It is the skills of influencing people for a particular purpose or reason. Leading is
considered to be the most important and challenging of all managerial activities.
Leading is influencing or prompting the organization member to work together with
the interest of the organization.
Since leadership implies fellowship and people tend to follow those who offer a
means of satisfying their own needs, hopes, and aspirations, understandably, leading
involves motivation leadership styles and approaches, and communication.
4. COMMUNICATION PROCESS
is a two-way process wherein the message in the form of ideas, thoughts, feelings, opinions is
transmitted between two or more persons with the intent of creating a shared
6. Sender: The sender or the communicator is the person who initiates the conversation and has
conceptualized the idea that he intends to convey it to others.
Encoding: The sender begins with the encoding process wherein he uses certain words or non-
verbal methods such as symbols, signs, body gestures, etc. to translate the information into a
Message: Once the encoding is finished, the sender gets the message that he intends to convey.
The message can be written, oral, symbolic or non-verbal such as body gestures, silence, sighs,
sounds, etc. or any other signal that triggers the response of a receiver.
Communication Channel: The Sender chooses the medium through which he wants to
convey his message to the recipient. It must be selected carefully in order to make the message
effective and correctly interpreted by the recipient.
7. Receiver: The receiver is the person for whom the message is intended or targeted. He
tries to comprehend it in the best possible manner such that the communication objective is
Decoding: Here, the receiver interprets the sender’s message and tries to understand it in
the best possible manner. An effective communication occurs only if the receiver understands
the message in exactly the same way as it was intended by the sender.
Feedback: The Feedback is the final step of the process that ensures the receiver has
received the message and interpreted it correctly as it was intended by the sender. It increases
the effectiveness of the communication as it permits the sender to know the efficacy of his
The Noise shows the barriers in communications. There are chances when the message
sent by the sender is not received by the recipient.
8. MODALITIES AND TOOLS OF
1. Interpretive Communication
Also referred to as the “one-way communication”, in this mode, the
information conveyed by the sender is interpreted by the receiver in its
original form. The target has to understand the message in both written
and spoken form keeping various aspects in mind.
9. 2. Interpersonal Communication
process by which people exchange information through verbal and nonverbal messages. It
is an unmediated mode of communication that occurs when we interact and attempt to
mutually influence each other, simultaneously, in order to manage relationships. Although
interpersonal communication can encompass oral, written, and non-verbal forms of
communication, the term is usually applied to spoken communication that takes place
between two or more individuals on a personal or face-to-face level.
10. 3. Presentational Communication
another type of one-way communication, which facilitates interpretation by members
of another group where no direct opportunity for the active negotiation of meaning
between members of the two groups exists. With this mode of communication, a
person is speaking to an audience that can be rehearsed, pre-prepared, or scripted.
Some of the main highlights of Presentational Communication have been given a
No direct opportunity for engaging with a larger audience exists in this form of
11. 4.Linguistical or Alphabetic Communication
As one of the popular modes of communication, Linguistical or Alphabetic
Communication mainly refers to written or spoken communication where the sender
conveys their message through writing on a paper or through speaking.
12. 5.Gestural Communication
has emphasis on body language and physical movements to communicate messages.
Sign Language is the best example of the gestural mode of communication as those
who can’t talk or hear are able to communicate best through their gestures and have
their own set of unique languages to converse in.
13. 6.Aural Communication
As the name suggests, oral communication uses audio mode to convey messages whether it is
through sounds or spoken audio. The speaker’s voice and pronunciation need to be clear and
14. 7.Visual Communication
Visual Communication can be simply termed non-verbal communication as it comprises visual
messages from the sender to the receiver. It is one of the oldest modes of communication
when the ancient people didn’t know a language to communicate with, it is through pictures,
drawings and symbols that they were able to talk and converse with each other.
15. 8. Various Cultural and Intercultural Modes of Communication
Several cultural modes of communication are specific to each area and culture. It can be symbolic
usage of actions, body language, etc. The culture of a person is not just what they eat or wear but
also how they communicate.
In verbal communication, different cultures have different languages, dialects, and even accents.
Even the tone and volume of communication differ from place to place. For example, the tone of a
native German speaker might angry with a British speaker, even if they both are speaking in English.
In non-verbal communication, several differences can cause miscommunication in intercultural
discussions. Some of the major non-verbal modes of communication that change from place to place
17. PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE
1.The principle of clarity
A message should be clear, free from distortion and noise.
2. Principles of Brevity
A communication should be brief i.e. just necessary and sufficient
3. The principle of Simplicity
A message should be given using simple and familiar words.
18. 4. The principle of Timeliness
Communication is meant to serve a specific purpose. If communication is made in time,
communication becomes effective. If it is made untimely then it may become useless.
5. The principle of Compass
The communication net should cover the whole organization. The concerned people must know “What
exactly they need and “When they need it. And effective communication will serve such.
6. The principle of Integrity
Communication should consider the level of people, principles & objectives of an organization to
create a network or chain.
7. The principle of strategic use of Informal Organization
The most effective communication results when managers use the informal organization as
complementary to formal communication, e.g. arranging sports, cultural functions & dinners for the
employees can be an informal organization.
19. 8. The principle of Feedback
To provide a message to the receiver is not complete communication. The response from a
receiver is essential. Therefore feedback is required for communication to be effective.
9. The principle of Alternativeness
Effective listening is important in communication otherwise communication will be ineffective and
10. The principle of language control
The sender should be careful in selecting proper words and forming sentences, words and
structured sentences are the keys to making effective communication.
20. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION
Organizational communication includes formal and informal communication throughout an
organization, including communication among employees and employee-manager
22. 1. Formal communication
Being formal, clear and specific is a great way to ensure a proper flow of information in the
workplace. With formal communication, everyone is informed about and aligned with the business
2. Informal communication
this type of communication is the opposite of formal communication. It is also known as
“grapevine communication“. In essence, it includes dialogues, chats, phone conversations as well
as the “water cooler talks” that usually take place near the coffee maker that don’t rely on any
23. 3. Horizontal communication
This type of organizational communication occurs amongst teams, groups, or individuals at the
same hierarchical level. Horizontal communication plays an important role in breaking down silos
and improving cross-departmental collaboration in the workplace
24. 4. Vertical communication
The most common form of communication within structured organizations follows an up-and-down
vertical pattern. It includes communication between business leaders, team leaders and
26. Listening Skills
contribute to your ability to accurately receive information when communicating with others.
These skills are an important part of effective communication in the workplace.
IMPORTANCE OF LISTENING SKILLS
• Building Relationships
• Learning new skills
• Performing effectively
27. 4 TYPES OF LISTENING SKILLS
includes paying attention to verbal and non-verbal cues in order to gain a full understanding of the
speaker's experiences, thoughts, feelings and objectives.
fully comprehend the practical content of a speaker's message. This type of listening often
involves active listening skills, like paraphrasing and asking clarifying questions.
involves using logic and reasoning to separate opinion and fact when listening to a speaker's
message. Critical listening usually involves using your previous knowledge or experiences to
identify factual content in communication.
more intimate type of listening that often involves receiving information from a speaker about
their challenges or emotional situations.
the act of overseeing teams of employees and guiding daily operations in a business. A
supervisor or manager is the company's connection between the employees and the executive
team of the business. Managers conduct interviews, assign productivity quotas, monitor
employee progress and help set goals for the company and its employees.
refers to the steps managers can take to inspire their teams to achieve more and to support
their workplace experience. When a company has managers who motivate their teams, they
may find an overall increase in productivity and achievement.
30. “A good leader inspires people to have confidence in
the leader. A great leader inspires people to have
confidence in themselves.”- Eleanor Roosevelt