIONS: Coimbra (Bertkau, 1893 in Bacelar, 1928); Guarda, Porto (Bacelar, 1928); Undetermined in Portugal (Simon, 1937); Algozinho, Barrenta, Bairro, Bruçó, Constantim, Fonte d’Aldeia, Freixio- sa, Limas, Mazouco, Mira d’Aire, Palão, Paúl do Boquilobo, Serro Ventoso, Tó, Vila Chã da Bra- ciosa. NEW LOCALITIES: PES. Pardosa monticola (Clerck, 1757) It is found in open areas with short, often sparse vegetation (Roberts, 1995), like dunes and low vegetation slopes (Jones, 1985). DISTRIBUTION: Palearctic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITA- TIONS: Coimbra (Bertkau, 1893 in Bacelar, 1928); Vila Real de Santo António (Simon, 1898 in Ba- celar, 1928); Guarda (Bacelar, 1928). NEW LOCALITIES: VLM. Pardosa proxima (C. L. Koch, 1847) Usually this species is found on grassland, often in damp situations (Jones, 1985; Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Palearctic Region, Canary Islands and Azores Islands (Platnick, 2004). PRE- VIOUS CITATIONS: Coimbra (Bertkau, 1893 in Bacelar, 1928); Foz do Douro, S. Mamede de Rece- zinho (Simon, 1898 in Bacelar, 1928); Fagilde (Bacelar, 1933); Algodôr, Algozinho, Braciais, Fon- te d’Aldeia, Limas, Mazouco, Mértola, Mira d’Aire, Moreanes, Palão, Paúl do Boquilobo, Tó, Vale Garcia, Vila Chá da Braciosa (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES.
  20. 20. 15 Trochosa sp. Spiders of this genus are nocturnal hunters and during the day are found in undergrowth and amongst moss and detritus. Females make shallow burrows where they seem to spend most of the day with their egg sac (Jones, 1985; Roberts, 1995). Five species were reported in Iberian Peninsula and 3 in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Cosmopolitan (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: SSM. Trochosa terricola Thorell, 1856 This is the most common species of the genus. It is found under stones and detritus and amongst moss (Jones, 1985; Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Holarctic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CI- TATIONS: Coimbra (Bertkau 1893 in Bacelar, 1928); Guarda (Bacelar, 1928). NEW LOCALITIES: PES and VLM. Oxyopidae Thorell, 1870 Oxyopes lineatus Latreille, 1806 It is found on low vegetation, bushes and the lower branches of trees (Jones, 1985; Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Palearctic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Coimbra (Bertkau, 1893 in Bacelar, 1928); S. Mamede de Recezinho, Cete (Simon, 1898 in Bacelar, 1927a; Bacelar, 1928); Lisboa, Marinha Grande, Serra da Boa Viagem (Bacelar, 1927a); Serra do Gerês, Guarda (Bacelar, 1928); Monserrate, Pombal (Schenkel, 1938); Reguengos de Monsaraz (Nobre, 1998); Barca d’Alva, Bemposta, Freixiosa, Mazouco, Mértola, Paúl do Boquilobo, Picote (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES, SSM and VLM. Oxyopes nigripalpis Kulczyn'ski, 1891 This species distinguishes from the others of the genus by its black palps. DISTRIBUTION: Me- diterranean Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Lisboa (Schenkel, 1938). NEW LOCALI- TIES: PES, SSM and VLM. Zoridae F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1893 Zora manicata Simon, 1878 Like the other species of this genus Z. manicata hunts actively during daytime near ground le- vel. DISTRIBUTION: Europe, Ukraine and Israel (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Tapada de Mafra (Telfer et al., 2003); Algozinho, Bairro, Fonte d’Aldeia, Freixiosa, Limas, Mazouco, Palão, Paúl do Boquilobo, Picotino, São Domingos, Serro Ventoso, Tó (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES, SSM and VLM.
  21. 21. 16 Agelenidae C. L. Koch, 1837 Malthonica sp. Only one species is known to the Iberian fauna, but this species does not fit in the description. This can be one of the other Mediterranean species or a novelty to the genus. DISTRIBUTION: Me- diterranean Region (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: PES, SSM and VLM. Malthonica lusitanica Simon, 1898 It is found under stones, amongst detritus in damp areas (Jones, 1985). DISTRIBUTION: From Por- tugal to France (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Porto (Simon, 1898 in Bacelar, 1928; Simon, 1937); Esmoriz, Guarda (Simon, 1937); Barrenta, Bairro, Paúl do Boquilobo, Serro Ventoso, Vale Garcia (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES, SSM and VLM. Tegenaria feminea Simon, 1870 It is similar to the other species only being distinguished by the genitalia. DISTRIBUTION: Portu- gal and Spain (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Coimbra (Bertkau, 1893 in Bacelar, 1933; Machado, 1941); Paço d’Arcos, Lisboa, Tavira (Bacelar, 1933); Pampilhosa, Porto, Foz Côa (Ma- chado, 1941); Algodôr, Algozinho, Barrenta, Braciais, Bruçó, Cerro das Antenas, Corredoura, Fon- te d’Aldeia, Lagoaça, Limas, Mazouco, Mértola, Palão, Paúl do Boquilobo, Picote, Picotino, São Domingos, Tó, Vale Garcia, Vila Chã da Braciosa (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES, SSM and VLM. Tegenaria inermis Simon, 1870 It also is distinguished by the genitalia. DISTRIBUTION: Spain and France (Platnick, 2004). PRE- VIOUS CITATIONS: Sameiro (Franganillo, 1920 in Bacelar, 1928; Bacelar, 1933); Buçaco, Serra do Gerês, Fagilde, Melgaço (Bacelar, 1933). NEW LOCALITIES: PES and VLM. Tegenaria montigena Simon, 1937 It is distinguished from the other species by its characteristic genitalia. DISTRIBUTION: Portugal and Spain (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Sintra (Schenkel, 1938); Fagilde, Vale do Pereiro, Vimieiro (Bacelar, 1940); S. Pedro da Cova, Moledo do Minho (Machado, 1941); Barrenta, Bairro, Constantim, Limas, Serro Ventoso, Tó (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES, SSM and VLM. Tegenaria picta Simon, 1870 It is found amongst stones and low vegetation in a variety of habitats, including woodland and mountains (Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Europe, Russia and North Africa (Platnick, 2004). PRE- VIOUS CITATIONS: Guarda, Coimbra (Bacelar, 1928, 1933); Algozinho, Bairro, Bruçó, Fonte d’Al-
  22. 22. 17 deia, Freixiosa, Limas, Mazouco, Palão, Picotino, São Domingos, Tó, Vale Garcia (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALI-TIES: VLM. Hahniidae Bertkau, 1878 Hahnia nava (Blackwall, 1841) Generally occurs away from woodland, amongst low vegetation in grassland and heathland and amongst stones or in crevices and depressions in open ground (Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Pale- arctic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Rio Tinto (Machado, 1941); Paúl do Boquilo- bo, São Domingos (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: SSM. Dictynidae O. P.-Cambridge, 1871 Marilynia bicolor (Simon, 1870) Found under stones and amongst detritus (Jones, 1985). DISTRIBUTION: Europe to Central Asia and North Africa (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Coimbra (Bertkau, 1893 in Bacelar, 1928); Reguengos de Monsaraz (Nobre, 1998); Algozinho, Braciais, Limas, Mira d’Aire, Picote (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES. Nigma sp. All species of this genus occur on bushes and trees. The spiders are usually well camouflaged and the fairly insignificant cribellate web is often spun within a slightly curled leaf (Roberts, 1995). Four species were reported in Iberian Peninsula and in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Cosmopolitan (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: VLM. Nigma puella (Simon, 1870) This yellowish spider orbs a cribellate web on leaves of bushes and trees (Roberts, 1995). DIS- TRIBUTION: Europe, Azores Islands, Madeira Island and Canary Islands (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Coimbra (Karsch, 1893 in Bacelar, 1928); S. Mamede de Recezinhos (Simon, 1898 in Bacelar, 1928); Casal do Monte (Franganillo, 1920 in Bacelar, 1928); Sintra, Colares (Schenkel, 1938); Reguengos de Monsaraz (Nobre, 1998); Algozinho, Constantim, Lagoaça, Lamoso, Mazou- co, Mértola, Palão, Paúl do Boquilobo, Picote, Tó, Vila Chã da Braciosa (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LO- CALITIES: VLM. Nigma walckenaeri (Roewer, 1951) This species generally webs and retreats on fairly large leaves (Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Palearctic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Coimbra (Bertkau, 1893 in Bacelar, 1928); Porto, S. Martinho da Anta (Bacelar, 1928). NEW LOCALITIES: VLM.
  23. 23. 18 Miturgidae Simon, 1885 Cheiracanthium C. L. Koch, 1839 Species from this genus are usually found in a silk retreat during the daytime, usually on vegeta- tion, but may occur under stones. This is also where the female remains with the eggs (Roberts, 1995). Thirteen species were reported in Iberian Peninsula and 7 in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Car- doso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Cosmopolitan (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: VLM. Anyphaenidae Bertkau, 1878 Anyphaena numida Simon, 1897 Live in woodlands as well as in the Mediterranean woodlands like “montado” amongst herba- ceous vegetation. Females are found under stones inside a silken cell where they lay the eggs (Uro- nes, 1995, 1996). DISTRIBUTION: Portugal, Spain, France and Algeria (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CI- TATIONS: Porto, Guarda (Simon, 1892 in Bacelar, 1928; Urones et al., 1995); Cete, Valongo (Si- mon, 1898 in Bacelar, 1928); Joane (Machado, 1937); Fonte d’Aldeia (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALI- TIES: VLM. Liocranidae Simon, 1897 Agroeca inopina O. P.-Cambridge, 1886 These spiders are found on sandhills and in woodland, amongst low vegetation and in leaflitter (Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Europe and Algeria (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Serra da Cabreira, Paredes de Coura, Pedras Salgadas (Machado, 1941); Algozinho, Barrenta, Bairro, Bruçó, Constantim, Mazouco, Paúl do Boquilobo, Picotino, Serro Ventoso, Tó, Vale Garcia (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES and VLM. Scotina celans (Blackwall, 1841) It is a very common species in all kind of forests and machis (Bosmans, 1999). Found amongst moss, leaflitter and grass tussocks in woodland, often in damp habitats, also on chalk grassland (Ro- berts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Europe, Algeria and Russia (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Gondomar, Buçaco (Machado, 1949); Algozinho, Barrenta, Bairro, Bruçó, Constantim, Fonte d’Al- deia, Lagoaça, Palão, Paúl do Boquilobo, Picotino, São Domingos, Serro Ventoso, Tó (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES, SSM and VLM. Clubionidae Wagner, 1887 Clubiona spp. It is the only genus of the family Clubionidae. Many species are typical of damp areas and low vegetation (Jones, 1985). Eighteen species were reported in Iberian Peninsula and 12 in Portugal
  24. 24. 19 (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Cosmopolitan (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: SSM and VLM. Clubiona reclusa O. P.-Cambridge, 1863 It is found amongst low vegetation and detritus in a wide range of habitats. Egg sac and female often are found on vegetation in curled leaves (Roberts, 1995). This is the first record in Iberian Pe- ninsula. DISTRIBUTION: Palearctic Region (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: PES. Corinnidae Karsch, 1880 Liophrurillus flavitarsis (Lucas, 1846) This species is very similar to the ones of the genus Micaria (Gnaphosidae). DISTRIBUTION: Eu- rope, Madeira Island and North Africa (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Coimbra (Bertkau, 1893 in Bacelar, 1928); Fagilde (Bacelar, 1927b); Algodôr, Barrenta, Cerro das Antenas, Limas, Mértola, Paúl do Boquilobo, Picote, Santo António, Serro Ventoso, Vale Garcia (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES, SSM and VLM. Phrurolinillus sp. This genus has been recently separated from Phrurolithus. Two species were reported in Iberian Peninsula and Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Portugal and Spain (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: SSM. Phrurolithus sp. Small spiders, rather ant-like in appearance and movement, and are diurnal hunters (Jones, 1985; Roberts, 1995). Four species are reported to the Iberian Peninsula and 2 to Portugal (Bar- rientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Holoarctic Region (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: SSM and VLM. Zodariidae Thorell, 1881 Selamia reticulata (Simon, 1870) Little is known about this Mediterranean species. DISTRIBUTION: Western Mediterranean (Plat- nick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Serra da Estrela (Simon, 1870 in Jocqué & Bosmans, 2001); Coimbra (Bacelar, 1928; Bacelar, 1935); Almodôvar (Bacelar, 1935); Monforte, Albufeira, Castelo Bom (Jocqué & Bosmans, 2001); Lousa, Ervedosa do Douro, Bemposta, Fonte d’Aldeia, Freixiosa, Lamoso, Mazouco, Picote, Picotino, S. Bento de Castris (Pekár et al., 2003). NEW LOCALITIES: PES and VLM.
  25. 25. 20 Zodarion alacre (Simon, 1870) It is the most abundant species of the genus in Portugal (Pekár et al., 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Por- tugal and Spain (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Albufeira, Bensafrim, Monchique (Bos- mans, 1994); Terras do Risco, Caminho de Limas, Barca d’Alva, Bemposta, Mogadouro, Constan- tim, Fonte d’Aldeia, Freixiosa, Mazouco, Palão, Picote, Herdade da Falcoeira, Monte das Coelhas, Barragem do Monte Novo, Monte da Valada, S. Bento de Castris, Carvalhal dos Arezes, Monte do Bulgão, Barragem da Vigia, Freixo, Monte da Tareja, Reguengos de Monsaraz, Alqueva (Pekár et al., 2003). NEW LOCALITIES: PES, SSM and VLM. Zodarion lusitanicum Cardoso, 2003 Although recently described and never reported from Spain, this species seems to be widespread throughout northern and central Portugal (Pekár & Cardoso, unpublished). DISTRIBUTION: Portugal (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Fonte d’Aldeia, Serra do Reboredo, Mazouco (Pekár et al., 2003). NEW LOCALITIES: PES, SSM and VLM. Zodarion styliferum (Simon, 1870) This species is widespread through the Iberian Peninsula. DISTRIBUTION: Portugal, Spain and Madeira Island (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Almodôvar (Bacelar, 1935; Bosmans, 1994); Albufeira, Faro, Peral, Monchique, Monte Gordo (Bosmans, 1994); Picote, Herdade da Falcoeira, Monte das Coelhas, Vale de Melão, Barragem do Monte Novo, Monte da Valada, Carvalhal dos Arezes, Freixieira Velha, Ribeira do Lavre, Monte do Bulgão, Barragem da Vigia, Freixo, Monte da Tareja, Reguengos de Monsaraz, Valverde, Ribeira do Medronhal, Alqueva (Pekár et al., 2003). NEW LOCALITIES: PES, SSM and VLM. Gnaphosidae Pocock, 1898 Callilepis concolor Simon, 1914 This species can be mistakable with the genus Zelotes. They feed on ants and are rather ant-like, in movement and appearance (Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Southern Europe (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: S. Pedro da Cova (Machado, 1941); Bairro, Bemposta, Cerro Ventoso, Cons- tantim, Fonte d’Aldeia, Limas, Mazouco, Mértola, Palão, Picote, Picotino, Tó, Vale Garcia, Vila Chã da Braciosa, (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES, SSM and VLM. Drassodes spp. They have a rather mousy, grey-brown abdomen and superficially resemble some Clubiona spe- cies. They are all quite fierce nocturnal hunters, spending the day in a silk retreat. Females seal themselves in a silken cell with their egg sac (Roberts, 1995). Sixteen species were reported in Ibe-
  26. 26. 21 rian Peninsula and 5 in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Cosmopolitan (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: SSM and VLM. Drassodes cupreus (Blackwall, 1834) Behaves like D. lapidosus, what takes some authors to say it is a subspecies it (Jones, 1985). This is the first record in Portugal. DISTRIBUTION: Palearctic Region (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALI- TIES: SSM. Drassodes lapidosus (Walckenaer, 1802) It is found under stones, in leaflitter and amongst the base of grass tussocks (Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Palearctic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Coimbra (Bertkau, 1893 in Bacelar, 1928); Valongo, S. Mamede de Recezinhos, Senhora da Hora (Simon, 1898 in Bacelar, 1928); Algozinho, Bemposta, Braciais, Fonte d’Aldeia, Mazouco, Paúl do Boquilobo, Picote, Pico- tino, Tó, Vila Chã da Braciosa (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES and SSM. Drassodes pubescens (Thorell, 1856) Similar to D. cupreus and D. lapidosus, but is more commonly found on grass tussocks in wooded areas and perhaps prefers damper habitats (Roberts, 1995). It is common in the higher re- gions of the Iberian Peninsula (Becker, 1881 in Melic, 1994). DISTRIBUTION: Palearctic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Algozinho, Braciais, Constantim, Tó (Cardoso, Sub). NEW LOCALITIES: SSM. Haplodrassus spp. They show some similarities to Drassodes in appearance, lifestyle and habits (Roberts, 1995). Eight species were reported in Iberian Peninsula and 5 in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Holoarctic Region (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: PES. Micaria formicaria (Sundevall, 1831) It is the biggest species of the genus Micaria in Europe (Jones, 1985). It is found under stones and running in dry, often sandy, terrain (Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Palearctic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Almodôvar, Ferreira do Alentejo, Barranco do Velho (Bacelar, 1940); Algodôr, Canais, Corredoura, Fonte d’Aldeia, Limas, Mazouco, Paúl do Boquilobo, São Domingos, Vale Garcia, Vila Chã da Braciosa (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES and VLM.
  27. 27. 22 Micaria guttigera Simon, 1878 It can be found at ground level and builds silken retreats under stones or barks (Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Portugal, Spain and France (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Coimbra (Bert- kau, 1893 in Bacelar, 1928); Fagilde (Bacelar, 1927b). NEW LOCALITIES: VLM. Nomisia sp. The spiders of this genus are very dark with a pair of marks well defined (Jones, 1985). Five species were reported in Iberian Peninsula and 3 in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Palearctic Region and Africa (Platnick, 2004) NEW LOCALITIES: PES. Nomisia exornata (C. L. Koch, 1839) These spiders are active during daylight and feed on ants (di Franco, 1992). Found under stones, especially in higher and humid areas (Jones, 1985). DISTRIBUTION: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Porto (Machado, 1941); Algodôr, Braciais, Fonte d’Aldeia, Mazouco, Mértola, Picote, Santo António, Vale Garcia, Vila Chã da Braciosa (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALI- TIES: PES. Phaeocedus braccatus (L. Koch, 1866) They are active during daytime and males, in particular, look rather ant-like. Found under sto- nes, amongst detritus and leaflitter and running in sunshine (Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Palearc- tic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Albergaria, Pico da Borrageira, Lagoa Comprida (Machado, 1949); Constantim, Mazouco (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: SSM. Scotophaeus scutulatus (L. Koch, 1866) Usually are associated to houses, being found inside or around it (Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Europe to Central Asia, Algeria (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Coimbra (Bertkau, 1893 in Bacelar, 1928). NEW LOCALITIES: VLM. Trachyzelotes holosericeus (Simon, 1878) This Mediterranean species recently was included in the genus Zelotes. DISTRIBUTION: Western Mediterranean (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Algarve (Simon, 1881 in Bacelar, 1928; Ba- celar, 1928); Algodôr, Braciais, Limas (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES. Zelotes spp. They are mostly nocturnal hunters and during the daytime are found under stones and detritus or amongst vegetation at ground level (Roberts, 1995). Twenty five species were reported in Iberian
  28. 28. 23 Peninsula and 15 in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Cosmopolitan (Plat- nick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: PES. Zelotes flagellans (L. Koch, 1882) Until very recently, this species was unknown to the Iberian Peninsula. DISTRIBUTION: Balearic Islands (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Algodôr, Bairro, Bemposta, Cerro da Antenas, Cor- redoura, Limas, Mértola, Palão, Paúl do Boquilobo, Santo António, São Mamede, São Domingos, Vale Garcia (Cardoso, sub). NEW LOCALITIES: PES, SSM and VLM. Zelotes subterraneus (C. L. Koch, 1833) It is found under stones and detritus and amongst dry vegetation in a variety of situations (Ro- berts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Palearctic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Senhora da Hora (Simon, 1898 in Bacelar, 1928). NEW LOCALITIES: PES, SSM and VLM. Zelotes thorelli Simon, 1914 Very little is known about this species biology and ecology. DISTRIBUTION: Southern Europe (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: S. Pedro da Cova, Régua (Machado, 1941); Algodôr, Algo- zinho, Barrenta, Bairro, Braciais, Cerro das Antenas, Constantim, Corredoura, Fonte d’aldeia, Frei- xiosa, Limas, Mazouco, Mértola, Mira d’Aire, Palão, Paúl do Boquilobo, Picote, Picotino, São Do- mingos, Serro Ventoso, Tó, Vale Garcia, Vila Chã da Braciosa (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES, SSM and VLM. Philodromidae Thorell, 1870 Philodromus aureolus (Clerck, 1757) It is found on low vegetation, bushes and the lower branches of trees (Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBU- TION: Palearctic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Algarve (Simon, 1881 in Bacelar, 1928; Bacelar, 1928); S. Mamede de Recezinho (Simon, 1898 in Bacelar, 1928); Coimbra, Guarda, Serra do Gerês (Bacelar, 1928); S. Martinho de Anta, Fagilde, Vale de Pereira, Pinhal de Leiria, Vi- mieiro, Abrantes, Ferreira do Alentejo, Almodôvar, Serra de Ossa, Vila Viçosa, Fontalva, Barranco do Velho (Bacelar, 1940); Reguengos de Monsaraz (Nobre, 1998). NEW LOCALITIES: PES and SSM. Philodromus buxi Simon, 1884 It is similar to P. aureolus. Found on bushes and trees (Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: From Eu- rope to Kazakhstan (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Algozinho, Lagoaça, Mértola, Paúl do Boquilobo (Cardoso, sub). NEW LOCALITIES: PES.
  29. 29. 24 Philodromus emarginatus (Schrank, 1803) Also similar to P. aureolus. It is found on heather and the lower branches of conifers (Jones, 1985; Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Palearctic region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Al- garve (Simon, 1881 in Bacelar, 1928; Simon, 1932; Bacelar, 1928); Condeixa (Bertkau, 1893 in Ba- celar, 1928); Barro (Kulczynski, 1911 in Bacelar, 1928); Coimbra (Bacelar, 1928); S. Martinho de Anta, Serra do Gerês, Vale da Pereira, Pinhal de Leiria, Lisboa (Bacelar, 1940). NEW LOCALITIES: VLM. Philodromus longipalpis Simon, 1870 It is similar in many aspects to P. buxi. (Roberts, 1995).This is the first record in Portugal. DIS- TRIBUTION: Europe (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: SSM. Philodromus praedatus O. P.-Cambridge, 1871 Also similar to P. aureolus. Most records are from the lower branches of trees, particularly oak (Roberts, 1995). This is the first record in Portugal. DISTRIBUTION: Europe and Russia (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: SSM. Philodromus rufus Walckenaer, 1826 It is found on bushes and the lower branches of trees (Jones, 1985; Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBU- TION: Holarctic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Coimbra (Karsch, 1893 in Bacelar, 1928); Cete, S. Mamede de Recezinhos (Simon, 1898 in Bacelar, 1928); Figueira da Foz, Guarda (Bacelar, 1928); Alcácer do Sal, Aviz, Almodôvar, Safara, Coutada da Areia (Bacelar, 1940); Algozinho, Bemposta, Fonte d’Aldeia, Lamoso, Mazouco, Mértola, Palão, Paúl do Boquilobo, Picote, Vila Chã da Braciosa (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALI-TIES: VLM. Thanatus formicinus (Clerck, 1757) This is a big spider that is found in wet heathland, amongst moss and the base of grasses and heather, sometimes in drier, sandy habitats (Jones, 1985; Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Holarctic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Guarda (Bacelar, 1928). NEW LOCALITIES: PES. Tibellus sp. Their straw coloration renders them inconspicuous on dried vegetation, where they ambush pas- sing insects. Females attach the egg sac near the top of grasses and other vegetation and stands guard over it (Roberts, 1995). Four species were reported in Iberian Peninsula and 3 in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Cosmopolitan (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: SSM.
  30. 30. 25 Thomisidae Sundevall, 1833 Misumena vatia (Clerck, 1757) This species sits in flowers and ambushes visiting insects. It is able to slowly change colour and the female may be white, yellow or greenish, with or without red spots or stripes. The male differs markedly from the female (Barrientos & Urones, 1985; Jones, 1985; Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Holarctic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Barro (Kulczynski, 1911 in Bacelar, 1928); Coimbra (Karsch, 1893; Bacelar, 1928); Cete, Valongo (Simon, 1898 in Bacelar, 1927a; Bacelar, 1928); Damaia (Franganillo, 1920 in Bacelar, 1927a; Bacelar, 1928); Lisboa (Bacelar, 1927a); Fi- gueira da Foz, S. Martinho de Anta (Bacelar, 1928); Reguengos de Monsaraz (Nobre, 1998); Fonte d’Aldeia, Freixiosa, Mértola (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES. Monaeses paradoxus (Lucas, 1846) The spider stretches along twigs or grasses. This camouflage posture is known from Tmarus- species. It is found among the vegetation and its body adaptation makes it look like a stick (Urones, 1985). DISTRIBUTION: From Europe to Azerbaijan and Africa (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Grândola, Mora, Aviz (Bacelar, 1940); Mértola (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: SSM. Ozyptila pauxilla (Simon, 1870) It is found at ground level and amongst detritus (Jones, 1985). DISTRIBUTION: Western Mediter- ranean (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Safara (Bacelar, 1940); Porto (Machado, 1941); Al- godôr, Bemposta, Braciais, Corredoura, Fonte d’Aldeia, Freixiosa, Lamoso, Limas, Mazouco, Mira d’Aire, Moreanes, Palão, Paúl do Boquilobo, Picote, Santo António, São Mamede, Vila Chã da Bra- ciosa (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES. Ozyptila simplex (O. P.-Cambridge, 1862) It can be found in low vegetation and detritus. Males are always found in herbaceous vegetation in humid grasslands (Jones, 1985; Urones, 1985). DISTRIBUTION: Palearctic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Guarda (Bacelar, 1928); Algodôr, Braciais, Corredoura, Limas, Mértola, Mira d’Aire, Moreanes, Paúl do Boquilobo, São Mamede (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES. Runcinia grammica (C. L. Koch, 1837) These spiders wait for prey on bushes, flowers and grasses. Males are darker and much smaller than the females (Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Palearctic Region, St. Helena and South Africa (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Cete, Foz do douro, S. Mamede de Recezinho, Senhora da Hora, Valongo (Simon, 1898 in Bacelar, 1927a; Bacelar, 1928); Damaia (Franganillo, 1920 in Ba- celar, 1927a); Alcácer do Sal (Bacelar, 1927a); Coimbra, Sines, S. Martinho da Anta (Bacelar,
  31. 31. 26 1928); Odivelas (Schenkel, 1938); Reguengos de Monsaraz (Nobre, 1998); Mértola, Paúl do Boqui- lobo, Picote, Tó (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES, SSM and VLM. Synema globosum (Fabricius, 1775) It has an unmistakable appearance and ambushes prey on umbellifers but may occur on other flowers heads, tall plants and bushes (Barrientos & Urones, 1985; Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Palearctic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Algarve (Simon, 1881 in Bacelar, 1928; Bacelar, 1928); Coimbra (Karsch, 1893 in Bacelar, 1928); Foz do Douro, S. Mamede de Recezinho, Valongo (Simon, 1898 in Bacelar, 1927a; Bacelar, 1928); Valença (Franganillo, 1920 in Bacelar, 1927a; Bacelar, 1928); Alcácer do Sal, Marinha Grande (Bacelar, 1927a); Lisboa (Bacelar, 1927a; 1928); Sintra (Bacelar, 1927a; Schenkel, 1938); Felgueiras, Guarda, S. Martinho de Anta (Bacelar, 1928); Monserrate, Buçaco (Schenkel, 1938); Reguengos de Monsaraz (Nobre, 1998); Algozinho, Barca d’Alva, Lamoso, Mazouco, Mértola, Paúl do Boquilobo, Picote, Tó (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALI-TIES: PES, SSM and VLM. Thomisus onustus Walckenaer, 1805 The colour of the female varies and may be white, yellow or various shades of pink to match their surroundings. The spider typically sits amongst the pink blooms of heather and waits for prey (Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Palearctic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Algarve (Simon, 1881 in Bacelar, 1928; Bacelar, 1928); Coimbra (Bertkau, 1893 in Bacelar, 1928; Karsch, 1893 in Bacelar, 1928); Valongo, Foz do Douro (Simon, 1898 in Bacelar, 1928); Benfica (Franga- nillo, 1920 in Bacelar, 1927a; Bacelar, 1928); Mata do Urso, Lisboa, Porto, Vimioso (Bacelar, 1927a); S. Martinho de Anta, Serra do Gerês, Guarda, Figueira da Foz (Bacelar, 1928); Reguengos de Monsaraz (Nobre, 1998); Algozinho, Barca d’Alva, Constantim, Mazouco, Mértola, Palão, Paúl do Boquilobo (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES, SSM and VLM. Tmarus piochardi (Simon, 1866) It has a highly characteristic appearance, with a single tubercle on the posterior end of the abdo- men. Its cryptic pose on twigs, with the front legs stretched out in front, is very similar to that adop- ted by Tibellus (Philodromidae) (Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Mediterranean Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Coimbra (Karsch, 1893 in Bacelar, 1928); S. Martinho de Anta (Bace- lar, 1927b); Guarda (Bacelar, 1928). NEW LOCALITIES: PES and SSM. Xysticus sp. It bears some resemblance to the genus Oxyptila. Most species occur on low vegetation or at ground level (Barrientos & Urones, 1985). Thirty four species were reported in Iberian Peninsula
  32. 32. 27 and 22 in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Cosmopolitan (Platnick, 2004) NEW LOCALITIES: VLM. Xysticus bufo (Dufour, 1820) This spider has a very characteristic appearance and behaves like the other Xysticus. DISTRIBU- TION: Mediterranean Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Coimbra (Karsch, 1893 in Ba- celar, 1928); Foz do Douro (Simon, 1898b in Bacelar, 1927b; Bacelar, 1928); Foja (Bacelar, 1927b); S. Martinho de Anta (Bacelar, 1928); Algodôr, Braciais, Corredoura, Fonte d’Aldeia, Li- mas, Mértola, Paúl do Boquilobo, São Domingos, Vila Chã da Braciosa (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LO- CALITIES: PES and VLM. Xysticus cristatus (Clerck, 1757) It is found on bushes, low vegetation or at ground level in a variety of situations (Jones, 1985; Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Palearctic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: S. Mamede de Recezinhos (Simon, 1898 in Bacelar, 1928); Figueira da Foz, Serra do Gerês, S. Martinho de Anta, Coimbra (Bacelar, 1928); Pinhal de Leiria (Bacelar, 1940); Reguengos de Monsaraz (Nobre, 1998); Braciais, Paúl do Boquilobo, Vila Chã da Braciosa (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES. Salticidae Blackwall, 1841 Ballus sp. This small spider can be found on broad-leaved bushes and trees, particularly oaks. Three spe- cies were reported in Iberian Peninsula and Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBU- TION: Palearctic Region and North Africa (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: PES and VLM. Chalcoscirtus infimus (Simon, 1868) It is found under stones, and amongst grass at the sunshine (Jones, 1985). DISTRIBUTION: From Southern Europe to Central Asia (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Leça da Palmeira, Pinhal de Leiria, Fontalva, Praia da Rocha (Bacelar, 1940); Porto (Machado, 1941); Reguengos de Monsaraz (Nobre, 1998); Barrenta, Bairro, Corredoura, Limas, Mértola, Mira d’Aire, Paúl do Boquilobo, Pi- cote, Vila Chã da Braciosa (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES. Cyrba algerina (Lucas, 1846) It can be found in arid areas but sometimes it is under stones. Usually is seen running (Jones, 1985). DISTRIBUTION: From Canary Islands to Central Asia (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Coimbra (Bacelar, 1928); Monsanto, Tavira, Trafaria (Bacelar, 1933); Ericeira (Schenkel, 1938); Algodôr, Cerro das Antenas, Corredoura, Limas, Mértola, Palão, Paúl do Boquilobo, Picote, Santo António, São Domingos, Vale Garcia (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: SSM.
  33. 33. 28 Euophrys spp. They are fairly small spiders and many have attractive markings. The egg sac in many species is loosely attached under a stone or piece of detritus and is guarded by the female (Roberts, 1995). Eleven species were reported in Iberian Peninsula and 9 in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). NEW LOCALITIES: PES, SSM and VLM. Euophrys sulphurea (L. Koch, 1867) These small spiders attach their egg sac under stones or pieces of detritus. DISTRIBUTION: Southern Europe and Syria (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Esmoriz, S. Pedro de Cova, Por- to (Machado, 1941); Algodôr, Braciais, Corredoura, Limas, Mazouco, Mértola, Moreanes, Palão, Paúl do Boquilobo, Picotino, Santo António, São Domingos, São Mamede, Serro Ventoso, Vale Garcia, Vila Chã da Braciosa (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: PES. Evarcha spp. The two sexes are, in most species, very different in their general appearance. Females lay their egg sacs in dried, rolled-up leaves or within several bunched shoots of vegetation (Roberts, 1995). Four species were reported in Iberian Peninsula and 2 in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Cosmopolitan (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: SSM and VLM. Heliophanus sp. Most species occur on low vegetation, being found in the undergrowth in poor weather but very active near the top of plants in sunshine (Roberts, 1995). Sixteen species were reported in Iberian Peninsula and 8 in Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Palearctic Region and Africa (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: VLM. Icius hamatus (C. L. Koch, 1846) Like the other species of Icius genus presents white and red markings (Jones, 1985). DISTRIBU- TION: Palearctic Region (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Coimbra (Bertkau, 1893 in Bacelar, 1928; Karsh, 1893 in Bacelar, 1928); Valongo (Simon, 1898 in Bacelar, 1928); Fagilde (Bacelar, 1927b); Freixiosa, Lamoso, Mértola, Paúl do Boquilobo, Picote (Cardoso, Sub.). NEW LOCALITIES: VLM. Macaroeris sp. Its size varies between 4 and 6 mm and it can be found on branches of trees. Formerly was in- cluded in the genus Eris. Two species were reported in Iberian Peninsula and Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Palearctic Region (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: VLM.
  34. 34. 29 Phlegra loripes Simon, 1876 It is found amongst low vegetation (Jones, 1985; Roberts, 1995). DISTRIBUTION: Portugal, Spain and France (Platnick, 2004). PREVIOUS CITATIONS: Undetermined in Portugal (Simon, 1937). NEW LOCALITIES: VLM. Sitticus sp. This genus has a rather dull brown or greyish-brown appearance (Roberts, 1995). Four species were reported in Iberian Peninsula and Portugal (Barrientos, 2003; Cardoso, 2003). DISTRIBUTION: Cosmopolitan (Platnick, 2004). NEW LOCALITIES: PES and VLM. DISCUSSION In the present study, 140 species or morphospecies were identified, which may represent 11% of the Iberian fauna and 21% of the Portuguese one. All the species are cited for the first time to the studied localities in the PNSSM. One species (Clubiona reclusa) is possible a novelty to Iberian Peninsula. For the Portuguese spider fauna there are three new genera (Agyneta, Entelecara and Gongylium) and four new species (Agyneta subtilis, Drassode cupreus, Philodromus longipalpis and P. praedatus). But more evidence must be given to the new species that was found during this study: Harpactocrates machadoi. This increment on the faunistic knowledge shows how the Portuguese spider fauna is underestimated and supports the need of implementation of more inventory studies. In other way, the main effort should therefore be channelled to the areas where there was never any spider sampling. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS A.F. Gouveia was supported by “Fundo Social Europeu” and “Ministério da Educação” (PRODEP). P. Cardoso was supported by “Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia” – SFRH/BD/1195/2000. A. Serrano was supported by “Instituto da Conservação Natureza” (ICN) through “Serra de São Mamede” Natural Park and by “Sociedade Portuguesa de Entomologia”. We are grateful to “Serra de São Mamede Natural Park” staff for logistical support during the fieldwork. To Nuno Gaspar de Oliveira for comments on earlier drafts of the manuscript and to Miguel-Angel Ferrández for providing some bibliography and for the help with the identification of specimens of genus Harpactocrates.
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  38. 38. 33 SPIDER COMMUNITY THROUGH TIME IN “SERRA DE SÃO MAMEDE” NATURAL PARK (PORTUGAL) A.F. GOUVEIA, P. CARDOSO, N.G. OLIVEIRA & A.R.M. SERRANO Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa. Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal. ABSTRACT: To evaluate species richness at a determined area it is needed to establish a sampling protocol. This should be the optimal in what regards the use of resources, providing clear guidance to the lead ques- tions. Choosing the sites location and establish the most adequate time window is crucial for any faunal sur- vey protocol. In this work we aim to establish a time period during which the sampling for maximum rich- ness is optimized for the studied area “Serra de São Mamede” Natural Park. At this point we can claim that for this area, both abundance and taxa richness are maximized if collecting is performed during June. It should also be noticed that genera richness behaves very similarly to species richness, providing a first clue that the former can probably be used as a surrogate of the latter. RESUMO: Quando se pretende realizar uma amostragem e avaliar a riqueza específica de uma determinada área o primeiro passo é elaborar um protocolo. Este deve ser o mais eficiente possível no que diz respeito ao uso dos recursos, para que estes não sejam desperdiçados a colher dados que não iram responder às questões colocadas. A escolha dos locais e da janela temporal mais adequada é fundamental em qualquer protocolo de avaliação faunística. Neste trabalho pretendeu-se estabelecer uma janela temporal em que a obtenção de da- dos de riqueza seja optimizada para o Parque Natural da Serra de São Mamede. Assim, podemos afirmar que para esta área, tanto a abundância como as riquezas genérica e específica são maximizadas se as amostragens forem realizadas durante o mês de Junho. É também de notar que a riqueza genérica tem uma variação seme- lhante à da riqueza específica, este pode ser um indício que a primeira poderá ser usada como um indicador da segunda. INTRODUCTION Biological communities usually are measured by specific diversity and species relative abun- dance (Magurran, 1988). To study the community, its dynamics should be known and only then we can decide what sampling intensity and frequency must be used. Time and resources will then not be wasted collecting unusable data, or data which may not answer the asked questions (Oliver & Beattie, 1996; Duelli 1997; Duelli et al., 1999; Finn et al., 1999; Norris, 1999). With arthropods sampling, a brief period of field collection can generate a huge number of specimens from a wide variety of taxa. In this case it is the specimens sorting and identification that requires considerable effort (Duelli et al., 1999; Wilkie et al., 2003). Many new sampling and monitoring protocols are being designed and in some way their effecti- veness depend on the ability to estimate local species richness reliably at a given point in time (Re- lys et al., 2002; Sorensen et al., 2002). Although the exact design of such a protocol will be specific to the habitat being monitored as well as the assemblage being used, Norris (1999) suggested some general recommendations, among others: (1) Always sample during the same month each year, or if sampling throughout the year, only compare sampling done in the same months; (2) Consider using
  39. 39. 34 Figure 1 – Study areas in “Serra de São Mamede” Natural Park (black dots). genus level analysis if the species:genus ratio is small to avoid problems with taxonomic uncertain- ty. To decide which month is best to apply these protocols it is fundamental that the phenology, i.e., the populations’ fluctuation through time in abundance and diversity, of the target group is well known. The aim of the present paper is to suggest the best time of the year for collecting as many spe- cies as possible independently of the methods to be employed spending the least time possible in the field. One single method was used to meet our objectives, the one that could provide us the most and best information with least effort. One of the most employed methods for spiders is pitfall trap- ping (e.g. Brennan et al., 1999; Green, 1999; Norris, 1999; Riecken, 1999). Although pitfalls are exclusively directed towards epigeal species, they can provide almost half the spider species living in a typical Mediterranean habitat (Cardoso, Sub.). MATERIAL AND METHODS Study area From March 2000 to March 2002, the arthropods of three localities in “Serra de São Mamede” Natural Park (PNSSM – Portugal) (Fig. 1) were sampled. Each sampling station corresponds to a different habitat and al- titude (Table I). Sampling methods At each sampling station, 8 pitfall traps (9cm diameter), with Turquin solution as a preservative method, were placed and every two weeks sam- ples were collected, except in winter when they were emptied monthly. Table I – Details of sampling sites: codes, locations, type of habitat and main vegetation, altitude and Universal Transverse Mercator square (10x10km) Code Location Habitat (Vegetation) Altitude (m) UTM PES Porto de Espada (Marvão) Olive groove (Olea europaea, Bellis sylvestris, Carduus tenuiflorus, Cistus spp, Daphne gnidium, Helichrysum stoechas, Lavandula sampaioana, Origanum virens, Salvia verbenaca, Silybum marianum) 760 29SPD45 SSM Serra São Mamede (Portalegre) Pine forest (Pinus pinaster,Cistus spp, Cytisus striatus, Digitalis thapsi, Erica spp, Halimium ocymoides, Phillyrea angustifolia) 1025 29SPD45 VLM Vale Mouro (Alegrete) “Montado” (Quercus suber, Calluna vulgaris, Chamaespartium tridentatum, Cistus spp, Erica spp, Genista triacanthos, Lavandula luisieri, Halimium ocymoides) 434 29SPD44
  40. 40. 35 Data analysis For all calculus, we used the percentage of specimens, species or genera captured in each sample, compared to the respective overall annual richness, as the measure of their efficacy. In the comparison between the species and genera richness only adults were taken into account in the analysis, since immature spiders are difficult or even impossible to identify, and morphospecies were established whenever species could not be identified. RESULTS A total of 1,831 adult spiders were collected, representing 23 families, 74 genera, and 106 spe- cies or morphospecies. Concerning abundance, the distribution pattern throughout the year is very similar in the 3 sam- pling stations (Fig. 2a,b,c). The number of adult specimens starts to increase in May and has the maximum point in June or July. In June, the average abundance reached 19% for males and 18% for females, and in July 11% and 19%, respectively. For PES and SSM another peak occurred in Sep- tember and for VLM in October. The average values show that among these peaks, the October one is more evident, reaching 14% for males and 10% for females sampled in this month (Fig. 2d). c d Figure 2 - Proportion of abundance in each sampling station during the studied period. a) PES; b) SSM; c) VLM and d) average values from the 3 localities. Error bars represent one standard deviation. ba 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35% Jan Feb March April May June July August Sept Oct Nov Dec Male Female Juveniles 0 5 10 15 20 25% Jan Feb March April May June July August Sept Oct Nov Dec Male Female Juveniles 0 5 10 15 20 25 30% Jan Feb March April May June July August Sept Oct Nov Dec Male Female Juveniles 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Jan Feb March April May June July August Sept Oct Nov Dec % Male Female Juveniles
  41. 41. 36 Species and genera richness data show the same pattern as abundance (Fig. 3a-d). There is an increase until June, reaching 42% of both genera and species average richness during this month, with a very small standard deviation. In October there is another, but lighter, richness peak that in average reaches 19% of the annual richness. This is due to the fact that some families have their abundance and diversity maximum during this month (Appendix 1). In VLM the genera and species richness is more homogeneous, but also has a lower percentage for each month when compared with the other localities. It should be noticed that the percentage of genera richness is much similar to the percentage of species richness, which indicates the effectiveness of the use of genera to evaluate species richness for each studied locality. DISCUSSION Species distribution thoughout the annual cycle has some remarkable features: (a) The majority of families present maximum richness in May and June, but Linyphiidae, Zodaridae, and Neme- c d ba Figure 3 - Proportion of genera and species richness in each sampling station. a) PES; b) SSM; c) VLM and d) average values from the 3 localities. Error bars represent one standard deviation. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Jan Feb March April May June July August Sept Oct Nov Dec % Genera Species 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50% Jan Feb March April May June July August Sept Oct Nov Dec Genera Species 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40% Jan Feb March April May June July August Sept Oct Nov Dec Genera Species 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 % Jan Feb March April May June July August Sept Oct Nov Dec Genera Species
  42. 42. 37 siidae have an abundance and richness peak in October; (b) Many species have notorious population outbreaks during short time periods, being adults entirely absent during the rest of the year. The distribution of abundance and taxa richness along an annual cycle is markedly bimodal. There is one very high peak during June and a smaller, however obvious, peak during October. With these results we can say that a study of diversity assessment can profit immensely if we point out our maximum sampling effort to be done during June. If more complete results are needed, a smaller sampling effort should be pointed to October, to complement of June’s data. The- se results were not unexpected, since in Cardoso (Sub.) the same month is suggested as the best al- ternative for an effective sampling of species richness. It also has been shown that the use of genera gives a good perspective of the species richness of the area at any time of the year. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are grateful to “Serra de São Mamede” Natural Park staff for logistical support during the fieldwork. A.F. Gouveia was supported by “Fundo Social Europeu” and “Ministério da Educação” (PRODEP). P. Cardoso was supported by “Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia” – SFRH/BD/1195/2000. N.G. de Oliveira was supported by “Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia“- SFRH/BD/1196/2000. A.R.M. Serrano was supported by “Instituto da Conservação da Natureza” (ICN) through “Serra de São Mamede” Natural Park and by “Sociedade Portuguesa de Entomolo- gia”. BIBLIOGRAPHY BRENNAN, K.E.C., J.D. MAJER & N. REYGAERT. 1999. Determination of an optimal pitfall trap size for sampling spiders in a Western Australia Jarrah forest. Journal of Insect Conservation, 3: 297-307. CARDOSO, P. Submitted. The use of arachnids (Class Arachnida) in biodiversity evaluation and monitoring of Natural Areas. Tese de doutoramento em Biologia (Ecologia e Biossistemática) pela Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa. DUELLI, P. 1997. Biodiversity evaluation in agricultural landscapes: an approach at two different scales. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 62: 81-91. DUELLI, P., M.K. OBRIST & D.R. SCHMATZ. 1999. Biodiversity evaluation in agricultural landscapes: above-ground insects. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 74: 33-64. FINN, J.A., T. GITTINGS & P.S. GILLER. 1999. Spatial and temporal variation in species composition of dung beetles assemblages in Southern Ireland. Ecological Entomology, 24: 24-36.
  43. 43. 38 GREEN, J. 1999. Sampling method and time determines composition of spider collections. Journal of Arachnology, 27: 176-182. MAGURRAN, A.E. 1988. Ecological diversity and its measurement. Princeton University Press, Princeton, USA. NORRIS, K.C. 1999. Quantifying change through time in spider assemblages: sampling methods, indices and sources of error. Journal of Insect Conservation, 3: 309-325. OLIVER, I. & A.J. BEATTIE. 1996. Invertebrate morphospecies as surrogates for species: a case study. Conservation Biology, 10: 99-109. RELYS, V.; S. KOPONEN & D. DAPKUS. 2002. Annual difference and species turnover in peat bog spider communities. Journal of Arachnology, 30: 416-424. RIECKEN, U. 1999. Effects of short-term sampling on ecological characterization and evaluation of epigeic spider communities and their habitats for site assessment studies. Journal of Arachnology, 27: 189-195. SORENSEN, L.L., J.A. CODDINGTON & N. SCHARFF 2002. Inventorying and estimating subcanopy spider diversity using semiquantitative sampling methods in an afromontane forest. Environmental Entomology, 31: 319-330. WILKIE, L., G. CASSIS & M. GRAY. 2003. A quality control protocol for terrestrial invertebrate biodiversity assessment. Biodiversity and Conservation, 12: 121-146.
  44. 44. 39 HIGHER TAXA SURROGATES OF SPIDERS (ARANEAE) DIVERSITY: A CASE-STUDY A.F. GOUVEIA, P. CARDOSO, N.G. de OLIVEIRA, I. SILVA & A.R.M. SERRANO Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa. Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal. ABSTRACT: The assessment of species richness through the use of higher taxa has been increasing. This is a rapid and cost-effective approach to assess the number o species in a determined locality. To test this approach we used data obtained from a study of the spiders of “Serra de São Mamede” Natural Park. The relation between the higher taxa and the number of species has shown to be linear. The correlation values indicate that the use of genera data as surrogate of the number of species is more effective than the use of families. As already shown in other works, this case-study supports the use of genera richness to assess species richness, what leads to a rapid and cost-effective assessment. RESUMO: O uso de taxa superiores para a avaliação da riqueza específica tem vindo a ser cada vez mais utilizada, pois é uma forma rápida e com custos reduzidos de o fazer. Para testar esta abordagem de avaliação de riqueza usaram-se dados de um estudo de aranhas do Parque Natural da Serra de São Mamede. Verificou-se que a relação entre os taxa superiores e o número de espécies na maioria apresenta na maioria dos casos uma regressão linear. Os valores de correlação mostram que os géneros apresentam uma maior eficiência que as famílias para predizer o número de espécies. Estes dados corroboram trabalhos anteriores mostrando que os géneros são um bom indicador da riqueza específica, o que pode levar a avaliações de forma mais rápida e com segurança nos resultados. INTRODUCTION The ability to estimate local species richness reliably at a given point in time is fundamental, be- cause all more complex sampling designs depend on it (Sorensen et al., 2002). In arthropods sam- pling, a brief period of field collection can generate a huge number of specimens from a wide varie- ty of taxa. In this case it is the specimens sorting and identification that requires considerable effort material (Duelli et al., 1999; Wilkie et al., 2003). To redress this imbalance, rapid and cost-effective methods of assessing invertebrate diversity are required. Among the most popular is the use of higher taxa surrogates, as proposed by several authors (e.g. Gaston & Williams, 1993; Wilkie et al., 2003; Cardoso et al., 2004). This approach has several advantages, because with a low effort and resources, information can be obtained on a large number of taxa. The use of higher taxa surrogacy as been used for several different kinds of organisms (Wil- liams et al., 1994; Gaston & Blackburn, 1995; Vanderklift et al., 1998; Balmford et al., 2000; Mar- tín-Piera, 2000; Borges et al., 2002; Cardoso et al., 2004). One must be careful though, there are se- veral factors (e.g. sampling effort, geographical location, habitat type) that may influence the rela- tionship between species richness and higher taxa richness (Gaston & Williams, 1993; Andersen, 1995; Cardoso et al., 2004). In this work, data from “Serra de São Mamede” Natural Park (PNSSM) was used as a case-stu- dy of this diversity assessment approach. With it, we intend to test the use of higher taxa surrogacy with spiders in this Natural Area.
  45. 45. 40 Figure 1 – Study areas in “Serra de São Mamede” Natural Park (black dots). MATERIAL AND METHODS Study area From March 2000 to March 2002, the arthropods of three localities in PNSSM (Portugal) (Fig. 1) were sampled. Each sampling station corres- ponds to a different habitat and altitude (Table I). Sampling methods Since fieldwork was primarily directed towards beetles, a series of pitfall traps with Turquin solution as a preservative, was used to collect ground dwelling arthropods. Eight pitfall traps with 9cm diameter were placed at each station and samples were collected every two weeks, ex- cept during winter when this was done monthly. Data analysis Only adults were taken into account in the analysis and morphospecies were established when- ever species could not be identified. Specimens that could not be assigned to a morphospecies level were not taken in account in this study. To assess if either family or genus richness can be consistently used to predict species richness a regression analysis was performed over all samples. All combinations of different dates and sites were considered as independent variables. Both linear and exponential regressions were tested, but only the best fitted are presented here. A visual evaluation and the percentage of variance explained by the independent variable were used as a measure of adjustment, surrogacy consistency and extra- polative power. Table I – Details of sampling sites: codes, locations, type of habitat and main vegetation, altitude and Universal Transverse Mercator square (10x10km) Code Location Habitat (Vegetation) Altitude (m) UTM PES Porto de Espada (Marvão) Olive groove (Olea europaea, Bellis sylvestris, Carduus tenuiflorus, Cistus spp, Daphne gnidium, Helichrysum stoechas, Lavandula sampaioana, Origanum virens, Salvia verbenaca, Silybum marianum) 760 29SPD45 SSM Serra São Mamede (Portalegre) Pine forest (Pinus pinaster,Cistus spp, Cytisus striatus, Digitalis thapsi, Erica spp, Halimium ocymoides, Phillyrea angustifolia) 1025 29SPD45 VLM Vale Mouro (Alegrete) “Montado” (Quercus suber, Calluna vulgaris, Chamaespartium tridentatum, Cistus spp, Erica spp, Genista triacanthos, Lavandula luisieri, Halimium ocymoides) 434 29SPD44

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