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Segmentation to Segment Bangladesh Tourism Industry & Targeting Position 2017
© Fazlea Allahie – Creative Common Author
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Segmentation to Segment Bangladesh Tourism Industry & Targeting Position

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Segmentation to Segment Bangladesh Tourism Industry & Targeting Position

  1. 1. Segmentation to Segment Bangladesh Tourism Industry & Targeting Position 2017 © Fazlea Allahie – Creative Common Author 1 INTRODUCTION Tourism marketing is gaining importance all over the world. The tourism industry has emerged as a major income-driving industry in many developing/middle-income countries in the world. Bangladesh is blessed with natural beauty, ranging from mountains to rivers to beaches to bio-diversity. It boasts the longest natural beach in the world in Cox’s Bazaar as well as the largest mangrove forest in the world at the Sundarbans. Despite this, the industry is far from thriving and only in recent years, the governments seem to have recognized the potential the industry may hold if provided with necessary support. In fiscal year 2013, tourism accounted for only 2.2 percent of GDP. Total contribution of tourism to GDP in FY13 was around US$ 5 billion for Bangladesh, which is barely 10% of the global average of US$ 55 billion. The industry has grown in a haphazard way in the last decade or so. However a much more concerted and strategic intervention is required for the country to enter the global competitive arena. Bangladesh as a third world country has the lacking of proper study and attention on tourism promotion. As a result, though the tourism industry of Bangladesh has a bright prospect and could contribute to the economy to a greater extent, but the sector could not flourish up to the mark due to lack of necessary and proper initiative of the concerned firms/institutions. In the face of worldwide stiff competition, intangible nature of tourism services and need of pre-purchase information for potential tourists, promotional measures in tourism industry play key role in the performance and development of this industry.
  2. 2. Segmentation to Segment Bangladesh Tourism Industry & Targeting Position 2017 © Fazlea Allahie – Creative Common Author 2 1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The overall objective of this study is to find out the potentiality of tourism marketing to develop Bangladesh’s tourism sector. The specific objectives of this study are:  To identify the importance of tourism marketing in Bangladesh.  To assess the current scenario of tourism marketing in Bangladesh.  To explore future prospects of tourism marketing in Bangladesh.  To suggest some recommendations for development of tourism sector. SEGMENTATION TO SEGMENT BANGLADESH TOURISM INDUSTRY & TARGETING POSITIONING 2.1 Demographic Segmentation In demographic segmentation, market segmentation is done on the basis of people’s age, gender, in-come, religion, race, generation, nationality, and social class. Demographic factors are very vital in determining the consumers’ needs and demands according to the interest of specific targeted groups. It gives a basic idea of a consumer’s potentiality to consume specific product and services. Well, this segmentation is done by considering the tourist’s gender, age, marital status, ethnicity, occupation, religion, income, education, and family members. The population is estimated at 169 million (2015). About 87% of Bangladeshis are Muslims, followed by Hindus (12%), Buddhists (1%) and Christians (0.5%). The Chittagong Hill Tracts, Sylhet, Mymensingh and North Bengal divisions are home to diverse indigenous peoples. There are many dialects of Bengali spoken throughout the region. The dialect spoken by those in Chittagong and Sylhet are particularly distinctive. Bangladesh has the highest population density in the world, excluding a handful of city- states and small countries with populations under 10m, such as Malta and Hong Kong.
  3. 3. Segmentation to Segment Bangladesh Tourism Industry & Targeting Position 2017 © Fazlea Allahie – Creative Common Author 3 DEMOGRAPHICS OF BANGLADESH POPULATION 168,957,745 (2015 EST.) GROWTH RATE 1.6% (2015 EST.) BIRTH RATE 21.14 BIRTHS/1,000 POPULATION (2015 EST.) DEATH RATE 5.61 DEATHS/1,000 POPULATION (2015 EST.) LIFE EXPECTANCY 70.94 YEARS (2015 EST.) • MALE 69.02 YEARS • FEMALE 72.94 YEARS FERTILITY RATE 2.4 CHILDREN BORN/WOMAN (2015 EST.) INFANT MORTALITY RATE 44.09 DEATHS/1,000 LIVE BIRTHS (2015 EST.) AGE STRUCTURE 0–14 YEARS 31.62 (2015 EST.) 15–64 YEARS 63.25 65 AND OVER 5.13 SEX RATIO TOTAL 0.95 MALE(S)/FEMALE (2015 EST.) AT BIRTH 1.04 MALE(S)/FEMALE UNDER 15 1.03 MALE(S)/FEMALE 15–64 YEARS 0.91 MALE(S)/FEMALE 65 AND OVER 0.97 MALE(S)/FEMALE
  4. 4. Segmentation to Segment Bangladesh Tourism Industry & Targeting Position 2017 © Fazlea Allahie – Creative Common Author 4 NATIONALITY NATIONALITY BANGLADESHI MAJOR ETHNIC BENGALI MINOR ETHNIC CHAKMA, MARMA, MUNDAS, GAROS (ACHIKS), ORAONS, SANTHALS, MRO, MANIPURI, ZOMI, BIHARI (STRANDED PAKISTANI) LANGUAGE OFFICIAL BENGALI SPOKEN BENGALI, SYLHETI, ENGLISH, SANTALI, RAJBANSHI, CHAKMA, TRIPURI, KHASI, MUNDARI The most recent census was carried out in 2011 and according to it there were 142 million people in Bangladesh. However, some estimation also exists and according to them there are much more people living in Bangladesh and this is up to 170 million people. Bangladesh is also classified as the 8th most populous country in the world and the most densely population nation in the world. Life expectancy of Bangladeshi is 66 years for males and females. The ethnic structure also plays an important role in the Bangladesh demographics. The large majority of Bangladeshi is Bengalis, accounting for 98% of the population of the country. Significant minorities include Biharis and indigenous tribal groups as well as refugees from Burma. When it comes about the languages spoken in Bangladesh, obviously the most spoken language is Bangla which is also the official language of the country. It is thought that Bangla is of Sanskrit origin and it is described as an Indo-Aryan language. English is however the second most spoken language, much used in the legal system, education and most commonly by the middle and upper classes.
  5. 5. Segmentation to Segment Bangladesh Tourism Industry & Targeting Position 2017 © Fazlea Allahie – Creative Common Author 5 The Bangladesh demographics reveal that this poor country has still much trouble with solving the economic and social problems that are often caused by poverty. The ageing of the population of industrialised countries is already a well-established demographic trend. There is a counter viewpoint that the shortfall in young people entering the workforce will lead to the raising of retirement age and less freedom among older populations to engage in leisure pursuits - and also increased VFR travel by the large volumes of migrants in industrialized countries. Another demographic factor is the further erosion of the traditional western household through rising divorce rates and later marriage and families. The implication of this for tourism is that there are more different types of households/household segments for the travel and tourism industry to cater for. 2.2 Geographic Segmentation Geographic Tourism segmentation is done considering the factors such as tourists’ place of origin. This factor is important as the tourists belonging to different places are brought up with different cultures and show different traits of behavior. It is the most basic type of segmentation. The urban expatriated community in Bangladesh represents a variety of nationalities. The average years of stay are be- tween 2-5 years. Climate: tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October) Population: 166,280,712 (July 2014 est.) Ethnic Make-up: Bengali 98%, tribal groups, non-Bengali Muslims
  6. 6. Segmentation to Segment Bangladesh Tourism Industry & Targeting Position 2017 © Fazlea Allahie – Creative Common Author 6 2.3 Psychological Segmentation In Psychological or behavioural segmentation, market segmentation is done on the basis of customer’s knowledge, attitude, buying and consumption behaviors. It is very important for marketers to know when they are marketing a religious destination for instance, when and where customers want to travel, where do they go to buy the product and what type of programme is suitable for them. Analyzing this information service providers have to launch a marketing plan. (Kotler & Keller 2012, 212-227.) Bangladesh Prospect Psychological Segmentation related to the Traveler, Tourists & Visitors Product buying Intention & demand of Hospitality Product Interests & Travel agency & Hotel’s Personnel are mostly motivated The Specific Demand wise Service & Product Insurance with high degree of Selling Perception on that Particular Product or Service. 2.4 Psychographic Segmentation Psychographic segmentation is done on the basis of consumers’ social class, lifestyles and personality characteristics. There are several motivational factors that attract customers to buy a product which increases the consumption of the related product and services of a company. While doing marketing of a religious destination, marketers should be able to exhibit all the sectors which convince their doubts such as, safety, variety of activity and atmosphere in the destination. (Kotler & Keller 2012, 212-227.) The marketing people do this segmentation by taking into account the psyche of the tourists. They gather information about the tourists’ interests, attitudes, their way of living life, opinions, and overall personality.
  7. 7. Segmentation to Segment Bangladesh Tourism Industry & Targeting Position 2017 © Fazlea Allahie – Creative Common Author 7 Psychographic segmentation is quite similar to behavioral segmentation. But psychographic segmentation also takes the psychological aspects of consumer buying behavior into accounts. These psychological aspects may be consumers’ lifestyle, his social standing. Overall, these factors are intangible in nature and need in depth market research to determine which lifestyle or social class to target. There are companies which are dedicated to the art of psychographic segmentation. 2.5 Socio-Cultural Segmentation The official language is Bangla, also known as Bengali. It is the first language of more than 98 percent of the population. Bangla vocabulary shows many influences. These include a strong Islamic influence seen in the greetings of "Salaam aleykum" (Peace be unto you) and "Khoda hafez" (God Bless you) and nouns from the Arab world such as "dokan" (shop), "tarikh"(date), "kolom"(pen) and "bonduk" (gun). In West Bengal the Hindu influence is greater with the use of the Hindu greeting "Namashkar". English has also had an influence on Bangla. During the days of the Raj many words of English origin such as "tebil" (table), "tiffin" (archaic in modern day English meaning snack box) entered Bangla. In more recent time the ever rising global nature of English has lead to words such as "television", "telephone", "video" and "radio" being adopted by Bangla. However, Bangla is the state language of Bangladesh.
  8. 8. Segmentation to Segment Bangladesh Tourism Industry & Targeting Position 2017 © Fazlea Allahie – Creative Common Author 8 I. Bangladeshi Culture & Society  Bangladesh is a hierarchical society.  People are respected because of their age and position.  Older people are naturally viewed as wise and are granted respect.  Bangladeshis expect the most senior male, by age or position, to make decisions that are in the best interest of the group. This is also valid in businesses, the majority of which will be family owned/run. II. Religion  The majority of Bangladeshis are Muslim. However, most still very much mix this with pre-Islam folk traditions.  Bangladeshis identify with the folk traditions of Bengali culture. This includes belief in shamanism and the powers of fakirs (Muslim holy men who are exorcists and faith healers), ojhaa (shamins with magical healing powers), and Bauls (religious mendicants and wandering musicians).  There is a strong tradition of music, dance, and literature that includes classical devotions of Hindu and Muslim music. III. Festivals  Islam defines many of the festivals in Bangaldesh. These include two Eids (one after Ramadan and one after the Hajj) Shab-e-Qadr (the night of power), Milad un-Nabi (birth date of the Prophet Muhammad) and Shab-e-Barat (the night of the fortune).  Hindu influences festivals include Durga Puja and Kali Puja (community worshipping of Goddess Durga and Kali).  On the whole an entire community participates in each other's religious ceremonies.
  9. 9. Segmentation to Segment Bangladesh Tourism Industry & Targeting Position 2017 © Fazlea Allahie – Creative Common Author 9 IV. Meeting&Greeting  Greetings usually take place between members of the senior to Junior.  The hand shake is common although they may feel rather limp.  Women will only really be met within business contexts and even so, it is best to wait to see if a hand is extended before doing so.  The traditional greeting for Muslims is Asalamu alaikum to which the response is wa alaikum salam.  Naming conventions are very much based on the hierarchical nature of Bangladeshi society.  Bangladeshis will append a suffix to a person's name to denote respect and the level of closeness between the two people.  In general, age dictates how people are addressed.  If people are of the same age, they use first names.  If the person being addressed is older than the speaker, the person is called by their first name and a suffix that denotes the family relationship. V. Food Bangladeshis eat Bhat (boiled rice) as their staple food and major intake; about 70 percent of what they eat is based on rice, which is their main source of carbohydrate, though health conscious people take rooti or chapati (wheat-based carbohydrate). Unlike other foods, bhat is eaten after mixing it with curry. Generally there is Bhaji (fry) and Bharta (mash), basically made of countless varieties of vegetables and fishes. Then they take a Jhol of different vegetables, cooked separately or mixed or added with fish. They also take dal (soup made of pulses) and have different kinds of ghonto and shukto or Chutni (pickles) to enhance taste.
  10. 10. Segmentation to Segment Bangladesh Tourism Industry & Targeting Position 2017 © Fazlea Allahie – Creative Common Author 10 Bangladesh has about a thousand varieties of fish, the size of which may vary from a quarter of an inch to about twelve feet. All of these are fresh water fish and can be found in small rural ponds and all types of inland water bodies and even in the submerged fields of paddy or jute. Salt-water fish are also avails abundance. Bangladesh can boast of a wide range of Shutki (sun-dried) of fresh-water and salt-water fishes. Dishes made of Shutki are popular and delicious and feature in typical traditional meals. Sandesh, (a milk based dessert), Zarda (sweetened rice with sugar, ghee and colour), Firni (rice flour cooked in milk with sugar and flavouring), Rasgolla and Kalojam-two popular milk-based desserts (made with sugar, flour and ghee), Rosh Malai (round sweets floating in thick milk), Pitha (a blanket term for cakes or pastries including specific varieties) such as Chitoi, Dhupi, Tokti, Andosha, Bhofa Puli and Poa are common and popular sweet items. Among some other widely popular sweetmeats Rajbhog, Khirmohan, Raskadarnba, Danadar and Chhanar Mudki Kalojam deserve mention. Different regions are renowned for different kinds of sweets. For Example - In Bangladesh, Porabari in Tangail district is famous for chamcham, Mugtagachha in Mymensingh for manda, Comilla for pyara and rasmalai, Faridpur for malaikari, Natore for kanchagolla and Dhaka for amrati, jilipi and pranhara. Most Pithas are sweet but a few are hot. Some are made throughout the year; others are seasonal. Pithas of the winter season use molasses from date juice and sugarcane, which are abundant then. These are important ingredients of Pithas and are loved by people of all regions of Bangladesh. In fact, the pitha season in Bangladesh starts in late autumn, when farmers procure paddy from the field. The most common ingredients of pitha are rice or wheat flour, molasses or sugar, coconut and oil. Different vegetables and sometimes meat and fish are also used in preparing some pithas, such as the pooli pitha, shabji (vegetable) pitha, bhapa, jhal (hot) patishapta and mangsha (meat) patishapta.
  11. 11. Segmentation to Segment Bangladesh Tourism Industry & Targeting Position 2017 © Fazlea Allahie – Creative Common Author 11 Sometimes fruits - mostly, kanthal (jackfruit), aam (mango), tal (palmyra) coconut and banana - are also used in the pithas. These pithas are named after the fruit they are made from. Nakshi Pitha is a variety of rice cake with sundry designs made in villages and urban areas of Bangladesh. It is both a culinary art and an important folk art practised by women. Nakshi pitha of different flavours and shapes are made on various social and religious occasions, at Eid and Puja festivals, Shab-e-barat, Muharram, Khatna (circumcision), Weddings, Nabanna (festival of new-harvested paddy in Agrahayan- autumn), Paus (winter) festival, Annaprashan (Hindu rite of child's first taste of rice), Aqiqah etc. VI.Bangladesh Social-Cultural Analysis 88% of Bengladesh is Muslim, 8% are Hindu, 3% Budhist, 2% Christian Women's status is significantly lower. Girls education is not as much a priority, though government is addressing this issue .Two streams of schools: Islamic schools where students are separated by sex; Other public schools are co-educational Majority of population is poor, Middle class is powerful. Language instruction is in Bengali with English taught each year. Learning based on memory work, drills and tests Teacher led instruction with little group work .Strict control of behaviour with corporal punishment and punishment aimed at embarrassment. https://prezi.com/bxfyajlytdrg/bangladesh-social-cultural-analysis/ VII. Music Folk music, nurtured through the ages by village bards, is the most popular and timeless form of music in Bangladesh. Rich in devotional mysticism and romanticism, folk music exudes the authentic flavour and charm of the soil. The most well-known forms are Bhatiali, Baul, Marfati, Murshidi, Bhaoaiya and Gombhira. 2.6 Use-Related Segmentation We are Categorizing Tourism consumers in terms of product, service, or brand usage characteristics is included into Use Related Segmentation. The variables usually include:
  12. 12. Segmentation to Segment Bangladesh Tourism Industry & Targeting Position 2017 © Fazlea Allahie – Creative Common Author 12  Levels of usage  Level of awareness  Brand loyalty Rate of Usage Segmentation Rate of Usage Segmentation means differentiating according to the rate of usage. The variables may include:  Heavy Users  Medium Users  Light Users  Nonusers Organizing Customers into Action Oriented Frameworks A segmentation strategy is especially suitable for marketers seeking to organize their databas e into an action- oriented framework. 2.7 User Situation Segmentation In Bangladesh Culture most of the User follows this Step….  Gifts are mainly given between family members at religious holidays, especially after Ramadan and Hajj.  In cities, it is becoming more common for gifts to be given on birthdays.  In Bangladesh the importance of gifts is in the thought rather than the value. Part of the reason lies in the fact that gifts should be generally reciprocated and it would be considered rude to offer someone a gift that is difficult to reciprocate. Somegeneralgiftgivingetiquetteguidelinesinclude:  When visiting a Bangladeshi's home, it is more common to bring pastries, sweets or good quality chocolates.  If bringing flowers avoid frangipanis as they are used at funerals.
  13. 13. Segmentation to Segment Bangladesh Tourism Industry & Targeting Position 2017 © Fazlea Allahie – Creative Common Author 13  Similarly white flowers indicate mourning.  Do not give alcohol or products containing non-halal meat to Muslims.  Never give money.  It is considered bad form to open gifts in front of the giver.  Gifts are given with two hands 2.8 Benefit Segmentation Benefit segmentation is dividing market based upon the perceived value, benefit, or advantage consumers perceive that they receive from a product or service. Segment the market based upon quality, performance, customer service, special features, or other benefits. Often, different grades of the same product are offered to different market segments. Many different businesses use this type of segmentation, including the auto, clothing, furniture, and consumer electronics industries, appliance, consumer, cosmetic, and several other industries. Benefit segmentation segments consumers on the basis of the benefit they seek like prestige, confidence, health, nutrition etc. Mobile Phone Manufacturers Benefit segmentation can be used by mobile phone manufacturers to divide their market into work-oriented customers, highly social customers, and customers who consider mobile phones as a status symbol. Highly social customers would expect mobile phones to be durable, technologically advanced, and easy to use. Work-oriented customers would prefer buying phones that are inexpensive and durable. Mobile phones are considered as a status symbol by many people. They expect their phone to be technologically advanced, expensive, sleek, and stylish.
  14. 14. Segmentation to Segment Bangladesh Tourism Industry & Targeting Position 2017 © Fazlea Allahie – Creative Common Author 14 Toothpaste Manufacturers Segmentation of toothpaste market can be done on the basis of the benefits that users expect from the product. Some of the benefits users expect include reduce sensitivity, teeth whitening, tartar control, cavity protection, and fresh breath. Companies can manufacture products that offer one or more benefits. Cosmetics Manufacturers Since users of cosmetic products have different requirements, companies must segment the market keeping in mind their unique needs. Some people buy cosmetic products to remove wrinkles while others buy products to reduce acne. Making a single product to meet the requirements of all users is not possible. Some of the possible segments include wrinkle removal, improve social status, reduce acne, skin repair, celebrity identification, and glowing skin. 2.9 Hybrid Segmentation Hybrid segmentation is the kind of segmentation where instead of sticking to one particular segmentation style, marketers combine one or two segmentation variables and arrive at another segmentation. This style is referred to as Hybrid segmentation. Classical techniques of attitudinal segmentation, like Cluster Analysis, produce interesting groups that are not particularly useful. Hybrid Segmentation - as a method that produces segments that are both interesting and actionable. Anyone who’s dealt with large groups of people – marketing to them, evaluating their opinions – the world is complex. People are different in backgrounds, opinions, attitudes, and needs. It’s almost impossible to deal with them as a single, undifferentiated mass; in order to address the world (or the part of it that interests you) effectively; need to break it down into manageable, meaningful groups..
  15. 15. Segmentation to Segment Bangladesh Tourism Industry & Targeting Position 2017 © Fazlea Allahie – Creative Common Author 15 TARGETING POSITIONING Tourism 2020 Vision is the World Tourism Organization's long-term forecast and assessment of the development of tourism up to the first 20 years of the new millennium. An essential outcome of the Tourism 2020 Vision are quantitative forecasts covering a 25 years period, with 1995 as the base year and forecasts for 2010 and 2020 (Source: http://www.unwto.org/facts/eng/vision.htm). Bangladesh is also trying to develop tourism 2020 vision (Source: Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation, 2004). Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation(2004) in its study report on the Tourism vision 2020 aims at contributing to overall development of the country in terms of job creation, poverty reduction, increasing national GDP ,development and conservation of tourism. When tourism sector can be developed it will have an impact on Gross domestic Product, which in turn develops the economy as a whole. Tourism marketing depends on strategic planning. Vision and mission to increase tourism should work together. The activity of attracting local and foreign tourists to tour different areas of Bangladesh requires proper maintenance of the archeological, historical and natural scenic beauty spots and arranging for advertising and promotional campaign. This paper mainly intends to see whether tourism industry can be developed with the aspects of taking proper marketing strategies. Since long past, Bangladesh was an attractive destination to the tourists. But at present her position is not significant in terms of international tourism. There is an increasing trend in the arrivals of foreign tourist in Bangladesh,1 foreign exchange earnings and contribution of Bangladesh Parjatan (tourism) Corporation (BPC) to national exchequer. The maximum tourists came in Bangladesh during October to March. Largest portion of tourists visiting in Bangladesh came from the countries of Asian region. India occupied the first position in the list of tourists importing countries in Bangladesh. Most of the foreign tourists come in 1 http://tourismboard.gov.bd/publications/statistics/
  16. 16. Segmentation to Segment Bangladesh Tourism Industry & Targeting Position 2017 © Fazlea Allahie – Creative Common Author 16 Bangladesh by airway. Concerned authorities should take steps to create positive image of the country to all over the world especially in the countries of Europe, America and Middle East. The legal formalities are also need to be relaxed. Further, the authorities should develop the infrastructure facilities of the existing tourist spots. Hossain and Nazmin(2006) depicted that according to the foreign tourists of Bangladesh, Scenic beauty ranked first, cost of services second ,attitude of people third ,and so on down to facilities ranking the tenth. Amin (2007) argued that travel and tourism is now one of the largest industries in the world contributing over 10% to global GDP. Economically, travel and tourism creates jobs and contributes to a country‟s GDP as well as bringing in capital investment and exports. Nath (2007) observed that level of satisfaction with the overall tourism facilities and services is at a level of 51% .The tourists judged by very poorly the level of night entertainment, tour information, advertisement, and traveling agency services. Okaka(2007) described that the media can spur the current prospects for the African countries to actively collaborate in a wide range of eco-tourism enhancement activities which include: Joint product or service development, research, human resource development and management, exchange of tourism experts and tourism information within the existing economic and trading regional blocks. Deggan (2007) argued that in the context of the overall macroeconomic activity there is good reason to believe that tourism can be significant contributors to economic development in the years ahead if an appropriate emphasis and strategy is developed. In the literature review, it has been well described by different authors that tourism marketing is essential for economic development of a country. But this study wants to do research form the perspective of overall marketing strategy of tourism of Bangladesh Though Nath(2007) did his research work on the basis of the primary sources but he did not estimate regression analysis. To mitigate the gap of the research work this study will use both quantitative and qualitative research work.From the literature review it has been observed that following variables are very important to enhance tourism sector of the country: Spots, Security, Accommodation, Entertainment, Political stability, Cost of Services, Tour operator and Tour information and advertisements. Therefore, the study has been designed to achieve the following objectives.
  17. 17. Segmentation to Segment Bangladesh Tourism Industry & Targeting Position 2017 © Fazlea Allahie – Creative Common Author 17 3. BANGLADESH PERSPECTIVE In Bangladesh we can divide tourism spots in three broader view points: Archeological, historical and natural beauty. Most potential areas of Bangladesh include developing tourism centering Sunderbans forest, Rangamati, St.Martin‟s Island ,sea beach resort in Cox‟sBazar, Himchari,Patanga sea beach , Boga lake,Foy‟s lake ,World War II Cemetery in Chittagong, cultural tourism based on Buddhist and Islamic archaeological and historical -monuments, general interest features in the Dhaka region especially Sonargaon, Madhabkunda and tea plantation in Sylhet area, Maynamoti at Comilla region ,Bhawal national park at Gazipur and bird watching tours in the Jahangiranagar area. Mahastangar in Bogra district, Rajshai , Shat gumbaj Mosque at Bagerhat and Barisal region also full of tourist spots. Paharpur buddist vihar was included in the world heritage list. Bangladesh is the country where language movement was held and also became independent in the year 1971. Tourists can visit central shahid minar, national martyrs memorial etc. Even they can visit head office of the grameen bank. Normally with the advent of winter season in each year, thousands of home and overseas tourists are visiting Rangamati, Khagrachari and Bandarban to enjoy the scenic beauty of the hilly region, acquaint themselves with the life style of the tribal people and pass some days in solitude far away from their busy life schedule. Moreover, they can also visit other parts of the country. The entrepreneurs associated with the hotel business and other tourism related activities would suffer heavily when the law and order situation causes any sort of disturbances. This in turn will have negative impacts on other sectors of the economy. Furthermore, security and safety, problem, lack of tourist guides, rent seeking, language problem for communication and overall law and order situation in the tourist spots like Cox‟sBazar ,Rangamati, Bandarban, Sundarban are creating problem to attract tourist in this country. Lack of mutual cooperation among the SAARC and BIMSTEC counties are not playing positive role to enhance tourists of Bangladesh.
  18. 18. Segmentation to Segment Bangladesh Tourism Industry & Targeting Position 2017 © Fazlea Allahie – Creative Common Author 18 4. RECOMMENDATIONS 1st. Natural scenic beauties, historical monuments and archaeological places starting from ancient period of Bengal to till to date are essential to display for tourists. Moreover, the country has rich cultural heritage from the ancient period. As such the country has lot of things to display towards foreigners and also domestic tourists. New ventures should be taken to display attractive areas in a structured manner. New tourist spots should also be created and arrangement should be made so that tourists can understand lifestyle of the tribal and non- tribal people. Foreign tourist will bring valuable foreign exchange earnings. Tourism market should be segmented on the basis of income level. This is not only applicable for foreigners but also domestic tourists. On the other hand upper class people of the country who tours abroad can be inspired to tour within the income group and lower income group of people of the country, tourism facility should be created within their purchasing power capability. 2nd. Unskilled tour operator should get proper trainings. Though Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation has been taking initiatives to train manpower in different trades of the tourism industry but most of their trained people are not up to the mark. Recent Years University of Dhaka and some other private universities opened Dept. of Tourism and Hospitality. This will definitely encourage creating skilled manpower in the tourism sector and as a result new generation may use innovative ideas to capacity building and opportunities to attract tourists in the country. 3rd. Tourism sector can be well developed under package deal policy. Starting from security measures, creation of pro tourist visit places, tour operators, advertising and personalized marketing, effective pricing strategy, accommodations-hotel, resort arrangements, infrastructural facilities, tourism products, logistic, retail, distribution etc. should be arranged under package deal policy.
  19. 19. Segmentation to Segment Bangladesh Tourism Industry & Targeting Position 2017 © Fazlea Allahie – Creative Common Author 19 4th. World Tourism day on September 27 may be declared as a holiday or to celebrate with greater enthusiasm to create awareness among the prospective tourists. Under Private and public partnership seminars, symposiums etc. may be organized to publicize the necessity of the Tourism. This will enhance to create tourism culture in Bangladesh. Moreover to create habit of tourism among the local people from childhood, special arrangements may be taken by the Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation or school authorities to take school students to visit different historical /archeological places or natural scenic beauty places of the country. 5th. In the tourism sector we need entrepreneurial activities .As such both public and private sector partnership may be developed in the tourism sector of Bangladesh. Young entrepreneurs‟ especially female entrepreneurs may be encouraged to prepare various types of goods and services reflecting rich cultural heritage including art- craft of the country for selling to the foreign tourists. Tribal people of the country may be encouraged by the policy makers and/or non govt. organizations to undertake entrepreneurial activities associated with tourism. 6th. Facilities in the private sector are required to encourage investing in the tourism industry. From the tourism sector we can raise our growth rate of GDP subject to the enhancement of the numbers and expenditures made by tourists. New opportunities for creation of employment will be occurred if tourism sector can be properly developed. Value chain may be created in the Tourism industry. This will in turn help to add value in the economy of Bangladesh. 7th. Rules and procedures for foreign tourists may be changed so that tourist visas on arrival at airport can be given to the tourists. For domestic tourists those who are working in public and private sector, leave with full pay for one month per annum may be provided by the authorities‟ .If necessary Govt. can give some subsidiary so that habit of tourism can be developed in the country.
  20. 20. Segmentation to Segment Bangladesh Tourism Industry & Targeting Position 2017 © Fazlea Allahie – Creative Common Author 20 8th. In the tourism industry, the issue of protection and safety measures is really important. Government should acquire obligatory enterprises to protect tourism industry from negative impacts of safety and security and for this they should take appropriate decision-making strategies and plans. They should give appropriate stress on premises accountability, steps to rescue during sea tour if any problem arises, attacks on tourists, health related problems, drug trafficking, stealing, street burglary and hijacking. Local people should also be aware to look after the welfare of the tourists. 9th. Political stability is also one of the important preconditions to attract tourists. Infrastructure should be developed with a target oriented planning, which must be properly implemented. 10th. Image of Bangladesh should be raised in the eyes of foreign nationals and to attract tourists -innovative ways of marketing strategy accompanied with efficient and effective measures should be taken. Bangladesh Embassies in abroad should work in this respect. 11th. To develop tourism culture, attract new tourists and retain current tourists to tour in this region - combined cooperation among the SAARC member countries or under BIMSTEC appropriate steps are required. 12th. The country can increase market shares in the tourism sector through creating its competitiveness. Technological innovations in the communication sector especially media can contributes towards cross boarder cultural and spread of global ideology. E- marketing strategy may be followed. 13th. In the tourism sector, marketing mix strategy may be followed: Product: To create product design of the tourism to separate as the degree of different strategy. Highlight in safety measure of the tourists in health, rescue system, lives and belongings; Price:
  21. 21. Segmentation to Segment Bangladesh Tourism Industry & Targeting Position 2017 © Fazlea Allahie – Creative Common Author 21 Pricing of the products and services in the tourism related industry should be minimized as per the segmentation of the tourist„s income level .Special discount may be given who will tour in a group. Place: Tangoar Haowr, Bichana Kandi, Japlong, Laalkhal etc. 14th. Tourist spots should be shown in attractive manner for which arrangement for the road show by the Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation as well as campaign with the help of Internet /E-mail; Promotion: Involvement of electronic and print media should be arranged by the Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation within the country and the target groups abroad. Bangladesh Embassies at abroad may be encouraged to participate in the promotional campaign at abroad. Websites can be prepared to encourage tourism. Involving the attractive personalities to increase image of the country in the promotional campaign is required. The famous media personalities and film stars can work as presenters. Rich cultural heritage of Bengal may be explored. The advertisements in the newspaper, magazines, journals, etc. are essential. Also the TV/Radio commercial, documentary programs, art films, short films considering market segmentation may be prepared by the Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation and should arrange for broadcast at home and abroad. They may take the assistance of Bangladesh embassies at abroad and non-resident Bangladeshis to inspire foreigners to tour Bangladesh. International and national travel agencies should be contacted for promotional campaign (Source: Thepphawan , Tachumpa and Vichitr 2007). 15th. Policy makers as well as social thinkers may take proactive arrangements for avoiding negative effect due to the tourism . They may be cautious so that negative impact can not be outweighed positive impact of the tourism sector.
  22. 22. Segmentation to Segment Bangladesh Tourism Industry & Targeting Position 2017 © Fazlea Allahie – Creative Common Author 22 CONCLUSION Today’s Bangladesh tourism industry has become one of the most important factors in GDP contribution in worldwide. It plays a significant role in socio-economic development of a country. Most of the tourists prefer to visit in different destinations for different reasons (e.g. For Business, Study, Attend international conferences, Vacations and holidays, Treatment, Meet with family members and friends, to see events like world cup, Olympic etc.). Bangladesh has huge Limitations Still It’s Development Process. In past, the government may have been reluctant to invest for tourism development, but in this modern age the situation has changed. Now government concentrates on not only tourism but also hospitality management like hotels, motels, restaurants, transportation, security and entertainment etc. Bangladesh as a developing country is moving towards facing challenges of globalization. It has beautiful sights and historical places which are able to grow attention to international tourists. But this industry failed to grow properly because of lack of sustainable and effective tourism marketing strategies and reluctant attitude of different governments to develop this industry. Many foreigners have negative perception toward our country. Bangladesh is a developing country and it has lots of tourist’s products but all products are not attracting foreign tourists. So Bangladesh needs to concentrate to develop Iconic products rather than to increase the number of offers. Market segmentation is a strategy any entity in the tourism industry can use to strengthen their competitive advantage by selecting the most suitable subgroup of tourists to specialize on and target. For the Global Prospective & demand of Tourism development Bangladesh Government Should be more Forwarding & take 20th Century Prospect based Concept for the Tourism Development Agenda for Future of Tourism 2070.

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