Bluetooth is an open wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short
distances. Enables communication between Bluetooth-compatible devices. Creating
personal area networks (PANs) with high levels of security. Short-wavelength radio
transmissions in the ISM band from 2400–2480 MHz. The Bluetooth technology is
possible to implement almost to the arbitrary equipment.
Bluetooth technology used to share voice, music, photos, videos, and other
information wirelessly between two paired devices.
1994: Bluetooth technology was invented by engineers at Ericsson, a Swedish company.
1998: A group of companies agreed to work together using Bluetooth technology as a way to
connect their products.
The name Bluetooth is officially adopted
1999: The Bluetooth 1.0 Specification is released
Bluetooth technology is awarded "Best of Show Technology Award“
2000: First Bluetooth technology comes to market
2001: First laptop, printer with Bluetooth
The Bluetooth SIG, Inc. is formed as a privately-held trade association
2002: First keyboard and mouse combo
First GPS receiver
Bluetooth wireless qualified products hits 500
2003: First MP3 player with Bluetooth technology
shipments grow to 1 million per week
Version 1.2 adopted by the Bluetooth SIG
2004: First stereo headphones
Version 2.0 Enhanced Data Rate (EDR)
an installed base of 250 million devices
8. Background (cont..):
2005: First stereo headphones
SIG Headquarters opens in Bellevue
2006: First sunglasses, First watch, First picture frame
2007: First alarm-clock radio, First television
2008 : In 10th anniversary 2 billion Bluetooth enabled products shipped in 10 years
2009: The SIG adopts Core Specification Version 3.0 HS, making Bluetooth high
speed technology a reality
2010: The Bluetooth SIG headquarters moves to Kirkland, WA, USA
2011: The SIG picks a 3D television for its Best of CES award winner.
Apple and Nordic Semiconductor join the SIG Board of Directors
2012: first Bluetooth Smart Ready tablets and music players hit the market.
2013: Cumulative Bluetooth product shipments surpass 2.5 billion*
12. Name and logo
• 'Bluetooth' was the code name for the SIG when it was first formed and the name stuck
• Harald Bluetooth King of Denmark and Norway
• The idea of this name was proposed by Jim Kardach who developed a system
Two logo of Bluetooth : Hagall and Bjarkan
Range may vary depending on class of radio used in an
• Class 3 radios – have a range of up to 1 meter or 3 feet
• Class 2 radios – most commonly found in mobile devices –
have a range of 10 meters or 33 feet
• Class 1 radios – used primarily in industrial use cases – have a
range of 100 meters or 300 feet
• Bluetooth technology operates in the unlicensed
industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band at 2.4 to
• using a spread spectrum, frequency hopping,
• full-duplex signal at a nominal rate of 1600 hops/sec.
15. Different Types of Connectivity Compared
Type Speed Range
IrDA 9.6kb - 115kb (- 4Mb) < 6ft
Wi-Fi 1Mb - 54Mb 50ft - 150ft
Bluetooth 120kb - 723kb 30ft - 300ft
GPRS < 115kb
wherever suitable cellphone
2.5G variously up to about 128kb
wherever suitable cellphone
2Mb stationary, 384kb moving with
good signal, 144kb moving fast/poor
wherever suitable cellphone
DSL/Cable 100kb - 1.5Mb not wireless
LAN 10Mb - 100Mb not wireless
Radio Specification of the Bluetooth System
Transmitter block diagram
Receiver block diagram
Golden receive power range
Spurious Modulation Products
• Wireless control of communication between a cell phone and hands free or car
kit. This is the most popular use.
• Wireless networking between PCs in a confined space and where little
bandwidth is required.
• Wireless communication
with Pc input and output
• Transfer of files between
devices via OBEX
Fig: Bluetooth device 20
• Replacement of traditional wired serial communication in test
equipment, GPS receivers and medical equipments.
• For remote controls where infrared was traditional used?
• Sending small advertisement from Bluetooth enabled
advertising hoarding to other.
• Sending commands and software to the LEGO mind storms
NXT instead of infrared.
22. Bluetooth Security
• 2.45 Ghz, GFSK, Freq-Hopping (1600 h/s, 79 Hops, 1 Mhz Spacing)
• Max BW of 1 Mbps Raw (- FEC (1/3, 2/3, ARQ), - overhead)
• Architecture: Radio, Base Frequency, Link Manager
• Uses hybrid cct and packet switching.
• Supports either:
- 1 asynchronous data channel + 3 synch speech chan. OR
- 1 channel that carries both asynch. data and synch speech
• LMP (Link Manager Protocol) configures, authenticates, handles
• performs power management (sniff, hold, park modes)
24. Bluetooth Security
Device Address (BD_ADDR) (unique 48-bit)
Private Authentication key (128-bit random number)
Private Encryption key (128-bit random number)
(Pseudo) Random Number (RAND) 128-bit PR number generated on the
fly by the device
Personal Identification Number (PIN 3-128 bits)
- can be programmed into device for connections validation or a mutual
PIN selected and entered live for initialization
3 Security Modes in ‘Generic Profile’:
- Mode 1: Non-Secure
- Mode 2: service level enforced security
- Mode 3: link level enforced security (Bluetooth device initiates
security before establishing a link)
2 levels of devices (trusted and untrusted)
3 levels of service requirements (open, authenticated, authenticated and
25. Key Management
• 128-bit Pseudo Random link key handles all security
• Link key is used in authentication, and to derive the
• A link key is either a single session temporary key
(common for point-to-multipoint) or semi-permanent
(shared among a group and used for authentication)
• A link key is one of 4 types (combination, unit, master, or
initialization) depending on the application.
26. Types of Link Keys
• Initialization Key
- used as the link key during initialization to set up the unit and
– formed using entered PINs
- necessary whenever 2 devices with no prior engagements want to
• Unit Key
- generated within a single device when installed (rarely changed)
• Combination Key
- derived from information in a pair of Bluetooth devices
• Master Key
- temporary key that replaces the current link-key
- used by the Master, typically for broadcast messages
• Alice generates a random number and sends it to Bob
• Bob uses his ID, Alice’s generated RAND, and the current link
key to generate a response
• Alice also uses Bob’s ID, the current link key, and her random
number to verify the response matches and that it is indeed
• Bob can then challenge Alice
29. Security Problem
• E0 is weak if the length of the session is longer than the
shortest-LFSR cycle (225 bits)
• Since Bluetooth re-syncs after each packet however (and
uses a different 26-bit value for the master clock counter)
– may still be vulnerable
• If Alice’s unit key is used in secret conversation with Bob,
and Alice then wants to talk to Charlie using her unit key,
• Bob can intercept and impersonate Charlie
• The root key is based only on a normally 4 digit PIN
• The BD_ADDR is sent out on every transaction and
therefore tracking is viable
30. Limitation of Bluetooth :
1. Speed. Bluetooth is not designed for high-speed data transfers.
2. Range. The range of communications is often limited to a few feet (I've
seen as few as 2 and as many as 30).
3. Compatibility. Some devices do not have profiles compatible with the
devices you want to connect with.
4. Though the transfer speeds are impressive at around 1 Mbps, certain other
technologies like Infrared can offer speeds up to 4 Mbps. This is an area
that can be improved on in the near future.
5. Even though the security is good, it is even better on Infrared. This is
because of the comparatively larger range of Bluetooth and also the lack of
a line of sight. Someone who knows how to hack such networks can do so
31. Limitation of Bluetooth(cont..):
6. The battery usage during a single transfer is negligible, but there are some people who leave
the device switched on in their devices. This inevitably eats into the battery of these devices,
and lowers the battery life considerably.
7. Bluetooth does not address routing. It does not specify which unicast or multicast ad hoc
routing schemes to use. In fact, most network functions are pushed ridiculously into the link
layer. It does not support multi-hop multicasting.
8. Bluetooth’s MAC protocol is based on frequency hopping, which requires some form of hop
synchronization. Bluetooth’s MAC protocol does not address how to cope with mobility. A
response to mobility is unknown in Bluetooth.
9. In Bluetooth, the MASTER node is the bottleneck! The Bluetooth architecture also limits the
number of nodes in a piconet! Bluetooth does not address interoperability issues. It is not
clear how Bluetooth devices can interoperate with WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)
10. Bluetooth also ignores power-saving methods done at upper layers, above the link layer.
Bluetooth cannot operate in a multiple-air interface environment.
32. Future of Bluetooth
• The future of Bluetooth looks strong, with initiatives underway for
higher throughput, more ubiquitous usage and links with Wifi and
Ultra Wideband (UWB) broadcast technology.
• Operating systems such as the Mac Os and Windows continue to
have native support for Bluetooth.
• The Bluetooth SIG partners are working on enabling Bluetooth
information points, to enable advertising models based around
users pulling information from ‘information points’, rather than
having to ‘push’ information out.
• Other emerging features include Bluetooth in cars; automatic
configuration of piconets; and quality of service (QoS)
improvements, for example enabling audio and video data to be
transmitted at a higher quality.
• Integration with WiFi scanning tools (namely Airsnort)
• New scanning methods.
33. Future of Bluetooth (cont..):
• Bluetooth will be able to complete all other wireless technologies, such as
Wi-Fi networking , infra-red data association , etc.
• Enables bluetooth information points ,This will drive the adoption of
Bluetooth into cellphones .
• Enable advertising models based around users pulling information from
the information points, and not based around the object push model that
is used in a limited way today.
• Enables the automatic configuration of the piconet topologies especially in
scatternet situations that are becoming more common today.This should
all be invisible to the users of the technology.,while also making the
technology just work.
• Enables the use of alternative MAC and PHY’s for transporting Bluetooth ..
The Bluetooth system slowly comes to the basic interface especially at mobile
phone accessories, PDA, PC and accessories, etc. Bluetooth promises to be a
low cost, convenient, and simple way of enabling your various computer
devices to talk to each other and to their peripherals. The reality has yet to
match the promise, but Bluetooth is becoming more widespread and
functional every day. Bluetooth is almost certainly in your future