11 de Oct de 2022

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  1. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY What is Tourism? • Tourism is defined as the “sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of nonresidents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected to any earning activity.” -Prof. Hunziker & Krapf of Berne University, Switzerland
  2. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY What is Tourism? • “Tourism may be defined in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home environment.” - Tourism Society in Cardiff • Tourism in the pure sense is essentially a pleasure activity in which money earned in one’s abode is spent in places visited.
  3. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY What is Hospitality? • This is derived from the Latin word hospitare, which means “to receive as a guest. • The principal meaning is a host who receives, welcomes, and caters to the needs of people who are temporarily away from their homes.
  4. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY • League of Nations (1937) defined Tourist as a “person who visits a country other than that in which he or she usually resides for a period of at least 24 hours.” • Classes of visitors: - Tourists - Excursionist
  5. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY The relationship between Hospitality and Tourism • Tourism and hospitality help each other, the hospitality industry offer services like accommodation, transportation, food and beverage, recreation and leisure. Tourism is the activity by the tourists where they engage in travelling to destinations where they want to experience recreational and leisure activities and most of the time avails of accommodation, food and beverage. The hospitality industry is the supplier of the services for tourism.
  6. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Components of the tourism and hospitality industry;
  7. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY 1. Tourist Attraction - A tourist attraction is a place of interest where tourists visit, typically for its inherent or an exhibited natural or cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, offering leisure and amusement. 2. Accommodation is a group of rooms, or building which someone may live or stay and is important to any tourists who want to travel to another destination or on a trip as you are always going to need a place to stay such as hotels, caravan parks, camp sites et. Accommodation is split into two parts, serviced and non serviced which are different from each other. They are all in the private sector which means that they want to make a profit and grow their businesses.
  8. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY • Serviced accommodation: When a service is provided along with an overnight stay, e.g. hotels, guesthouses, youth hostels etc. This type of serviced accommodation is where there is maid services such as room cleaners which change your bed, towels and also serve food and drink to you when it is needed. • Non serviced accommodation: When tourists cater for themselves. Examples of this is when you stay in cottages, a camping holiday, caravanning etc. and you have to cook, clean and cater for yourselves. • Catering is the business of providing food service at a remote site or a site such as a hotel, hospital, pub, aircraft, cruise ship, park, filming site or studio, entertainment site, or event venue.
  9. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY 3. Transportation - Transportation is the main mean to carry passengers, that is, the tourists to the actual site where tourism services are performed. The development of transportation, transportation vehicles, infrastructure and using new technologies in this sector speed up the development of tourism. Types of Transportation; • Roadways Transportation. • Railways Transportation. • Water Transportation. • Air Transportation. • Pipelines Transportation.
  10. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY 4. TOURIST INFORMATION AND GUIDING SERVICES Tourism is about visiting to places you're not familiar with, so tourists certainly need someone to guide them. For that reason, tourism information and guiding services are necessary in the tourism industry. Tour guides are people who accompany tourists at a destination, explaining them about the place, its culture and suggest them with suitable activities that can be done in the area. Moreover, there are TICS, tourist information centres, in destinations that provide a wide range of brochures, books and even maps to help inform the visitors about the area.
  11. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY 5. Tour operator - is an organization, firm, or company who buys individual travel components, separately from their suppliers and combines them into a package tour, which is sold with their own price tag to the public directly or through middlemen, is called a Tour Operator.
  12. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY 6. Travel Agents - is a person whose job it is to arrange travel for end clients (individuals, groups, corporations) on behalf of suppliers (hotels, airlines, car rentals, cruise lines, railways, travel insurance, package tours). His task is to simplify the travel planning process for their customers in addition to providing consultation services and entire travel packages.
  13. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Differentiate tourists from excursionists • A tourist goes to a specific location to see specific things. Like a visit to Paris to see the Louvre. Also, a tourist will usually stay overnight and sleep in the location he is visiting. • An excursion is a short trip, just for pleasure. Like a hike in the woods or a walk in the park. Also, an excursionist will usually go back to his/her town, hotel or residence that it is different from the visited destination, when sleep/rest is needed. • A tourist is one that makes a tour for pleasure or culture. • An excursionist is a person who goes on an excursion. • An excursion is a usually short journey made for pleasure; an outing.
  14. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Nature of a Tour • traveling around from place to place. A long journey including the visiting of a number of places in sequence, especially with an organized group led by a guide. A brief trip through a place, as a building or a site, in order to view or inspect it:
  15. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Characteristics of a tourist product and a tourist destination • TOURIST PRODUCTS - A tourist product is a concept that is made up of many components. These are made up of tourist attractions; provision of means of transport, lodging and its associated facilities and sources of entertainment. These components may be provided by one company or a group of companies in the tourism industry. It also involves the tourist enjoying these products from the time they step out of their houses till the time they get back home.
  16. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Characteristics of Tourism Product • Intangibility One of the characteristics of tourism products is that it cannot be touched. Tourism products are intangible so after using the product there is no physical proof that one has used it. For example, a tourist books a hotel and sleeps in his room for four days. When he checks out, there is no physical or tangible proof that he was in that hotel. There are no products to show proof of purchase. • Inseparability Another feature of tourism product is that it cannot be separated from the provider, that is, it is inseparable. If a tourist enters a restaurant and orders food or drink, the person who is bringing the food or drink cannot separate him or herself from the food or drink being brought to the customer. The service provider and the service itself are conjoined.
  17. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY • Tourism products are perishable Also a tourism product is perishable when it is not consumed at the time and point that it is provided. Let us say, for example, that a bus tour from Ibadan to Lagos in Nigeria has been arranged and tickets have been sold out. If a passenger is unable to be present on time to board the bus, the product perishes. That particular product cannot be consumed again. It is lost. Similarly, if a tourist books a hotel at Lekki in Lagos but for some strange reason is not able to sleep in that room on the said date, that service is lost. He has to pay again to get another room on another day. • No ownership The ownership of a tourism product is not transferable to the consumer. The consumer only owns the right to use the product because he has paid for it for a predetermined period of time or days. If a tourist pays for a hotel room, he or she has the right to use the room for the days that he or she paid for. After that he or she must vacate the room or pay for additional days if he or she wants to prolong the stay. The hotel continues to belong to the owner even if it is booked and paid for. Ownership does not transfer to the renter because he or she has paid for the room.
  18. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY • Customer participation In the tourism industry, the customer by all means would have to partake in the delivery of the service being offered, otherwise, the service delivery would never be complete. In the industry, a product is being sold and a product is being consumed; there is no way this can happen without the customer getting involved. A tourist must be on a bus otherwise the service is not being consumed. If one pays for a hotel or a hotel is booked on a person’s behalf, the person must of necessity sleep in the hotel room for the product to be consumed.
  19. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY • Heterogeneous Another characteristic of tourism product is that it is heterogeneous. In tourism, tourists make use of several services, including transport, hotels, restaurants, car rentals, and many types of indoor and outdoor recreational activities. However, what a tourist experiences at one place is not similar to the one experienced at another place. Even in the same restaurant, since there are many servers, the way one customer is served may not be the same as the way another is served. The element of the human factor creates a difference between one product and the other. Two different bus companies could transport tourists to the same destination but the tourists would have different stories to tell just because the drivers are different. • Immovability Another feature of tourist product is immovability. A tourist attraction such as a waterfall, mountain, beach, flora and fauna cannot be moved from where it is originally located to another place. Heritage sites have to remain where they are because that is how the tourist will enjoy and have value for his money. It is practically impossible to move a hotel or restaurant from where it is to another place without destroying the edifice.
  20. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Tourist destination • A tourist destination is basically a travel destination that attracts large numbers of travelers, or tourists. Travelers may visit these destinations to see historical sites, natural wonders, or buildings. Some tourist attractions also have activities, such as rides or games, or unusual novelties. Souvenirs are often sold at these destinations, and many of these areas rely on the income generated by the travelers that visit.
  21. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Tourist Destination • A tourist destination is a geographical unit where the tourist visits and stays. • The success of a tourist destination depends upon the interrelationship of three basic factors: attractions, amenities or facilities, and accessibility.
  22. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY • Importance of Tourism The tourism industry is important for the benefits it brings and due to its role as a commercial activity that creates demand and growth for many more industries. Tourism not only contributes towards more economic activities but also generates more employment, revenues and play a significant role in development.
  23. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY FOUR BASIC ELEMENTS OF TRAVEL 1. Distance. The difference between local travel or traveling within a person’s home community and nonlocal travel or traveling away from home. 2. Length of Stay at a destination. Tourists are temporary visitors who make at least one overnight stay, while excursionists are temporary visitors who do not stay overnight in the country that they visit. 3. Residence or origin of the traveler. For business and research purposes, it is important to know where people live. 4. Purposes of travel. What is the goal of that person why he travels?
  24. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Tourist Services • The principal tourist services are supplied by passenger transport, which provides the means to reach the destination, as well as the movement at the destination. • Distinctions in transport are between public and private, domestic and international, and among the various modes—land, sea, and air. • Accommodation, food and beverage, and entertainment constitute the second group of tourist services.
  25. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Tourist Services • The third group of tourist services consists of those provided by the travel agent and by the tour operator. • Other tourist services include currency, documentation, information, sightseeing, and shopping.
  26. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Characteristics of Tourism and Hospitality • Product is not brought to the consumer; • The consumer has to travel and go to the product to purchase; • Products are not used up; • Both are labor-intensive industries; • People-oriented; • Multidimensional phenomenon; • Both industries are seasonal; • Both industries are dynamic.
  27. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Importance of Tourism and Hospitality • Contribution to the balance of payments • Dispersion of development • Effect on general economic development • Employment opportunities • Social benefits • Cultural enrichment • Educational significance • A vital force for peace
  28. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY LESSON SUMMARY • Tourism and hospitality is one of the world’s largest and fastest-growing industries. • Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during their stay at these destinations. • Network means a complicated interconnection of parts or components. • Travel and tourism are used together as an umbrella term to refer to those businesses that provide primary services to travelers. • The main purpose of transportation is to make it possible for people to go from one place to another.
  29. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY • A travel agent is one who sells travel services in a travel agency. • Tour operators are wholesalers who make the necessary contacts with hotels, airlines, and other providers of travel services and devise packages which will appeal to retail buyer. • Tourist product is a combination of what the tourist does at the destination and the services he or she uses during his or her stay. • Tourism and hospitality has special characteristics which make it different from other industries. • Tourism and hospitality has special characteristics which make it different from other industries. • Tourism and hospitality is an important human activity with economic, social, cultural, educational significance, and an important vehicle for attaining global peace. LESSON SUMMARY
  30. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY APPLICATION AND ASSESSMENT 1. Research on tourist arrivals and expenditures for the past five years (2013–2017). 2. Select a local tourist attraction. It could be a historic site, museum, park, beach area, or shopping center that caters to tourists. Write a one-page report describing the features of this attraction that actually draw tourists. 3. Select a local tourist destination. Make a research on the following: What type of visitor does the destination draw? What does the destination’s management do to bring in visitors? What features has its management added to lengthen the visitors’ stay?
  31. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY CHAPTER QUIZ. Identify the following: TOURISM_ ___ 1. The temporary, short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during their stay at those destinations INTERNATIONAL TOURISM 2. Movement of people across international boundaries TOURIST DESTINATION_ 3. A geographical unit where the tourist visits and stays _EXCURSIONIST___________ 4. Temporary visitors staying at least 24 hours in the destination visited and not making an overnight stay _TOURIST PRODUCT________ 5. It consists of what the tourist buys. INDIVIDUAL INCLUSIVE TOUR (IIT) 6. A tour in which the tourist travels to his or her destination individually _INCLUSIVE TOUR__________ 7. Another term for package tour _SITE ATTRACTIONS________ 8. An attraction in which the destination itself has appeal SECOND GROUP OF TOURIST SERVICES _ 9. Facilities such as accommodation, food, transportation, communication, and entertainment at the destination _TOUR OPERATOR________ 10. The manufacturer of the tourist product
  35. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Lesson Contents History of the Tourism Industry. History of the Hospitality Industry. Pioneers in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry. Origins of Tourism and Hospitality in the Philippines. International Travel Patterns. Factors That Favor the Growth of Tourism and Hospitality.
  36. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY History of Tourism • People have always had a need to travel, be it to explore and discover new lands or for our own enjoyment. Tourism covers precisely the latter. • We can trace the origin of the modern concept of tourism back to the 17th century, when young nobles from western and northern European countries made what was called the Grand Tour: a trip around Europe (usually covering France, Germany, Italy and Greece) with the main purpose of soaking up history, art and cultural heritage. It was considered a perfect way to be educated.
  37. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Early Tourism • Man has traveled since the earliest times although the term tourism was used only in the 19th century. • Tourism is derived from the Hebrew word torah which means ‘studying, learning, or searching’. • Tourism can trace its ancestry in the Old Testament. Noah with his Ark must have been the first large- scale operator even though his passengers were mostly animals. • Chapters 26 and 27 of the Book of Ezekiel describe trade and commerce in ancient Tyre and recount the travels abroad made by merchants.
  38. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Two Forms of Early Tourism 1. Trading. The invention of money, writing, and wheel by the Sumerians facilitated travel and exchange of goods. 2. Travel for religious reasons. This took the form of pilgrimages to places of worship such as Chaucer’s tale of pilgrimage to Canterbury. Beginning in 1388, English pilgrims were required to obtain and carry permits, the forerunner for the modern passport.
  39. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Tourism in the Medieval Period • Travel, derived from the word travail, became burdensome, dangerous, and demanding during this time. • After the decline of the Roman Empire in the 5th century, roads were not maintained and they became unsafe. • Crusaders and pilgrims were the only ones who traveled.
  40. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Tourism During the Renaissance and Elizabethan Eras • Under Elizabeth I, young men seeking positions in court were encouraged to travel to the continent to widen their education. • This practice was gradually adopted by others in the lower social scale. • In time, it became recognized that the education of a gentleman should be completed by a “Grand Tour” of the cultural centers of the continent which lasted for three years.
  41. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Grand Tour • The Grand Tour was the 17th- and 18th-century custom of a traditional trip through Europe undertaken by upper-class young European men of sufficient means and rank (typically accompanied by a chaperone, such as a family member) when they had come of age (about 21 years old). • The custom — which flourished from about 1660 until the advent of large-scale rail transport in the 1840s and was associated with a standard itinerary — served as an educational rite of passage. Though the Grand Tour was primarily associated with the British nobility and wealthy landed gentry, similar trips were made by wealthy young men of other Protestant Northern European nations, and, from the second half of the 18th century, by some South and North Americans.
  42. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Tourism During the Renaissance and Elizabethan Eras • By the end of the 18th century, the practice had become institutionalized for the upper class of society. • As young men sought intellectual improvement in the continent, the sick sought a remedy for their illnesses in “spas” or medicinal baths. • The term “spa” is derived from the Walloon word espa meaning “fountain.” • Turnbridge Wells in Kent (near London) became famous as a spa in the 1660s.
  43. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY • A spa is a location where mineral-rich spring water (and sometimes seawater) is used to give medicinal baths. Spa towns or spa resorts (including hot springs resorts) typically offer various health treatments, which are also known as balneotherapy.
  44. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY In what way do 'spas' contribute to the growth of the tourism • Spas are now an integral component of market expectations for resort areas. Having a robust, well regulated, aptly trained and up to date labor force, builds upon the offering of tourism destinations and thus, contributes to its growth. To put it another way, a resort destination with no spas, would most probably have a lower capture than areas that do offer them. • Spa tourism is part of wellness tourism in which the experience is associated with activities that involve health improvement through hydrotherapy or balneotherapy. The International SPA Association defines spa as a place devoted to overall well being through a variety of professional services that encourage the renewal of mind, body, and spirit.
  45. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Tourism During the Industrial Revolution • The Industrial Revolution brought about major changes in the scale and type of tourism development. • Social changes made travel desirable as a recreational activity. • Increase in productivity, regular employment, and growing urbanization gave more people the motivation and opportunity to go on a holiday. • The middle class combined higher incomes and growing education into annual holidays.
  46. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Modern Tourism • Tourism in the 19th Century – The railway provided reliable and cheap transportation and competition since various private companies invested heavily in hotels, resorts, and entertainment facilities. – Steam power provided increased mobility and reliable and inexpensive transportation that led to the popular day-trip cruises and the growth of coastal resorts near large industrial towns. • Tourism in the 20th Century – Early post-war prosperity, and large-scale migration, boosted the demand for international travel. – New forms of mass communication stimulated curiosity about other countries, with the influence of posters and the press, the cinema, radio, and television widened knowledge and interest in travel.
  47. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Origins of Tourism and Hospitality in the Philippines • Tourism and hospitality in the Philippines began when the original inhabitants of the country roamed around in search of food. • Steamships and airlines began to service the Philippines from other countries; thus, giving impetus to tourism and hospitality in 1947. • The Philippines had undergone economic, social, and political crises starting in the 1960s up to the ‘70s, which hindered the development and promotion of tourism and hospitality. • Tourism and hospitality in the Philippines at present is the result of the continuous development and promotion of tourism and hospitality from 1950 to the present.
  48. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY History of the Hospitality Industry • Ancient Period (The Sumerians) • Produced such abundant harvests by selling surplus grain to people in other parts of the region; • Invented money and writing as a means to record and settle their business transactions; • Converted grains to alcoholic beverages or beers which became the most common consumed beverages in Sumerian society. • The Greek Empire • Their land and sea travels made them dominant in the Mediterranean region; forms of overnight accommodation became a necessity; • Many inns and taverns, restaurants in ancient Greece were often respected and served foods; • In 146 BC, after many years of conflict, Greece became a Roman protectorate and the Roman efforts at territorial expansion continued. • Caravans stopped at Khans, a combination of stables, sleeping accommodations, and fortresses which provided shelter from sandstorms and enemies who attacked caravans.
  49. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY History of the Hospitality Industry • Medieval Period (Dark Ages) • After the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 AD, innkeeping disappeared; • Monasteries of the Church were self-sufficient enterprises; • Providing hospitality services to travelers became a burden to the religious houses. • The Church found it difficult to accommodate many travelers in a limited space. • The Church continued to provide hospitality to the poor since Christian charity was an important element in the Church’s mission • Gradually, some taverns, inns, and wine shops began to give accommodations to middle-class travelers. • Thus, the number of inns increased although the standards of comfort and cleanliness differed greatly in different countries and regions.
  50. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Early Modern Period: 1600 AD to 1800 AD • In the 16th century, taverns called an ordinary served a fixed price, fixed menu meal in England. • The advent of stagecoach travel revolutionized hospitality on the road followed by stagecoach or coaching inns. • At coaching inns, tired horses were exchanged with fresh horses and stagecoach passengers were fed and given the opportunity to rest overnight. Travel was difficult because the roads were full of potholes and normally soaked in mud. • There was an increase in the quality of inns, the application of English common law to the hospitality industry; • In France, the reintroduction of restaurants for public dining was seen.
  51. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY • In the late 18th century, there were no public restaurants. • In England, coffee houses and taverns served a daily “ordinary” which is a main meal with a fixed price. • Most people took their meals at home; the rich had their own cooks and entertained in their own homes. • Inns were established for travelers and did not normally serve meals to local residents. • The food service element of the hospitality industry changed dramatically in France in 1765. • In that year, a man named Boulanger operated a small business which sold soups and broths in Paris. • These were known as restaurants, a French word which means “restoratives”.
  52. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Pioneers in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry • There are several outstanding individuals who have made a significant contribution to the growth and development of the tourism and hospitality industry. Cesar Ritz • Cesar Ritz became the general manager of the Savoy Hotel in London, one of the most famous and luxurious hotels in the world. He made the hotel a cultural center for high society. The Ritz name is synonymous with refined, elegant hotels and service. At present, the Ritz-Carlton hotels bear his name.
  53. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY International Travel Patterns • Major travel flows occur between the United States and Western Europe. Secondary regional patterns exist between South America, the Caribbean, Africa, the Near East, and the Far East. Travel to Africa is usually one way, originating in Europe. • The heaviest flow of air traffic into Europe is between New York and London; • Europe generates about one-half of overseas travelers to the US. Travel between European countries—intracontinental travel—has been very popular. This is one of the reasons for Europe’s large share of the worldwide travel market.
  54. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Factors That Favor the Growth of Tourism and Hospitality • Rising disposable income for large sections of the population • Growth in the number of retired persons with the desire and the energy to travel • Increase in discretionary time – shorter workweeks and longer vacations • Greater mobility of the population • Growth in the number of “singles.” • Greater credit availability through credit cards and bank loans • Higher educational levels Factors That Favor the Growth of Tourism and Hospitality • The growth of cities • Simplification of travel through the package tour. • Growth of multinational business • Modern transportation technology • Shift in values • Advances in communication • Smaller families and changing roles
  55. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY LESSON SUMMARY • Tourism and hospitality dates back to the earliest of civilizations with early beginnings that date back in the Old Testament. • Early tourism and hospitality is characterized by travel for business and religion. • Hospitality industry began with the Sumerians who lived in Mesopotamia near the Persian Gulf. The Sumerians established taverns which provided food, drinks, and shelter to Sumerian traders and travelers. • The ancient Egyptians provided food and lodging to travelers who wanted to see the pyramids and attend festivals. The ancient Greeks established inns and taverns to provide food and accommodation to weary travelers.
  56. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY LESSON SUMMARY • After the collapse of the Roman Empire, no one traveled for pleasure due to: political instability, lack of extensive trade and commerce, poor roads, inefficient transportation, and the proliferation of highway robbers who preyed on travelers. • The monasteries of the Roman Catholic Church provided food and shelter to travelers after the fall of the Roman Empire. • During the Middle Ages, the hospitality industry became more organized with the establishment of restaurant guilds. • French cuisine was brought to America and the first restaurant was established in the United States.
  57. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY LESSON SUMMARY • Tourism and hospitality in the Renaissance period is characterized by the Grand Tour in which scholars from both the middle and upper classes went on a three-year exploration of the capitals, politics, culture, and society of Western Europe to enhance their education. • There was also an increase in the popularity of “spas” in which the sick sought to be cured of their ailments by bathing in the mineral springs. • The Industrial Revolution stimulated pleasure travel due to increase of wealth, the creation of a large and prosperous middle class, improvements in transportation, the need of the working class to find relief from their work routine, and the desire of the city dwellers for relaxation and adventure.
  58. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY • The nineteenth century established concepts such as à la carte dining, mass feeding, better preservation of food, ice cream parlors, and the custom of eating out. • In the 19th and 20th century, pleasure travel continued to progress due to economic prosperity, the introduction of the jet aircraft and the private car, and social changes and changing values brought about by mass education. Other factors such as paid holidays, shorter workweek, and annual holidays increased the demand for travel. • Cesar Ritz is one of several individuals who have made outstanding contributions to the growth and development of the tourism and hospitality industry. • After the declaration of martial law in 1972, the tourism and hospitality industry in the Philippines grew. The Department of Tourism, which is the NTO of the Philippines has launched several programs for the development of the tourism and hospitality industry. • A substantial proportion of international travel occurs within and between Europe and the United States. • A large number of factors have consistently influenced the growth of tourism and hospitality including economic prosperity, availability of leisure time, higher levels of education, increase in the number of retirees, credit availability, growth of cities, and improvement in transportation.
  61. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Lesson Contents Tourism and Hospitality Components. Tourism and Hospitality Supply Components. Natural Resources. Infrastructure. Hospitality Resources. Hospitality Training. Transportation. Superstructure.
  62. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Tourism and Hospitality Components • The travel industry is a tourism and hospitality network, which includes both the public and private sectors. • Gee, Choy, & Makens (1997) define the travel industry as “the composite of organizations, both private and public, that are involved in the development, production, and marketing of products and services to serve the needs of the travelers.” • Businesses and corporations are regarded as components of the travel industry classified as direct providers, support services, and developmental organizations.
  63. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY 1. The first category, direct providers, include businesses that are associated with travel, such as airlines, hotels, restaurants, ground transportation, travel agencies, and retail shops. These businesses provide services, activities, and products that are consumed and/or purchased directly by travelers. They represent the sectors of the industry that are visible to the travelers. 2. The second category, support services, lend support to direct providers. It includes specialized services such as tour organizers, travel and trade publications, hotel management firms, and travel research firms. It also includes basic supplies and services, such as contract laundry and contract food services. Support services provide goods and services for both the traveler and for organizations that sell goods and services directly but not exclusively to tourists. 3. The third category, tourism developmental organizations, is different from the first two, since it includes planners, government agencies, financial institutions, real estate developers, and educational and vocational training institutions.
  64. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Tourism and Hospitality Supply 1. Natural resources – include elements in an area for the use and enjoyment of visitors such as climate, landforms, terrain, flora, fauna, bodies of water, beaches, natural beauty, and water supply for drinking, sanitation, and similar uses. 2. Infrastructure – consists of all underground and surface developmental construction such as water supply systems, sewage disposal systems, gas lines, electrical and communications systems, drainage systems, and other constructed facilities such as highways, airports, railroads, roads, drives, parking lots, parks, night lighting, marinas and dock facilities, bus and train station facilities, and similar tourist service installations.
  65. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY 3. Superstructure – is the above ground facility services such as airport buildings, passenger traffic terminals, hotels, motels, resorts, restaurants, shopping centers, places of entertainment, museums, stores, and similar structures. 4. Transportation and transportation equipment – include items such as ships, airplanes, trains, buses, limousines, taxis, automobiles, cog railways, aerial tramway, and similar passenger transportation facilities. 5. Hospitality resources – include the cultural wealth of an area which makes possible the successful hosting of tourists. Examples are the welcoming spirit of tourist business employees, attitudes of the residents toward visitors, courtesy, friendliness, sincere interest, willingness to serve and to get better acquainted with visitors, and other manifestations of warmth and friendliness. Also included are the cultural resources of an area such as fine arts, literature, history, music, dramatic art, dancing, and shopping.
  66. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY DIRECT COMPONENTS OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY NETWORK • Direct elements of the Tourism Industry are those areas of the tourism industry which come into direct contact with tourists Sales, Accommodation, Transport, Activities, Attractions, and Ancillary Services.
  67. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY INDIRECT COMPONENTS OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY NETWORK • Indirect elements of the Tourism Industry are often called support sectors. Those parts of the tourism industry which may not come into direct contact with tourists, but without the rest of the industry could not function. They include infrastructure, Roads, Airports, Communications, Public Toilets, Signs, Manufacturing, Building Industry, Electricity, Water supply and Sewerage and waste disposal.
  68. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Hospitality Resources • Hospitality resources refer to the general feeling of being welcomed that the visitors receive while visiting a destination area. It is the way that tourist services are delivered by service providers, as well as the general feeling of warmth from the local population. • Tourists will have a more enjoyable vacation if they feel welcomed by the host population and will certainly feel awkward and unhappy if they feel rejected. • Hospitality resources can be improved by training tourism and hospitality personnel to be hospitable to encourage positive feelings toward tourism and hospitality and tourists by the general public.
  69. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Hospitality Resources • Hospitality Resources is a total supply company for hospitality products and equipment for all food and beverage service industry-hotels, resorts, restaurants, catering industry and entertainment outlets.
  70. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY 5 best ways to improve efficiency in your hospitality resources: 1. Cloud-based POS systems. Cloud-based point of sale (POS) systems are becoming more and more sophisticated, allowing hospitality businesses to operate more efficiently – leaving you more time to provide better customer service 2. Online booking 3. Boosting customer loyalty 4. Offer free wifi 5. Online accounting software
  71. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Different Types of Tourist Accommodations • Sleeping accommodations range from hotels of international standards and condominiums to campgrounds and the homes of relatives and friends. • A sufficient quantity of accommodations of the right quality should be provided for the needs of the tourists. • The type of accommodations provided is also partly determined by what competitors are providing. • Appropriate accommodations should be available for all segments of the market. • Expensive hotel accommodations may be demanded by those who want the best and are willing and able to pay accordingly. On the other hand, tourists who are unable or unwilling to pay for expensive accommodations should have cheap facilities available.
  72. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Types of Accommodations 1. Hotels – provide accommodation, meals, and refreshments for those who may reserve their accommodations in advance but need not do so. In broad terms, they provide facilities that meet the needs of the modern travelers. They portray an image of efficiency and service; 2. Condominium – is an apartment or individual dwelling unit owned by an individual but the management and services, such as maintenance and security, are handled by an independent company. The company often contracts to rent the condominium when it is not being used by the owner. Each owner can sell his or her unit independently of the other owners; 3. Motels or motor hotels – provide bedrooms, bath, and parking to motorists; rooms are usually accessible from the parking lot. They are usually near the highways; 4. Inns – are lodging establishments catering to transients which do not meet the minimum requirement of an economy hotel; 5. Apartments – are hotels (Apartelles), buildings, or edifices containing several independent and furnished or semi-furnished apartments that are regularly leased to tourists and travelers for dwelling, on a more or less long-term basis and offering basic services to its tenants similar to hotels;
  73. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY 6. Paradores – are old convents, monasteries, castles, or fortresses converted into hotels by the government and operated by a national tourism office. First- class paradores are found in Spain and Ireland. They are generally priced reasonably with full-meal plans. They appeal to tourists who would like to experience the romances and ambiances of the past in a fifteenth-century Augustinian monastery or a nineteenth-century mansion; 7. Pensions – are private or family-operated tourist accommodations similar to boarding houses or guesthouses. They offer food and lodging to tourists and are well-known for their informal family atmosphere; 8. Bed-and-breakfast accommodations – provide a room, bath, and a hearty breakfast to tourists and/or travelers. They are known as B&Bs and are popular in Britain, Ireland, and the United States;
  74. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY 9. Hostels – provide minimal amenities such as a bunk bed and a commonly shared toilet and bathroom. The traveler provides his or her own bedding. They appeal mostly to young travelers; 10. Campgrounds – appeal mostly to families who travel in recreational vehicles (RVs); 11. Health spas – are hostels and resorts which cater to individuals who go to spas or mineral springs for weight reduction or medical treatment; and 12. Private homes – provide lodging to tourists when accommodations are not available during peak periods.
  75. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Hotel Classifications • There are different ways of classifying hotels. • One way is by location, such as city center, suburban, airport, highway, and resorts. • Another way is by type of guest, such as commercial, convention, and resort. • A more meaningful classification is one based on price such as economy or budget, standard or midscale, first-class, or deluxe. • A star rating system is often used to classify hotels in Europe and other parts of the world outside the United States. Stars are assigned according to the quality of restaurants, rooms, amenities, and service. • The highest is the five-star hotel and the lowest is the one-star hotel. • Other classifications are deluxe, first-class, standard, and economy.
  76. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Hotel Types by Star Rating • One Star − A guest can expect a small hotel operated and managed by the owner and family. The ambience as more personal and the guest rooms with basic amenities. The restaurant would be at a walking distance. There would be a small commercial area and a nearby public transportation hub. • Two-Star − These hotels are mostly part of a chain of hotels that offer consistent quality but limited amenities. They are either small or medium size hotels with a phone and TV. They lack the convenience of room service, but provide a small on-site restaurant at a walking distance within the hotel premises. • Three-Star − These hotels are usually located near a major business center, express way, and/or shopping area. The rooms are clean and spacious rooms, and decorative lobbies. An on-site restaurant offers all meals such as breakfast, lunch, and dinner. The facilities such as valet and room service, fitness center, and a swimming pool are also available.
  77. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY • Four-Star − This hotel would be large, often standing as a part of a cluster of similar hotels with a formal appearance and very good services. The hotel would be located in the prime area of the city around shopping, dining, and entertainment joints. The guest can expect furnished and clean rooms, restaurants, room service, valet parking, and a fitness center within the hotel premises. • Five-Star − This hotel would be large and luxurious, which offers the highest degree of room and personal service. It is built with beautiful architecture, and is managed keeping elegance and style in mind. The guest rooms are equipped with high quality linens, TV, bathtubs, and special outside view from the room. The hotel provides multiple eating joints in its premises such as coffee shops, restaurants, poolside snack joint, and bar. They also provide 24X7 room service, valet service, and personal protection service.
  78. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY What gives a hotel a 7-star rating? • Officially, there is no such thing as a 7-star rating. The term 7-star was created by a journalist who attended the opening of the Burj Al Arab in Dubai and felt the standard five stars didn’t do its decadence justice. • Even a 5-star rating can vary country to country as there is no global standard for star ratings. But what we can gather from hotels who market themselves as having seven (and very few claim to have six) is that they are a really, really luxury property with the glitziest and flashiest extras you can imagine. • Let’s take a look at what you can experience at the world’s most outrageously opulent hotels, along with just how much it will cost to get a room there.
  79. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Our list of the best seven-star hotels around the world includes: • Burj Al Arab (United Arab Emirates) • Taj Falaknuma Palace (India) • Emirates Palace Hotel (United Arab Emirates) • Signiel Seoul (South Korea) • Pangu Hotel (China) • Seven Stars Galleria (Italy) • Laucala Private Island (Fiji)
  81. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY • Hotel Burj Al Arab is where the idea of a seven-star hotel came to life. It’s hard to say what it was about the sail- shaped Burj Al Arab that inspired the phrase but the all- suite property’s fleet of Rolls-Royce Phantoms (available to pick you up after your flight to Dubai lands) and 24-hour butler service might have had something to do with it. • The décor at Dubai’s most famous hotel is as upmarket as its clientele, with more than 21,000 square feet of 24K-gold leaf gracing the property. Helicopter transfers, gold-plated iPads and caviar facials are standard here, as are multiple attendants for every suite. • Price: A one-bedroom suite at Burj Al Arab starts from $2,500 AUD. The Royal Suite will set you back an average of $8,900 USD ($11,000 AUD) per night – down from $24,000 USD when it first opened! Address: Burj Al Arab, Jumeirah Road, Umm Suqeim 3, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
  82. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY 2. Taj Falaknuma Palace, Hyderabad • Labelled as the only 7-star hotel in India, the Taj Falaknuma Palace was built in 1884 and was once owned by the Nizam (ruler) of Hyderabad, who was the world’s richest man at the time. • An architectural splendour, the palace was built in the shape of a scorpion with two stings spread out as wings and includes a walnut-clad replica of the library at Windsor Castle. Inside this phenomenal palace are a number of priceless artworks, manuscripts and furnishings including Belgian Osler Chandeliers and an extensive jade collection. Clumsy guests should head somewhere else! • Now managed by Taj Hotels, the Indian palace has been restored to its 19th-century glory. It also offers guests the option of an arrival in a classic horse-drawn carriage and a welcome of scattered rose petals. Quite a difference from backpacking and train travelling in India, don’t you think? • Price: A Historical Suite with city view starts from 40,000 INR (approx. $770 AUD) per night. Address: Taj Falaknuma Palace, Engine Bowli, Fatima Nagar, Falaknuma, Hyderabad, India
  83. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY 3. Emirates Palace Hotel, Abu Dhabi • Anyhing Dubai does, Abu Dhabi has to go one better. The Emirates Palace Hotel wins the award for being one of the world’s most expensive hotels. • Costing a whopping three billion US dollars to build, the Emirates Palace is mind-boggling. This hotel features 1.3km of private beach, 128 kitchens, 114 domes and marble imported from 13 different countries (we assume the first 12 ran out!). The opulence extends from the grounds to the ceilings with 12 outdoor fountains, more than 1000 Swarovski crystal chandeliers and a gold vending machine – for when you’re caught short without enough precious metal. Gold is not just worn at the Emirates Palace but eaten too. Everything from camel burgers to the in-house cappuccino get a dusting. • Price: Calling themselves ‘the people’s palace’, rooms at Emirates Palace start at $800 AUD a night. Go on, treat yourself! Address: Emirates Palace Hotel, West Corniche Road, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
  84. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY 4. Signiel, Seoul • 4. Signiel, Seoul • Signiel Seoul, in Lotte World Tower, has quickly established itself as the most luxurious (and one of the most expensive) hotel in South Korea. • A stay at Signiel Seoul comes with helicopter transfers, Michelin-starred chefs, the largest champagne bar in Asia and a bill for thousands of dollars. • Price: Suites at Signiel Seoul have dropped in recent months, and will set you back around $500 AUD per night. Address: Signiel Seoul, Sincheon-dong, South Korea, Seoul
  85. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY 5. Pangu 7 Star Hotel, Beijing • Built by world-renowned Taiwanese architect CY Lee, whose portfolio includes the 508-metre Taipei 101 Tower, Pangu boasts 234 rooms that fuse Chinese classical tradition with contemporary European glamour while following the principles of feng shui. • Standard rooms are a fairly pocket-friendly $320 AUD per night, but for the ultimate luxury experience, you need to book the Sky Courtyard, a two-storey private residence with a rooftop garden, wading pool, electronically retractable glass roof and artwork by Sir David Tang. • Price: The price tag for the Sky Courtyard is a cool one million CNY (approx $193,000 AUD) a night. Address: Pangu 7 Star Hotel, 27 N 4th Ring Rd Middle, Chaoyang Qu, Beijing Shi, China
  86. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY 6. Seven Stars Galleria, Milan • The Seven Stars Galleria in Milan is the only official 7-star hotel on this list. That’s because the owner hired a company to create a European ranking so they could officially take the title. • With only 20 rooms available, it’s the most exclusive hotel on this list and you’ll be pretty lucky to get a room. If you can nab one, they tailor everything including the bed, meals and ambient music to each guest’s individual preference, making it the perfect way to get over jetlag after your long flight to Milan. • This hotel is ‘seventh heaven’ for shopaholics as the property’s private lift drops you directly in Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II, Italy’s oldest and grandest shopping arcade. • Price: Room rates start at EUR 1000 ($1,500 AUD) per night. Address: Seven Stars Galleria, Via Silvio Pellico, 8, 20121 Milano, Italy
  87. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY 7. Laucala Private Island, Fiji • The closest 7-star hotel experience for Australian travellers also happens to be the world’s most expensive! Owned by Red Bull co-founder, Dietrich Mateschitz, Laucala is where the likes of Oprah go on holiday away from the prying eyes of the public. • Laucala Private Island in Fiji is the largest private island in the Southern Hemisphere, and its hefty price tag makes it one of the world’s most exclusive holiday destinations too. • The island has 25 private villas for rent, including the owner’s hilltop residence, if you have $45,000 USD to spare! Activities you can partake in on the island include a paddle in a clear-bottom kayak, a ride on the resort’s submarine (yes, really) or a round of golf with a resident pro. • Laucala Private Island is under renovation until 2021. Who knows what new amenities they’ll emerge with? • Price: 1 night in a 1 bed villa starts from $4,200 USD (approx. $5,300 AUD). Address: Laucala Private Island, Fiji
  88. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY Basic Standard Requirements for Restaurants 1. The facades and architectural features of the building shall be appropriately designed. It shall be provided with a proper entrance and exit. There shall be an adequate and secured parking space provided free to customers. A receptionist shall be available to usher in the guests. A waiting lounge with a telephone shall also be provided; 2. The dining room shall be adequate in size, with sufficient and well-maintained furniture;
  89. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY 3. There shall be cuisine of good quality and presentation and served with distinction. There shall be a menu book or card which shall be presentable, clean, and easy to read with the menu items listed in logical sequence. All tables shall have clean table cloth and cloth napkins of good quality. No piece of crockery, cutlery, and tableware in use shall be chipped, cracked, or glazed. The silverware shall be kept polished and clean at all times; and 4. Adequate number of well-trained, experienced, efficient, and courteous staff shall be employed. The bar shall be well-stocked at all times. The kitchen, pantry, and cold storage shall be in good operating condition at all times and shall be of good quality fixtures and fitting and provided with running water. Tissue paper, soap, paper towels, and/or hand drier shall be provided. All main dining or function rooms shall be fully air-conditioned and/or well- ventilated.
  90. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY What are the 5 most popular types of restaurants? 1. Fast food • Fast food, or quick service restaurant (QSR) establishments offer food served on-the-go, whether from a drive-through window or counter. Customers can also dine in, although it’s less common. These types of restaurants are well-known chains or franchises with a nationwide or even global presence. The menus are made up of standardized fare — think greasy double-patty burgers, crispy fries, and creamy milkshakes in America, street tacos in Mexico, and hot noodles in Japan — and typically feature lower price points (Dollar Menu, anyone?) making them accessible for a breadth of customers.
  91. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY 2. Fast casual • Fast casual restaurants offer a more upscale and diverse (though still limited) menu selection with slightly higher price points than fast food establishments. But similar to fast food, these types of restaurants have a counter service model where customers place their orders at the cashier and bring them back to their own table. Think: customized chopped salads, signature paninis, superfood-filled smoothie bowls, or higher-quality burgers and shakes, for instance. As a bonus, this category has demonstrated consistent growth over time.
  92. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY 3. Casual dining • Casual dining encompasses a large segment of the restaurant industry. These types of restaurants cover everything from local independent spots to big franchises, but defining characteristics include table service and a sit- down meal. There’s generally a theme, specific decor, and ambiance that make the dining experience stand out. Depending on the cuisine, a customer dining at a casual establishment could find nearly anything: a salad bar, spaghetti and meatballs, pad thai, or even all-day breakfast offerings like pancakes and waffles.
  93. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY 4. Contemporary casual • Contemporary casual, a relatively new type of restaurant, is a sit-down dining experience marked by an emphasis on the atmosphere and experience. These types of restaurants often balance a relaxed eating environment with modern culinary trends like sustainability, farm-to-table, fusion cuisine, and craft beverages.
  94. MACRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY 5. Cafés • A café is — at its simplest — a beverage-focused establishment. Offerings usually include coffee, tea, and a smaller menu of food or snacks. These types of restaurants typically offer counter service and prices are low to moderate. Every country has different traditions for enjoying their caffeinated brews — in America, for instance, coffee is often consumed on the go in infamously large cups. But around the world, many cultures sit and sip for hours. Australian café- goers love a flat white (similar to a latte); Italians love pure espresso; and the French might reach for a café au lait or a cappuccino — and use it as a vessel for dipping croissants.