Open source & Mobility - FabMob guide

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A brief overview of Open Source & Mobility

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Open source & Mobility - FabMob guide

  1. 1. La fabrique des mobilités Open Source & Mobility
  2. 2. ADEME The French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) is active in the implementation of public policy in the areas of the environment, energy and sustainable development. The Agency provides expertise and advisory services to businesses, local authorities and communities, govern- ment bodies and the public at large, to enable them to establish and consolidate their environmental action. As part of this work ADEME helps finance projects, from research to implementation, in the areas of waste management, soil conservation, energy efficiency and renewable energy, air quality and noise abatement. ADEME is a public agency under the joint authority Ministry for the Environment, Energy, Oceans and International Climate Relations, and the Ministry for primary, secondary and Higher Education and Research. www.ademe.fr/en Acknowledgments The final outcome of this guidebook was elaborated by Margot SANCHEZ and would not have been possible without the assistance from numerous authors and contributors. La Fabrique would like to thank : André REINALD, Benoit JONCQUEZ, Bertrand BILLOUD, Cédric BELARDI, Gabriel PLASSAT, Gaël MUSQUET , Hipolito MARTELL FLORES, Jean-Louis PEYRE, Jean-Marc LAZARD, Jean-Michel FAVRE, Jean-Remy CAZEAUX, Laurent MAGHDISSIAN, Lomig UNGER, Louis-david BENYAYER, Maud CHIDIAC, Nicolas D’HAUSSY, Philippe GICQUEL, Pierre SIGRIST, Polen STUDIO, Rahul KUMAR, Simon SARAZIN, Stéphane MASSON, Stéphane DERVILLE, Sune PEDERSEN, Thierry FARGAS, Thomas CAZADE, Tin Hang LIU, Vincent LAINE, and Yann LERICHE and Yuki LIU. The Fabrique des Mobilités is constructed through your reactions, feedback, ideas, and projects. Please continue to inspire us and surprise us. La Fabrique des Mobilités The Fabrique is the first European accelerator dedicated to the rapidly changing ecosystem that is transportation and mobility. The Fabrique brings together players and projects, capitalizing on expe- riences, feedback and errors in order to create a common culture of innovative action. info@lafabriquedesmobilites.fr www.wiki.lafabriquedesmobilites.fr www.lafabriquedesmobilites.fr fabmobteam.slack.com @fab_mob
  3. 3. Open source perspectives O pen source dynamic was initiated considering essential human behaviors : when people have enough to live decently, some have diffe- rent personal motivations than material and want to participate to collective project. On the one hand, there is an innate desire shared by many of being useful to others. On the other hand, there is the ego: the need for peer recognition. The result in both cases is a desire to share what is done with the greatest number. There is also a macroeconomic interest in sharing: by enabling the reuse labor of others, it avoids duplicating effort, it does not have to reinvent the wheel in each new project. Actually, over the years, most IT projects have become essentially assemblies of third-party software compo- nents, a form of prefabricated. Create an application or service start by choosing the compo- nents and adding some cement to build the project. The open source model has greatly contri- buted to the industrialization of software development, with the huge productivity gains. Participate in open source project has the advantage, according to the license that is attached to the code, to benefit in return, and without payment, the contri- bution of other developers. One must however fit the economic models more about selling «user licenses». It leaves free all that is duplicable, and we can pay what is not, especially the service, design, deployment, training, custom development etc. It is quite natural that developers were the first to adopt this mode of cooperation: the central tool for open source was the internet and they were the first to master it. Note that in French, the term «informatique» means infor- mation science. «informatique» existed long before the advent of the computer which is just a tool for automated processing of data. Indeed, each program feeds itself with input data, and provides other output. It is therefore not surprising that there is a kind of contamination of the model «open» to the data. I have personally worked for many years in the mapping (GIS) and transportation (Mappy). By joining Mozilla, I deepened my understanding of the various issues and models of «open». Mozilla, which we must remember, is a foundation, was a pioneer in this mode, and is today one of the most famous players in the open source. All that is developed at Mozilla (including Firefox) is totally open. Thus, tens of thousands of contributors around the world participate, according to their motivation, their availability and skills to our projects: reports and investigation of bugs, docu- mentation, translations (Firefox By André REINALD, Mozilla
  4. 4. is translated into more than 80 languages), organizing or parti- cipating in events, public aware- ness, writing patches, etc. Based on my experience, I can identify some strengths and weaknesses of open source. Because the same number of people collaborating on a joint project would be more effective if they were divided into several competing projects. The perma- nent danger for an open source project is the «fork»: a subgroup decides that the project must take another direction, which seceded, creating a new project «clone», but will drift away from the original over time (OpenOffice - LibreOffice). A common question: how to share the work and who makes the decisions? The two issues are linked: the open source gives pride to meritocracy, «the one who do» naturally becomes the one that we respect. As for the user encountering a bug or wanting a feature, the community is often much more accessible and responsive than a corporation: it speaks directly to «those who do.» No customer service, communicate requests to a marketing department, submit- ting proposals to the committees that decide priorities keeping in mind that the primary purpose of a company is to make profit and bring services to users is just a task. For customers who need guaranteed services, specia- lized service companies in free software offer assistance equiva- lent to those provided by proprie- tary software vendors. Finally, in a system using volunteering, the main challenge is to attract, motivate and retain contributors. Wide task that became a real job, «community manager». Away from authorita- rianism and hierarchy, their only lever remains psychology. Open source today arrived at maturity, after overcoming obstacles of the early years of governance, sustainability, credibility, service. Now, this mode tends to spread to other sectors. The artistic production (or Creative Commons licenses), and of course the data: this is known as open data. Each sector has specific needs and solve their own problems. But the underlying philosophy and the benefits remain similar. It is about common to produce, evan- gelisation and as the action of la Fabrique des Mobilités is exem- plary.
  5. 5. Contents 7>8 Introduction History The four Pillars of Open innovation Workshop - Connected cars & territories Interview - Yann Leriche - Transdev Focus on - How Renault is driving innovation Interview - Bertrand Billoud - Kisio Workshop - Innovation Summer Camp Interview - Maud Chidiac - Local Motors Focus on - How to open data? Interview - Jean-Marc Lazard - OpenDataSoft Partnership - The project Catalogue Focus on - Business Models for Open Source development Interview - Tin Hang Liu & Yuki Liu - OSVehicle Community - Schools and students Interview - Sune Pedersen - Faraday Motion Workshop - Open software Focus on - Genivi Interview - Gaël Musquet an open source genius Focus on - Commons & Projects 9>10 11>14 15>18 19>20 21>23 24>26 27>29 30>31 32>33 34>35 36>39 40>41 42>43 44>47 48>51 52>54 1>2 3>4 5>6
  6. 6. 1 T he automotive history has always been linked to patents and industrial protection. For years, the inno- vation has been measured by the number of patent applications. At the same time, has grown up the cross-company cooperation as a strategic partnership to share vehicle platforms, engines or gearboxes and, in doing so, increase the volume of produc- tion and cut transactions costs. Subcontractors also have a key role to play among vehicle manufacturers. They foster sharing and pooling of compo- nents and even of sub-assem- blies in their entirety. Research projects have been conducted by several manufacturers on some upstream matters, as an example the research on new combustion process. Cooperation is thus not new and a large number of alliance are actually forming visible or discreet links between these actors. Recently some car manufac- turers opened their patents in order to attract new actors onto their technologies with the aim of ensuring minimal volume and then, offering an acceptable price. This being the case of Toyota on hydrogen patents and Tesla on electric one. Production volumes are at the heart of effec- tive strategies so that the auto- motive industry could be defined this way : “space science tech- nology to the price of household equipment”. All the coopera- tion schemes are based on the decrease of the cost of obtaining upstream scientific knowledge or reaching volumes which could ensure standardization of the process. These schemes are build “with full background knowledge of the situation”. Open innovation, as we envision it here, and open source have an another way to proceed. It’s about opening up knowledge without knowing where and how far that will take us. Open source includes all the advantages cited previously, but goes further, as this means that nothing has already been written and every- thing has to be built and invented. It’s a question of aligning creative forces It can therefore be said that an alignment is possible between industrial interests wanting to use open source resources to pursue their strategy and collec- tive goals wishing to exploit these new resources. La Fabrique aims to investigate and explore these alignments to foster the emergence, the referencing, the development, the protection and the access to commons in the field of sustainable mobility. To deal with the digital platforms of the GAFA, European industries of the automotive sector and more broadly of the transport field cannot ignore strategies which are passing through the Introduction By Gabriel PLASSAT
  7. 7. 2 Open source and the commons. Our major competitor is time. Coopetition using open source can be the fastest way to produce a new shared culture of innova- tion and a credible & desirable vision of our future. Let us have a closer look at three examples of industrials maste- ring vehicle platform and yet involving in open platform. 1. « Better to do Open than a rival. » By launching recently the project OpenAI, Elon Musk aims to create the dominant platform for Artificial Intelligence. In view of the current involvement in this sector of Google, Facebook and Microsoft, Musk has chosen the Open to go faster, forge strategic alliances and make the creations useable as soon as possible. The purpose is to turn OpenAI into the most advanced and efficient platform to prevent competi- tors from being the focus of our attention. Before somebody else does, the Open can fill up quickly a space which is currently empty and ready to be conquered. Nevertheless, be careful, because not everyone one can be an Elon Musk. To do that, you need credi- bility and enough partners to reach a critical mass interested in building up a platform. 2. « The Open as a spring- board for future world standards.» After the success of one of his invention Android (an open- source operating system for smartphones) Andy Rubin wants now to repeat the operation in the field of Artificial Intelligence. For that purpose he has a very specific plan ; open an accele- rator dedicated to AI, provide the best commons, mentorship and funding to startups. Then, after having reached the critical mass, open the platform to create new standards. To be in place before the others is the goal of Andy Rubin. And today, openness is the best solution to do so. But here too you have to be careful. To succeed certain conditions must be fulfilled. Andy Rubin was in touch with the top specialists in AI, he managed to get them to adopt the strategy and create the largest tech incubator dedicated to AI. 3. « The Open as a strategy of conquest to empower the communities.» Transdev with the Digital Factory department, is committed to create a worldwide Open Database in Transports, this is the project Catalogue. The aim is to set up a platform of reference within the mobility field to permit entrepreneurs to reduce time and effort, gain access to high quality data and finally to standardize the work procedures. By doing so, Catalogue will reveal talents, projects and with a certain critical mass it will be indispen- sable. To guarantee the equitable access, Transdev is currently looking for alliance with neutral and credible stakeholders to ensure governance and impro- vement. Many european players have an interest in supporting Catalogue. Open source is at the heart of La Fabrique development on three different levels: data, software, hardware and with several communities. La Fabrique proposes to list the open resources, to assist in their documentation, to support the communities in the identifica- tion of commons and to facilitate the funding and realisation of new commons. A new kind of call for project dedicated to open resources. Based on feedbacks from startups and industries, FabMob designed a new kind of call for project dedi- cated to open resources: a call for common. Starting from each community, partners identify missing resources that are neces- sary and not competitive. Theses resources, requested by several partners, can be developed with an open source approach. Then funding from industries and agencies will support and acce- lerate commons production with many advantages: • Commons produced are directly useful for several startups and partners, their projects get advantages, • Commons can be used and developed by others stakeholders, creating a community around them, with benefits in term of effi- ciency, • Each common can become a standard in its domain if many stakeholders decide to use it, • Even if the startups invoved fail in the next year, commons can still be used by the ecosystem, • Moreover, each common become a connector between several stakeholders, even in competition, creating a new culture of innovation.
  8. 8. 3 Open software, new phenomenon? Open software are not new. Actually, open source software are nearly as old as the inven- tion of science computing. The A-2 system, released in 1953 and developed by the UNIVAC divi- sion of Remington Rand, was one of the first compiler for an electronic computer and it might be the first example of free and open-source software in the history. Indeed, the software was provided with the source-code and customers were invited to send their improvements back to UNIVAC. Free software for universities and researchers. Let us go to the 60’s when the first computers appeared on the university campuses. At this time, it was usual to share, then remix everything, like if it was a cooking recipe. That’s why software were usually distributed with the source code. In this way, it was possible to make modifica- tions, fix bugs or add new func- tions. Students and computer science lovers decided to meet in open source communities, to share their ideas, codes and tips about computer program. The hackers’ movement was born. In accordance with the social movements of the period, the hackers are mostly distrustful of the authority. Their ideology is to promote free and open access to software. They think that computer science can advance scientific research and make the world a better place. The decline of free software. Towards the end of the 60’s, the proprietary softwares appeared because of the increase of software production cost. It was observed a growing amount HISTORY T o begin our guidebook, here a little of history to understand why do we use the word open source and since when.
  9. 9. 4 A2 Project 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Usenet Hackers’ movement Free Software Foundation GNU GPL license Linux RedHat MySQL Apache Http server « The Cathedral and the Bazaar »Netscape open sourced Mozilla Ubuntu Android Open Source keep growing GNU Project of software that was for sale only under restrictive licences. Actually, the software industries were competing with compa- nies which included software programs with the hardware for a unique cost. However, some customers did not want to pay for software bundled with hardware product. Thus, some software continued to come at no cost. Usenet is a worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers established in 1980. In other words, it allows people to speak, exchange and work together on a worldwide level, it is like a precursor to Internet forum. Remember, people are the key for open source develop- ment. With usenet they can now collaborate more efficiently and share software. At the beginning, one man Richard M. Stallman. We can see Richard Matthew Stallman as the founding father of the free software movement. In 1983, he started the GNU Project a mass collaboration project for open and free software that has never ceased to grow throughout time. Two years later, he created the Free Software Foundation to help and support the free software community. The Free Software Foundation has also permitted in 1989 the creation of the GNU General Public License (GPL), one of the most popular open source license model. Linux, just a hobby he said. In 1991, Linus Torvalds a young Finnish student decided to develop, for fun, his own version of the Minix kernel, he named his production the Linux kernel. The open source software resul- ting from the GNU project trans- formed the Linux Kernel into a complete open source Operating System (OS) GNU/Linux. Linux kernel passed under the GPL, which attracted attention from volunteer programmers all around the world. The Cathedral and the Bazaar Eric S. Raymond is a famous lawyer specialist of open source. Based on his observations of the Linux Kernel development and his open source management project experiences, he publi- shed in 1997, an essay (and later a book) named The Cathedral and the Bazaar. This analysis is about the open source community and free software principles. The essay generated much atten- tion. What’s more, it definitely motivated Netscape to release its web browser and internet suite and to start an open source community in 1998. Thanks to that, we now have Mozilla Firefox and Mozilla Thunderbird. In 1998, Eric S. Raymond with another lawyer Bruce Perens, co-founded the Open Source Initiative (OSI), an organization dedicated to promoting open- source software which conti- nues to exist. This is when was officially created the term open source. You can find more infor- mations on opensource.org.
  10. 10. 5 Open Innovation can be introduced at different steps in a project, from the early beginning to the industrial process. We have identified four major ways to open your project: standard, data, software and hardware. But opening is not only a question of efficiency or rationalisation, it becomes a question of culture. The more you are involved in open source projects, the more your company will be changed at different levels: relation with customers, with employees and between employees, your process for hiring, your connexion with the ecosystem as new contributors are external of your team, your capacity to work at international level. Open innovation brings more permeability, but you can always decide which partner are in or out. Your project and your team look more like natural organisms, new connexions are created more quickly without decisions from your side. Historic competitors become less binary relationships and stakeholders can be seen as potential contributors in co-opetition. As a matter of fact, the openness also embraces the hardware. This is a trend that will for sure be further accen- tuated. But did you know that open hardware had a long history? For instance, in 1911 an independent automaker, called Henry Ford, won a challenge and invalidated the Selden Patent which was THE gasoline engine patent controlling all the automotive industry. This led to the creation of an association managing open and at no cost patents. And everyone knows about the Ford’s success. Moreover, open hardware doesn’t only work with a specific type of object. You can literally share everything, under permissive licenses, at the condition that you provide the “source code” of the project also called the documentation. This means instead of sharing line of code you have to share schematics, blueprints, pictures, guidelines, Computer Aided Design (CAD) drawings etc. Open hardware, especially in the transport field, has the wind in its sails with the democratisation of digital manufacturing tools and space. The biggest difference with open software is that it implies some investissement for physical materials. Let’s go to fully achieve your own and customizable car, skateboard or scooter! “Open Source Hardware (OSHW) is a term for tangible artifacts — machines, devices, or other physical things — whose design has been released to the public in such a way that anyone can make, modify, distribute, and use those things.” OSHWA - Open Source Hardware Association THE FOUR PILLARS OF OPEN INNOVATION
  11. 11. 6 So, open standards mean interoperability and facilitation of data exchange in the mobility sector, provided that standards are adopted by a large part of the ecosystem. Open standards also imply transparency, availability, quality, impartiality, support and relevance. The interesting thing is that open standards rely on collaborative process open to all persons interested. For instance the General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) is one of the most common format for public transportation schedules and it all became as a side project of Google. The importance of open standards for transport is the opportunity to share data without the need of proprietary solution. Reliability, interoperability and continuous improvement are three advantages among many others. Travels give a great sense of freedom, that’s why transport system should also be free. These standards exist to support, fast, flexible and secure implementation into any transport system and by this way promote a faster mass adoption. Maybe with open standards the dream to have a transport card working all around the world will come soon true. «Open Standards are standards made available to the general public and are developed (or approved) and maintained via a collaborative and consensus driven process.» ITU - United Nations agency for information and communica- tion technologies. This simply means that open data are accessible and useable by all people. This idea seems to come from the United State of America. Indeed, in 1966 was proclaimed a new law giving the right to access information from the federal government, the Freedom of Information Act. Later, with digital opportunities, the movement grew with amazing rapidity worldwide. Although the United States of America may have been the pioneers to do open data, in France and more generally in Europe the open data movement is fully operational. The release of data on open platform raised the awareness of the opportunities offered by citizen involvement. So that open data became a new phenomenon in particular in the mobility field with any kind of data such as schedules, transports stop, POI and even real-time data. From industrials to government through collectivities everyone wins. It’s time to innovate with mobility dataset and unlock the tomorrow’s mobility! “Open data is data that can be freely used, re-used and redistributed by anyone - subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and sharealike.” Open Definition. When talking about source code we mean which can be read and understood by a human ( a human who has some basic computing skills). We called these people the programmers, because they are doing programs. Then the programs are compiled, which makes them only understable by a computer. By sharing the source code, the programmers, give you the possibility to use, copy, study, modify and redistribute a program without any restric- tions. You just have to accept the terms of the license chosen. UNIX might be the most famous example of the success of open software, but you can find a lot of example in the domain of mobility such as collaborative map, multimodal trip planner, running application, dashboard car system etc. In a nutshell, it’s almost the opposite to proprietaries software. Indeed, you can have the control of your software, you can train yourself on it and it can only be improved etc. Without talking about the economical advantages. Open software ensure a collaborative experience which benefits everyone. “Open source software is software with source code that anyone can inspect, modify, and enhance.” Opensource.com
  12. 12. 7 Connected cars & territories First workshop of the community When? 17 May 2016 Where? La Fonderie ( Paris) — to standardise and facilitate the communication between your car and your smartphone. It provides several tools as a simulator, documentation, SDK and even an API. In this way, any developers that wish to create a new connected car services, can access an important set of data and then share his production to improve it. Xee - Eliocity Eliocity with the Xee project is one of 10 projects chosen as a winner for the first call for proposals of la Fabrique. Xee is an advanced technology to connect all cars and create a large community 4 presentations to start the day The day started with 4 presen- tations of la Fabrique partners about their work on connected cars and their relation with terri- tories. PSA Car Easy Apps Car Easy Apps is a consortium started by PSA and companies and researchers in automotive industry. Its goal is to look for a standard way to introduce the car as another object in the internet of things, preserving security and safety concerns. In other words, Car Easy Apps has the ambition WORKSHOP A community in search of opportunities The first workshop of the “Connected cars & Territories” community took place in June 2016 in the public digital agency of the Paris Region called la Fonderie. This community is involved in search of oppor- tunities to create added value with data from cars. They also devote an in-depth reflection to open-access resources that can be shared and the commons.
  13. 13. 8 of drivers. Their solution is a full stack approach, they provide an open platform, a cloud, sensors, data, APIs, applications and services. They are creating an open environment for developers to create new services. You can also join the new accelerator the XeeDEV App Factory and be part of the community. La Fonderie Car Can you hack your own car? La Fonderie Car is an open source connected car, so yes, you can hack this car. The project is based on the four pillars of open inno- vation: open data, open software, open hardware and open stan- dard. With this car, you can now for example access your tire air pressure or engine consumption, film while you are driving, check your heart rate and even commu- nicate with your smartphone. You can also find in the car a solar panel, a 4G antenna, Global Navigation Satellite System, an high-speed wireless router and four open source hardware servers. DATACT DATACT is an innovation program involving multiple partners in the urban field. One of the main projects is “La Régie de données”, a kind of platform for data regu- lation. The purpose of the Régie is not to centralize all the data but rather for finding a way to create a sustainable economy of dataservices suitable for all urban ecosystem stakeholders. The Régie is the trust third-party in this system, it verifies the integrity of the contributions, the data process and finally the cross-referencing of these data. 3 working groups The workshop was divided into three sections to work on three different subjects. Pleasant journey Security, prevention, anticipa- tion, better comfort, etc. Problem to solve : How to reduce the time spent to find a parking spot? Less cars, more … Incentive to change, tolls, parking organized, carpooling, car sharing, etc. Problem to solve: How to reduce CO2-emission, relieve traffic congestion and reduce unneces- sary traffic ? World mapping Road, environment, pollution, CO2 emission, motor fuel, etc. Problem to solve: How to index the physical world in the nume- rical one? Call for contributions All the groups gave rise to new matters of shared interest as open data about parking lot, emission of pollutants and CO2, traffic and open source tools to simulate the traffic. If you want to join la Fabrique on these new topics contact us! You can find more information on the Fabrique des Mobilités wiki. What is the problem to solve ? How they can be brought together ? Are they aware that they have to solve this problem ? Who might be willing to pay to solve the problem ? Who are the stakeholders ? What are the solutions to solve the problem ? What are the existing commons useful ? What are the new commons we should develop ? What are the management rules ? Who are the stakeholders ? What is the kind of opening ? Methodology
  14. 14. 9 a “co-opetition” mode, where competition and cooperation both have their place, and it proves to be efficient. How did you achieve to change your business model? I suppose you did that step-by-step. Yann: We do not exactly want to change our business model. I would rather say that we aim at adding new activities, with new business models, to our core businesses. We are historically a public transport operator and a taxi company. We want to add to those 2 pillars mobility services for our clients. No single mode of simply because there are more good ideas, more know-how and more experts in the world outside Transdev than inside, whatever the topic we consider. Not trying to create links with people around us, sharing with them, would have meant tremen- dously reducing our ability to innovate. Sharing might seem a counte- rintuitive idea in a competitive economy. But if you look at the the Silicon Valley, it is a place where people share a lot. Open source software has enabled the development of lots of inno- vations, in the field of big data for example. People work in T ransdev, member of La Fabrique des Mobilités, is nowadays one of the leading companies in the area of mobility and yet a few years ago the group was on the verge of a crisis. How Transdev has been able to bounce back by placing Open Innovation and digital transitions at the heart of its development strategy? This is what we will see by interviewing Yann Leriche Chief Performance Officer at Transdev. Hi Yann! Let’s just start off with a question: why did you decide to get involved in open innovation? Yann: We decided to open up INTERVIEW Yann Leriche
  15. 15. 10 as they involve many players, with different backgrounds and objectives. We approach this complexity with humility and an open mind: There is no secret sauce, but there is a sauce, which needs all its components to mix well together to be a success. Just over a year ago, you decided to launch the digital factory. Could you tell us what it entails? Yann: As many large companies, we have a strong track record of incremental innovation, but not of disruptive innovation. Many people have internally break- through ideas which are exciting, but we didn’t have the right struc- tures and processes to support them. The digital factory was created to incubated these inno- vations. Their project leaders are intrapreneurs, who work with the resources they need whether internally or externally, share with partners whether inter- nally or externally, without any corporate burden. We make sure they can put their whole focus and energy on addressing client needs. It shows that you are on the same wavelength as la Fabrique des Mobilités. Why did you decide to be a founding member of La Fabrique? What attracted you to it? Yann: The interest was twofold. We were attracted by the quality of the ecosystem which was about to be created, in terms of participants and of ambition regardings the commons to be created. These commons are key if we want to speed up innova- tion in the mobility field, and I am definitely convinced that if there is a place today where we will succeed in developing them, it is at La Fabrique. We were also attracted by the vision Gabriel Plassat developed as to the future of transport and mobility, which we totally share. The way to get there might evolve, but it is key to move with people with which we share the same goal. So does any projects of the digital factory have to be involved into the commons? Yann: All the digital factory initiatives will not lead to the creation of commons as some address Transdev internal business issues. For the others our goal is to share as much as possible by opening our projects and technologies with APIs, open source software, or in many other ways. This is for example the case with our project “Catalogue”, which aims at being an open repository for mobility open data. Thank you very much Yann. In conclusion Transdev seems to have started its digital shift and paves the way for other mobility company to rethink their business model by turning toward open innovation and open source. transportation is able to fulfill all the needs of an individual, even the private car. Hence people use different modes, at different times of the day or year. We want to ease this multimodality and offer our clients mobility “As A Service”. We heard you say Mobility As A Service, can you explain to us what does that mean? Maybe you can also give us some examples to help us understand. Yann: It all started from our clients. We used to consider their travel experience starting when they planned their trip in one of our transport network and fini- shing when they left our vehicle. But our customer trips are very often richer than this. They might take a train that we do not operate before stepping in one of our buses. In this case facilitating and optimizing the connection is a key topic. We have to look at their mobility globally, not at some segments of it. That’s why we develop services on top of all trans- ports modes, whatever the operator: Information, ticke- ting, guarantees,... In Lyon for example with Optimod, we deve- loped a real time and predictive triplanner. In Saint-Étienne with Moovizy we launched a service which also enable seamless payments. In relation to Optimod’Lyon, it was an innovative public-private cooperation between startups, industrials, local governments and even schools. We saw that you are repeating the project in Toronto. So it must have been a success. Can you reveal the secret of such a successful cooperation? Yann: In Lyon the project started and succeeded thanks to the leadership of the public transit authority who created the condi- tions for several stakeholders to work in a collaborative mode. Those projects are often complex
  16. 16. 11 professions” explains Lomig Unger. This is why, teams, groups and new places are dedicated to work on six priority areas presented on the next figure. involved in setting up internal mechanisms such as Fab Labs in order to drive and support projects and touch differents group of people from various A t Renault, innovation is a core value for the company through partnership with main key player of the automo- tive sector, the implementation of creative lab, the creation of an innovation community and soon, a digital garage and an open hardware project. It is with good reason that Renault is one of the member of la Fabrique. Let’s take a deep dive inside the Renault’s world with Lomig Unger the man behind a large number of Renault innovative projects. Innovation, a priority The observation was simple for Renault, innovation must be at the heart of the brand identity. It had to be explored new ways or methods to foster innovation in transportation area. “I’ve been How Renault is driving innovation FOCUS ON Innovative architecture Innovation priorities Electric vehicle Combustion vehicle New services Travelling well-being
  17. 17. 12 members and hold topical exhi- bitions about innovative objects from every sector of the industry. Exhibition topics are extremely varied from Do It Yourself (DIY) to gamification. By opening such a place, Renault want to open up their employees’ mind and give inspiration to them. Maybe, like Spencer Silver invented a kind of adhesive that doesn’t adhere by accident, aka the Post-it, an employee of Renault will have a breakthrough idea. Pitch & POC Pitch & POC is an initiative based upon the company’s informa- tion technologies such as the intranet or shared spaces. The observation is that people from everywhere inside Renault are full of ideas. In this way, whether you are in a factory in France or in Brazil you can work together on a innovative project. On an intranet forum, regularly new calls for ideas are opened, then a jury evaluate the differents ideas and the best among them can be prototyped in the next step: incu- bators. The incubators are linked to the Creative Lab, another tools provided by Renault and explained later. Finally, the subjects studied in incuba- tors are reviewed each week in the ideas workshops where everybody can constructively exchange about each project. “In line with our wish to increase our skills and knowledges, we decided to launch a second version of the creative people, by taking into account what we had learned.” says Lomig Unger. By the way, Phillippe Méda, who is also working with la Fabrique des Mobilités, helped them to proto- type this new version which wa called Creative People before. Pitch & POC is more entrepre- neurship-oriented. Renault creative lab All major companies worthy of the name now have an inside Fab Lab to democratize the access to design methodologies and digital manufacturing tools. So, obviously a stakeholder of the transportation ecosystem such as Renault had to get a creative lab. This lab provides all the tools to make people collaborate on projects, for instance projects selected in the Renault Creative People. We find in this neutral ground of Renault a full range of tools for prototyping, a 3D printer, a laser cutting, ressources and even a thermoforming machine. Innovation community The final tool to imagine the mobility of the future is the inno- vation community. Inside this community we find other corpo- rations as Michelin or Visteon or specialists as the SNCF and EDF and even academics. The basic idea of the community is to build a common vision of the future in the mobility area. Thus, the community reunites several times per year to share best prac- tices in innovation management. Models that actually work abroad The Silicon Valley is a beautiful region synonym of innovation which is home to the majority of the world’s largest high-tech companies and startup. That’s exactly why, in 2011 Renault decided to establish there its first Open Innovation Lab. As its name implies, the principle is based on open innovation and on the active involvement in a large ecosystem to source ideas. Each relevant stakeholders (schools, startups, industrials etc) can propose their idea. If it appears to be a good and a feasible idea, the lab opens its door to project initiator. It’s about going outside of comfort zones and having the opportunity to prototype and quickly test an idea without waiting for. Five years after Renault is now opening a new Open Innovation Lab, but this time in Tel-Aviv (Israel). A startup inside the company Let’s begin with the presentation of the mechanism promoting breakthrough innovation: the LCI. The Cooperative Innovation Laboratory (LCI) is the think tank that acts like a start-up inside the company by brin- ging together three functions: Product, Engineering and Design. The LCI is an independent place where, about 50 people can, together, conceive and proto- type ground-breaking innova- tions for mobility. The idea is to create a place of cooperation with groups inside Renault and outside, from the transportation ecosystem, such as specialized schools or suppliers. By remo- ving the barriers for innovation, the lab aims to go faster from the idea stage to the prototype. Previously this process could take months or years, now the period can be shortened in days and even hours. This permits to step out conventional programs and test faster the real add value of a product for consumers. The lab is concentrated on understanding the change in user needs and anticipate it. In this way, projects deve- loped within the laboratory are varied. To give the most famous example, the Twizi, the compact two-seater 100 % electric vehicle was born within the Cooperative Innovation Laboratory. Tools to imagine the car of the future The group relies a lot on the setting of tools to stimulate the creativity. Innovation room What an interesting name for a room! The innovation room is simply a place created in order to boost the act of finding a solution by chance, also called the serendipity. The room is freely open to all Renault staff
  18. 18. 13 EOLAB 1L/100 KM prototype Advanced Driver Assistance Systems autonomous car two-stage turbocharging ADAS NEXT TWO TWIN-TURBO HEAT PUMP recover calories from outside second generation regenerative braking integrated connected tablet speakers, inspired by aeronautics technology DECOUPLED PEDAL R-LINK BASS REFLEX RENAULT INNOVATIONS: AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES AND ONBOARD MULTIMEDIA SYSTEMS A new place to rethink the future, the Square Who are those partners? Who can participate? Lomig: At the beginning we imagined to work with other network or ecosystem such as la Fabrique or the Renault Innovation Community to bring together engineering and business schools, major companies, sociologist and philosopher. We try to keep this heterogeneity which is the iden- tifying mark of open innova- tion activities. In theory, almost everyone can participate to this open innovation project within the infrastructure capacity limi- tations ( between 60 and 100 persons). And yet, this isn’t going to be open to the general public, only for the ecosystem. There will be a kind of workshop for vehicles where historic partners of the Renault or people from Michelin for instance. The second area is about new working methods. We have to rethink the way we are working and how to be able to produce new offers and innovate. How this will work with the different partners? Lomig: We are establishing the project in a new space with partners. Those partners aren’t here to pay to enter into the place, we want them to make available resources in exchange for the accommodation and the chance to participate in this project. We ensure that the place is co-governed. So, we ensure that the partners are also impli- cated into the governance with us. We just started to structure a kind of co-governance. This is a first step to learn how to work differently with the ecosystem. Lomig Unger is now in charge of the new project, a kind of digital garage, we wanted to know more about that, so we asked him. We heard you will launch pretty soon a digital garage. What does that mean? Lomig: We aim to build with the ecosystem a kind of open innova- tion lab that will be able, we hope, to challenge our manner to work with our ecosystem. We have a space of 3000m² at République. This is really cool because we have the opportunity to play in this huge space which was an old car shop. We have one year to play, for me playing and working should be the same thing. This is focused on two main areas. First, work on new mobility offer and explore the future of mobi- lity. This is why we are working with la Fabrique des Mobilités
  19. 19. 14 we can receive this kind of event. For us, that will be our non offi- cial launch. After the differents organizations of the ecosystem will make their own communi- cation about the Square. This is the job of people inside Renault to set up a proper communica- tion plan, so we let them do in their way. We just want to coor- dinate how the different parts of the ecosystem will communicate about the project about what is common or what is specific. When will we see a digital garage open for the general public? Lomig: This is a project that still makes sense. By the way, some companies and organizations are doing it. The demarcation line between what we are doing and an open garage where we can tinker on our own car is that we are not oriented towards the same public. We have a more comfortable situation because we allow to work on our car only people that have a demonstrated expertise. So we don’t have to monitoring them. If we want to open a garage to the large public we have to find people such as mechanics to ensure the proper handling of dangerous tools and components. We will see after if we have the capacity to do that. For the moment, we just want to bring together people who have the capacity to tinker a car, with skills in business, technologies, user design, etc. We are currently focus on create a playground for the ecosystem, but the idea of an open garage is really interesting and could be a project launched by Renault. One thing at the time... So concretely, what type of projects will we find in the Square? Lomig: Renault decided to begin with the existing intern network of the Creative Lab. We launched a first call for innovative projects. There were several number of selection steps, pitches and POC (Proof of Concept) in front of big bosses. One of this project was a kind of denuded Twizi one which the soft and hard parts have become pluggable. This is typically the type of project we want to host into the Square. We would like to attract students and companies, through play, to conceive and build new things above that. For instance, with the skills of Visteon we could work on a SDK. There are so much inte- resting things we could do and we haven’t done yet. The Square opens the field of possibilities, that’s why we want to invite this kind of funny project. Finally, what about open data? Lomig: At Renault we are at the zero level. Maybe with the oppor- tunity to work with la Fabrique, we will be able to connect with various project which will produce or are already using open data. The idea could be to invite those project and see how to contribute. This is one of the challenges of la Fabrique, we now have to find resources to start working on this subject. Innovation Community will be working. For instance, people from Visteon, who have real skills to tinker vehicles. One of the challenges for Renault to bring together people from inside Renault with people from the connected car world or students or designers. Our goal is to set up a “friction zone” between Renault and the rest of the ecosystem. We want to attract the skills that we lack, like a huge pool of resources gathering at the same place and available for all the member of the ecosystem. Will the Digital Garage be the name of the place? Lomig: No, the name won’t be the Digital Garage because we didn’t want people to think it was just a kind of hybrid area inside Renault where you can play and explore things in an agile way. At first we wanted to keep the name garage because the place was an old car shop and we wanted to highlight the fact that the project won’t be only focus on digital transition. Then, as we decided to work with our partners we looked for a name which could be common for everyone and mean something at the same time. Our idea is to work on the smart city issues, so we had to find a name in relation to that. We proposed the name “the Square” because a square is a green space inside a city. As everyone agreed we called it like that. When does it be officially launched? Lomig: Actually, it’s not really official. Indeed, we decided to work under radar to go faster. We didn’t have so much time as we only have the place for one year. As a consequence, there won’t be an official announcement. However, the first event we will have will be the workshop on open hardware organized by la Fabrique November 15th as part of the Paris Open Source Summit. That will be our crash test to see if
  20. 20. 15 tious idea, a concept to imagine a better mobility in a responsive city with the help of big data, software/algorithms, what we use to call “soft power”, software power. Responsive locomotion is based on two big ideas. The idea of a customised mobility, more and more adapted to each kind of traveller (tourist, worker, disabled, etc.). It’s a question of travelling profile taking into account needs and vulnerabi- lities faced by travelers at any time of the day. Second big idea is context awareness, how can we take into account real time informations like weather fore- Hello Bertrand, I saw that the motto of your company is “Data in real-time algorithms and interfaces treated: here is the back office of the responsive locomotion.” A good start might be made by presenting what is responsive locomotion and what is the implication of Kisio Digital in this field? Bertrand: In 2014 we decided to talk about “responsive locomo- tion” using the responsive web design analogy: your content is automatically adapted to the different screen sizes/devices. We were searching for an ambi- INTERVIEW Bertrand Billoud Y ou may not have heard of them before, yet their technologies are behind SNCF Direct, Vianavigo, Mappy and maybe your local trans- port network, la Fabrique des Mobilités has interviewed Bertrand Billoud head of marke- ting and communication at Kisio Digital, part of Keolis group.
  21. 21. 16 nized a little seminar of two days in Paris for the executive committee. He pulled together several persons involved into open source and open data, such as Gaël Musquet of Open Street Map (see the interview of Gaël) and other people who became collaborators. They explained to us the benefits possible from open source. As a result of the seminar, we started working on a relevant practical case to figure out what will happen if tomorrow we decide to do open source. We produced a SWOT analysis to determine risks and opportu- nities. After that, the executive committee decided to switch to open source. We decided to start with Navitia which is the major software of the company, like the reactor core, everything we produce is made on top of Navitia. We opened our source code in April 2014, that was easy. Indeed, our software had been set up 10 years ago, since he needed a kind of refreshment, 2 years agos we had already decided to improve and clean our code. As a matter of fact, we just put our source code on GitHub and pressed a button to make it accessible to all. Thas was a Friday. We were so surprised when we realized that some people has contri- buted since the next Saturday, as Dutch that we had never heard about before. The world of open transport route planner is such a small world! After this small success, we thought about a way to meet all these people in Paris. We wanted to see those Dutch, Bliksem, which have their own planner called RRRR based on OpenTripPlanner. We were so intrigued, we wanted to meet them in the real life. We set up a meeting with OpenTripPlanner, Tisseo, Bliksem and some others. This is how we set in motion a dynamic with a small commu- nity of people interested in what we were doing. When you are in a proprietary logic, nobody cares about what you are doing, with the exception of your team. With the open source that’s the contrary. As all the data in the Netherlands are open, they just needed one week-end to set up Navitia in all the country. But beware, our software is not as easy to install as the Microsoft Pack Office. It requires a good overall technical level. Honestly, did you know where you were going by doing this? Did you encounter strong reser- vations inside your team or with your clients? Or maybe it was really simple and everybody understood the philosophy of open source and everything worked as it was planned. Bertrand: After the decision to release code was made, we had to explain at both employees and shareholders what was about to change or not. This step worked out well because we had already done a significant preparatory work. During those months of preparation, we prepared the Navitia team to what was going to change in their daily work: How to work with people who actually are not in the walls of the company? How to deal with cast, traffic jam, disruption on the public transport network, pollution peaks, big events with a lot of people, congestion, etc. So, responsive locomotion is like a non ending quest. It’s more a vision. We would like to reverse the relationship between trave- lers and transport networks. Today you have to define your travel according to all transpor- tation modes constraints, and sometimes it’s complicated. In the future we should have deve- loped more and more interactive relationships between travelers and all the vehicles they use, with internet of things, smart bot, data and software. We saw that your code is open source. What does that mean exactly for the people who may not understand? Bertrand: In 2014, we decided to open the source code of our software Navitia under an AGPL licence. This software is avai- lable on Github plateform with an interactive documentation to understand how to reuse it. For more transparency, it means you can see how Navitia software is made, like the secret of the algo- rithms recipe. Indeed, sharing source code is quite the same thing as sharing a recipe. When and why did you decide to migrate towards the world of open source? Did you release your technologies step by step or at one go? Bertrand: The decision has been made during 2013 summer. Our DG, Guillaume Crouigneau, orga-
  22. 22. 17 those persons who might ask questions? How to work on the documentation, to improve it continually and make it easier to use the software? We also worked on overcoming stereo- types about open source which are actually wrong. We hired in the company some persons who know well the subject. They came to explain to our employees their vision. We set up break- fasts to answer their questions or fears. Because, yes of course, some of them were worried. Just imagine for a second that during 10 years you say “Navitia is a jealously guarded software, our gold nugget, nobody must know what it is inside!” then you finally changed your idea and open your source code. It’s quite disruptive and disturbing for some people. With the good preparation that was easy. Actually, we are wondering why we didn’t do it before. You said your software work with data. How do you collect data? Is there a huge platform with all the transport data cleaned and then stored? Bertrand: Before opening Navitia, some of our employees were already involved into open data and hackathons. They were getting tired of seeing people trying to build their own trans- port planner in only two days during an hackathon and failed. They built an API, Navitia.io with Navitia which wasn’t open at the time, and they had the open data of three cities; NewYork, Paris and San Francisco. That was interesting to see that our software could work with major cities. We went to another hackathon organised by the city of Paris and said “this what we have done, it’s free, we integrated the data of RATP, Transilien and Velib”. We noticed that 5 of the 10 winners used Navitia.io. So we realised that adding open data to Navitia had a real interest, to save time searching for data, cleaning them etc. We started working on the data. This isn’t as simple as find data on a server and copy- paste on Navitia.io. Today, people are coming to Navitia.io because it’s a data hub with more thant 14 000 cities around the world indexed, mainly in Europe, North America, Australia, and South- East Asia. We don’t have much data in South America and conti- nental Asia, and no data in Africa. Even if GTFS (General Transit Feed Specification) format is used throughout the world, the biggest problem is that data are not structured in the same way in all the country. We have to face so technical issues to avoid compromising data quality. What is happening is that, each week or month, new cities or regions open their data. In this case, we add it on Navitia.io, provided that data have a share alike licence which allows us to do that. When you go to the API, there is a google group, which acts as a support where everyone can ask questions or make recommendation. For instance you can find: “Some new data are available in Sardinia, could you add it on the API.”,”You have something wrong on the UK data.” etc. All of this help us to improve our quality. This what we call our feedbacks. They can ‘tmake these changes by them- selves, because we own servers. The API is three things. First the fuel, it’s our open dataset. Then the engine, it’s all the web services of Navitia. Finally the chassis, this is the cloud where everything is installed. A simple Navitia user don’t have to pay our servers. As a result we provide three solutions. Experts will use the open source software Navitia, lift the hood, play with the engine and might help so change some parts. Absolute beginners will use the API Navitia.io. Finally between these two categories, people who just come to pick up dataset. Therefore, currently this is not merely an easy process. Change of topic, a lot of people think that if your are a company with open source philosophy you can’t earn money at all. So, can you explain us what is your business model? Bertrand: We are a SAAS (Software As A Service) company, that means we don’t sell software but services associated to our software. It could be for instance, cloud computing, implemen- tation and configuration of a software, or IT support. We know the engine by heart, so we are the only one able to adapt it to the local context. The technology isn’t the most important thing in our business model, this is really services that we sell. As a result, our business model hasn’t evolved so much in the recent years. Regions or cities still pay us to implement multimodal information services. The only thing that has changed is that our softwares are open source and we have open dataset. We use AGPL licenses to explain what people can or cannot do and to protect us at the same time. However, there is still a certain risk that a talented company indicates “We can do the same thing than Kisio, with Navitia, but cheaper and adding new services.”. The digital removed the barriers for innovation. Now, if you want to quickly innovate you have to do open innovation. In our case, we saw the open source as a way to do open innovation. There are today plenty of business model for open source (see article about business model). We could adapt our business model by adding a contribution on some services. For example, the google group works currently without any charge. But we want to give a little to our community. For us, this is important to train our users and answer their ques- tions. That’s the same thing with our IRC Chat, we could have made people pay to use it. We could also have trained software
  23. 23. 18 firm implementing Navitia and make them install the software in our place. But we didn’t. In conclusion people are using for free your technologies and they made feedback to help you improve this technologies while some companies are paying for using your high-quality services with their own brand. It seems a well-rounded affair, just as a win-win policy. Do you have any plans for the next few days, months or years? Bertrand: We have two important subjects. The first one is the real- time data. We started working on it with the National Society of French railways (SNCF). We created an API SNCF based on Navitia but with real-time data instead of theoretical. Our aim is to have more and more real-time data on Navitia.io because basi- cally this is what people want. We have to do more than just theo- retical data. Our business model is likely to evolve because with the API with theoretical data, we have set the bar high. Currently, you don’t have to pay until 90 000 requests in our database per month and the price is really competitive; 90€ per month. Our goal is to foster the creation of new uses. We want people to innovate with our ressources. We don’t want to chase after money for amounts most often ranging from a few cents to a few euros. It’s better for us to have on the one hand 4 or 5 major customers paying and on the other hand an active community. We care about our freemium access. Without that our customers can’t have access to some specificities such analytics. The other important subject is citizen projects. If a citizen has a project, he just has to contact us. If the project bene- fits the community or is in sync with our values, our interest is to not charge him. It could be a simple citizen but it also could be a researcher. A good example of a citizen project is Transportr by Torsten Grote. It’s an open source mobile application based on Navitia that works in several cities even in Brazil. In conclu- sion he made open source with open source and that mobile application respects user privacy. This is exactly what makes us vibrate. This is crazy because now, people are requesting us to add new dataset on Navitia.io to make it available on Transportr. Don’t you think that your tran- sition toward open source has been easier with your acquisi- tion by SNCF group? It has existed for several years, we built our own business model and we have local customers such as the SNCF, Kéolis and french regions. So of course, it was easier for us to do open source than for a startup which doesn’t know what is going to happen in 6 months. It’s also true that being a part of a major group probably helped us even though we had to explain why we were doing open source to a larger group. A few words to conclude? Do you know that nowadays, there are cities that are using Navitia without knowing it? For instance the transport operator of Nantes, the TAN on a Transdev grid, they are using Navitia because the Pays de la Loire region is one of our customer. This is pretty clever, they mutua- lized the different systems to facilitate the interoperability. In Thau and Sète (south of France) they are using Navitia too and we didn’t install them the software. The important thing is that, the more people use Navitia, the faster we will increase our quality and report bugs. Thank you very much Bertrand for having shown that even if the world of open source could seem scary for a company which want to help the community and be helped in return, she can do it and have success if she finds the right business model. Kisio digital didn’t know exactly where the company was going by relea- sing their code, the story was built a posteriori and it’s a good story.
  24. 24. 19 Innovation Summer Camp Third edition in partnership with La Fabrique des Mobilités When? 27 June - 1 July Where? Estaca campus ( Paris Saclay) — nized for the third time by the ESTACA, an Engineering School specialized in automotive, aero- nautical, railway and aerospace. To assist the participants in their mission, 10 coaches and experts were provided with 2 FabLabs and design centers. 5 days on the theme of mobility For 5 days, 50 students and graduates from 16 schools and universities, aficionados of entrepreneurship, were accom- modated on Paris Saclay Campus with the sole objective of solving one of 10 problems proposed. This edition was about finding solutions to the firm’s problems in the field of mobility. The issues expressed by companies were broad enough to leave more room for imagination, innova- tion, creativity and,even, create a real startup. The camp was orga- WORKSHOP
  25. 25. 20 Google sprint, a way to accelerate design- thinking approach to innovation and problem-solving. In order to solve problems in an innovative and more effec- tive manner, the 2016 edition of Innovation Summer Camp was based on Google Design Sprint. This methodology uses a test-and-learn approach called Design thinking . Design thinking is goal oriented method rather than problem-based approach. The idea is to consider all the conditions and parameters of a problem and explore simul- taneously alternative solutions. Design sprints can be used for almost any idea in any area. This is a way to compress months of time into a single week, like a sprint. Each day is a new step in the development process. No waiting for weeks or months before launching a minimal product; the aim is to build a prototype to collect data and improve the solution right away. The commons and open platforms as a support for innovation In an Open Innovation approach, la Fabrique des Mobilités deve- loped a partnership with the Innovation Summer Camp. The aim of la Fabrique was to provide methods to capitalize and memorize all the productions, on an open platform, from concep- tion to validation. La Fabrique also provides tools and existing resources to do more with less : don’t start from scratch and use commons, resources not owned privately, to accelerate the inno- vation process. All the productions and resources collected can be found on the Fabrique des Mobilités wiki. 5 seminar course days Innovation Summer Camp 2016 50 participating students 10 project team 16 schools and universities 2 FabLabs and design centers 10 coaches and experts Day 1 understand Day 2 diverge Ideation and develop- ment of several solutions. Day 3 decide Choosing of the best solution amongst others Day 4 prototype Realisation of a POC (Proof of Concept), to better understand user reactions. Day 5 validate Submission of the project to real users (colleagues and companies) and collections of data.
  26. 26. 21 adapt to a changing environment. Crowdsourcing means bringing together ideas which come from everywhere by removing fron- tier between individuals. In this way, we can attract talents on a specific projects. It all began with the Rally Fighter a vehicle designed for Arizona desert, a relevant solution for Phoenix environment. From the conception on the online platform to the production and the sale it took only 18 months. In Berlin, we launched the Urban Mobility Challenge which called the community to resolve Maud: The basic idea of Local Motors is to produce vehicles collaboratively on an online platform, comprising 50 000 members whether they are engineers, designers or idea owner. The aim is to contribute to innovative solutions to local challenges of cities of the future in terms of mobility by using a global community. Actually, it’s a global approach, combining co-creation and micro factories, designed to develop suitable and relevant solutions in a given environment. The interest of this combination is to go faster to the production and being able to INTERVIEW Maud Chidiac A ccording to them they aren’t here to build vehicles; they’re here to reinvent them. La Fabrique des Mobilités has interviewed Maud Chidiac Project Manager at Local Motors. Hello Maud, 9 years ago Jay Rogers wanted to do something helpful for the society, so he decided to develop an unusual idea of crowd-sourced vehicles, this is how started the story of Local Motors. Explain us, what does crowd-sourced vehicles mean?
  27. 27. 22 person who designed an entire vehicle. This is proportional to the implication on a project. Without forget that, the work of each member is protected under Creative Common licences. To find members, at first we went to universities to show them our projects. And now, we have a lot of partnership with students whether on our online plat- form to contribute to projects or directly in our lab where class of students can use the various machines and tools. We also have freelancers and engineers who feel ready to invest in tech- nological innovations facing new challenges. You reward the member of your community. This is pretty attrac- tive. But, some might ask, who owns all these ideas? I mean, does someone can steal an idea, commercialize it and earn money with it? I heard you spoke about Creative Common licences. Maud: The protection of ideas is based on Creative Common licences. Co-creators accepte to post their work online and, as a result, they also accept itera- tions on it. However, we can easily track origins of each idea. In other words, this means that each member is playing the game by proposing ideas knowing very well that iterations are going to be made on it. The most impor- tant thing is that each idea is the property of the owner. We talked a lot about conception. However we didn’t talk about what is next. Maud, what are the next step after conception? Do you build vehicle by yourself? Could you sell me one of your vehicle? Maud: For each challenge it’s the same chronology. First we post the challenge on the online plat- form. Then we receive inputs. The particularity of those inputs is that they are just designed. So we have to send the selected inputs to our internal engineers so they can draw more specific plans. The next phase is the prototy- ping in our labs. In Local Motors all is made internally from the conception to the production. It permits to adapt our vehicles to local needs. If the city of Oslo needs an autonomous vehicle we are capable to take into account issues of low temperatures. The final step is the sale. We have already sold 5 vehicles in the European pollution and conges- tion issues. We gathered an amazing number of ideas at the end of the two months challenge. The first prototype, called Olli, was generated in only 6 months. This project will be duplicate in other cities than Berlin in Europe, Middle East and east cost of the United States. Another example; the DARPA, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, asked us to realize a functional proto- type for the United States Army in only 5 months. This may seem incredible for institutions such as the army. We now have a lot of examples of this kind of answer to specific challenge in record time. Anecdotally, Jay Rogers was a member of the United States Army and in Iraq he realized that the conception and produc- tion process of vehicles needed to be accelerate. That’s why he decided to develop an automo- tive industry based on crowd- sourcing. The key of the Local Motor’s success is this community. How did you manage to build your community? Above all, how can you attract and motivate someone to work on a project and share idea? Maud: Usually, in the commu- nity the work is organized in challenges. In this case, winners receive a cash prize. For example, for the Airbus cargo drone challenge, a drone for goods transportation, the total amount of prizes reached 150k€ with others compensations such as business trips to show their prototype to senior executives. Actually, we also have royalties to the daily co-creation work on the platform. The amount of royal- ties is assessed on a case by case basis in relation to an analysis of every input of each co-creator. In this way, if the co-creator worked on a rear-view mirror or on another vehicle component, he isn’t going to be paid as a
  28. 28. 23 Maud: We are not necessarily removing jobs, because we still need internal engineers. You can simply no longer do without them. The idea is to open up the field of possibilities. The concep- tion step is increased as ideas are coming from everywhere. However, we still need engineers during all the steps. We are not replacing the workers, it’s more like a transfer of position, they are evolving. We can’t automate all the production. We are chan- ging classical positions of the assembly lines to new positions whether they are on software or hardware. Local motors is working with major companies such as Airbus, Renault or Domino Pizza. How does the collaboration work? It might be complicated for a small and disruptive company like Local Motors to work with such company. Maud: A company such Airbus will be interested in the dynamic of co-creation. This is what allows them to provide the market with a new drone within one year. The contract was: one year to commercialize a new drone based on the model of an old one. That’s the process flexibility which attracted major companies instead of the scien- tific expertise. Similarly IBM with whom we are working to implement Watson, their arti- ficial intelligence, in an auto- nomous car, is really interested in by the process. After each challenge, ideas are voted by the community, internally improved and we moved to the produc- tion. This intrigues. Generally whether it’s the process which attracts companies or the desire to implement an innovation, sometimes both. This works even for the major automotive compa- nies. Usually they come to us to propose challenges, but of course sometimes we have to look into new challenges. Domino Pizza they contacted us to set up an online challenge about an inno- vative pizza delivery vehicle. We have a variety of cases. Our process allow us to open up the field of possibilities. Now, you are more than 100 employees, with 4 microfacto- ries and an huge community of transport lovers. Moreover, you already have projects about cars, drones, skateboards and even planes. What are the future projects for Local Motors in Europe, or in the world? Maud: First, we now are about 170 employees after a recruit- ment campaign. The plan for the future is to be well established in Europe, especially with the auto- nomous shuttle which attracts airports and shopping centers, before being able to implement it into public transport system. I would say that the priority is the integration of mature projects and to move towards the commercialization. The long-term strategic objective is to be fully involved on this local problem-solving approach, which can, by the way, apply for any country with necessarily having state-of-the-art technologies. Our global community is solving local issues with a process that can apply everywhere. However, as we just settled in Europe one year ago, we are now focusing on Europe. Do you have something to add? Maud: Yes. The Lab with the micro factory inside, will open its doors early 2017 in Berlin. For the moment, we have 4 labs; one in Washington which just opened in June, one in Vegas, one in Phoenix and the final one in Knoxville. The vehicle produc- tion will now be done in Berlin. And we respond to tenders for the whole Europe. Thank you Maud. Let me say a few words for our readers, visit cocreate.localmotors.com, who knows, your ideas might revolu- tionize the transport industry! United States. In Europe, four autonomous vehicles Olli has been sold to Copenhagen, we have a first prototype in Berlin and another in Washington. We are currently entering into the prototyping phase for the Airbus cargo drone. Indeed, the Berlin Lab with the micro factory will open very soon. The aim is to prototype directly there, with the community and organize new challenges in the same format as online challenges, but inside the lab so that the community can participate to the conception process before the production inside the micro factory. Is that what is called Direct Digital Manufacturing? Maud: Direct Digital Manufacturing, also called DDM, is in the spirit of speed up the process of produce vehicles. An example is the 3D printed car we made in the United States. We used the DDM, this means we used a design sketch, a CAD file that we can modify to accommo- date local needs. Then you just have to click on the button and it prints. The aim was to print a one piece chassis editable to desire to allow the customisa- tion. We are using the DDM for the autonomous shuttle which is partly printed in 3D, such as the floor, seats, the bumper and tires. One more time, what matters is to adapt the vehicle. We are currently working on a prototype for 8 or maybe 10 passengers, but in the long-term we will be able to produce shuttle for 2,4 or 20 passengers to vary the fleet. So the idea of DDM is to change a model and customize vehicles, and it began easier with 3D prin- ters. To put it in simple terms, your goal is to disrupt the transport industry by suppressing workers in the construction phase while you are including more and more players in the conception. Is that right?
  29. 29. 24 Quick start rules Essential rules Aim Whether you are a local authority with more than 3 500 inhabitants and consequently with an obligation of releasing your data or a data holder who don’t know how to open up your data, this game is for you. How to open data? FOCUS ON 1. Quality than quantity It’s at the beginning that you should learn good habits. The first rule is to always start small, simple and fast. Start with a good dataset than a huge mess. Remember that the advantage of open innovation is that you will learn from your experience. 2. Reassure Let not the people who you work for or with get confused. If these people are not properly briefed, you will have to deal with their discontents. From the very start, you have to respond their various questions and their misunders- tandings. 3. Sustainability After having succeeded in all the step, this is not the time to abandon. The release of data is a long-term process that requires continuous update and feed- backs. People have to rely on your data, some make it sustai- nable over time.
  30. 30. 25 1 Choose dataset Your first step is to choose a theme and it may become a real challenge for you. We advise you to create a list of the datasets you want to open and give priorities to them. You can choose to focus on car-pooling, parking spot or maybe the use of public trans- port, it’s totally up to you. The key is to find a theme with data easy to organize. Keep in mind that you can always return to this step later. Then choose your first dataset; timetables, statistiques, Point Of Interest, etc. 2 Clean the data It’s important to ensure that your data are clean before make it open, otherwise data won’t be usable. Cleaning consists of avoiding shaping, suppress blank cell, distribute tables on diffe- rents tabs, entitle the top line of each table etc. If you’re having trouble cleaning your data, try Open Refine an open source software tool designed to deal with messy data. 3 Document the data Any further information, called metadata, are worth conside- ring: title, description, keywords, license, date, localisation, authors etc. You have to enhance the data to give context. It will increase your reliability. 4 Choose the right format If you want that your data can be processed you have to make them available in a standard and structured format. Indeed, Game progress 1 Choose dataset 2 Clean the data 7 Communicate 5 Apply an open license 4 Choose the right format 3 Document the data 6 Put your data online Game board
  31. 31. 26 you have to provide a machine readable format allowing for re-use. La Fabrique highly recommends you, before starting to open your data, to get at least three stars, based on the 5-star deployment scheme for open data. Here are some recommen- dations of format. you a set of suitable licenses. All you need to do now is to choose which one you want to apply. Etalab (French Open License) - It allows all sorts of uses provided that authorship is attri- buted (by) and the last updated date appears. Public Domain Dedication and License (PDDL) - This means putting all your datasets in the ‘Public Domain’ and therefore renouncing all rights. Attribution License (ODC- By) - It allows all sorts of uses provided that authorship is attri- buted (by). Open Database License (ODC-ODbL) - It allows all sorts of uses as long as you attribute the authorship, share-alike and keep open the datasets. 6 Put your data online It’s the more obvious step but this doesn’t mean it’s the easiest. There are several ways to put your data online. Via your existing website The advantage of this method is that it’s more familiar to you. You just have to add a new section on your website dedicated to the release of your data. However, it becomes harder to people to find your data if they are not specifi- cally looking for it. Via a third party site There are already sites specia- lized in open data collection in nearly all fields. You can use those repositories of data which provides all the documenta- tion and information about the processes of submitting and using a database. We recom- mend that because those site have already pooled together a community of interested people and others sets of data. In other words, it’s a virtuous circle; the more there are quality datasets, the more the community grows. Via API Another way to publish your data, that we recommend, are the Application Programming Interfaces (API). The use of API appears to have increased in recent years. Its strength is that it makes it easier for program- mers to develop applications as it provides all the building blocks and documentation. Moreover, it ensures programmers that your data are updated in real time. Other ways Of course, there are other ways to publish your data. For example FTP servers, but we don’t recom- mend it because it’s too compli- cated for beginners and above all out-of-date. Nonetheless, for a large volume of data you can use torrents, it’s very efficient but it doesn’t permit the visualisation. 7 Communicate Finally, you have to find users to value your data, otherwise all this work will have been done in vain. So it’s time to communicate a lot! Use social networks, talk about your data around you or during meetings and activities, organise hackathons or suggest your data to existing events. To summarize, the easier it is to find your data, the faster innovation will come up with. 8 Start again You thought it was finished? NO, now it’s time to repeat it with other datasets. Return to the first step. Tabular database .CSV .ODS Timetable .GTFS Text .ODT Picture .PNG Video .OGG Mapping .GEOJSON .SHP .KML . KMZ Audio .WAV Make it available as structured data (e.g., Excel instead of image scan of a table) Make it available in a non-proprietary open format (e.g., CSV as well as of Excel) Link your data to other data to provide context 5 Apply an Open License Find the most suitable license for your data might be the hardest step. However, it’s obligatory and essential to provide clarity. First, determine what are the intellectual property rights in connection with the data. Then, choose a license that respects these rights and the definition of open data. Here, la Fabrique des Mobilités recommends for 5-star deployment scheme for Open Data - Tim Berners-Lee.
  32. 32. 27 But if we don’t connect the data generated here with people, what is it to collect them? The claim we make at OpenDataSoft is that our platform will process the data coming in from sensors in real time to turn them into visualizations that anyone can understand. Our platform is THE platform for the connected city because it is the only platform that can keep up with the dynamic pace of our urban spaces, while still being able to display data in a way that people can easily understand and connect with. This includes Hello Jean-Marc. Firstly, thank you for receiving us. Let me start with my first question. OpenDataSoft claims to be THE platform for the connected cities, what does that mean? Jean-Marc: Thank you very much for having me today! When we talk about the connected city, we’re talking about creating connec- tions in every sense of the word. In Smart Cities across the world, we see sensors being installed to measure urban phenomena such as traffic circulation, air quality, noise level, even the number of pedestrians in given squares. INTERVIEW Jean-Marc Lazard O penDataSoft, new member of FabMob, was elected one of the most innovative company in France. Their specia- lity? Facilitate the preparation, the reuse and the exploitation of data by providing a turnkey plat- form. More importantly, they say they can foster innovation for the mobility. Certainly, we are going to check that out by interviewing Jean-Marc Lazard the co-founder and CEO of OpenDataSoft.
  33. 33. 28 doesn’t stop here. STAR reports to us that there is significant use of the platform by the non-technical community in Rennes, including by researchers and academics. This supports their own advo- cacy work or research to help to continue to build a better city through combatting problems like transportation access. We see three major victories here for STAR: increased ridership from increased transit accessi- bility, an improved image, and greater transparency through providing resources for non-de- velopers working to improve their community in other ways. We saw that OpenDataSoft has clients such as big operators and local governments. Whom else do you work with? And above all, what is your business model? Jean-Marc: OpenDataSoft is really a platform for companies or governments of any size. Both private-sector companies and governments need a way to easily share and publish data. It is true that we work with some very large companies, such as Endetec Véolia, Saint Gobain, SNCF and cities as large as Paris, but we do have startup customers such as Citilog or M20City, and cities as small as Agen, or Chapel Hill, North Carolina in the United States. We are proud of the wide range of customers that have identified our portal as the solu- tion that meets their needs. In terms of our business model, we do provide a Software as a Service. Our software is enti- rely hosted in the cloud. Clients purchase a license to the software for a period of time, and pay based on their volume of data and use of the platform. Could you explain to us, why a freemium access is a kind of open data? Isn’t it another way to have new revenue? I mean, you can have a free access to a small selection of data and then realize that you can’t do anything useful without paying? Jean-Marc: When we speak of a freemium access to data, we are speaking of ways for orga- nizations with large volumes of data to keep access to them free, despite the costs associated with the data upkeep, quality assu- rance, and infrastructure costs. For example, we have seen SNCF put large datasets up online for free with usage limits. This ensures free access to the data for startups and civic technolo- gists. However, for heavy users of the data who likely have the resources to pay, the data can be used for a fee. This helps share costs and maintain high data quality, while still ensuring the data are available to all to bring out their maximum value. Data monetization models are still quite young, however, and this is just one type of example that we have seen. It is quite realistic to expect these models to evolve and to see many diffe- rent kinds in the future. developers who can literally connect applications to the data as well to build more services with Smart City data. This is the role of a smart city hub such as the OpenDataSoft platform: connecting people with data. We see in the city of Paris a pilot project in the Place de la Nation that perfectly illustrates this. Sensors there are collecting data on noise, traffic, and pedestrian levels, and air quality. In real time, these data are collected on the city of Paris’ Open Data portal, and are then displayed on visualizations on screens within the very square itself for people to see their collective impact as it happens. Could you give us a concrete example of what you have done in the field of mobility? Maybe something you are proud of. Jean-Marc: One of our favo- rite examples is the Open Data project led by the STAR Network, a subsidiary of the Keolis Group, in Rennes. Here, we’ve watched a collaborative ecosystem evolve around the transporta- tion Open Data. There are data- sets on the real-time position of buses, arrival and departures of the metro, and even datasets displaying the paths and cove- rage of the bus network and metro, and accessibility of the network. We have seen the developer community truly take advan- tage of these resources, creating applications like “Where’s my Bus” to show users in real-time where their bus is, and when it will arrive. Services like this can help increase ridership. In addi- tion, developers have created route-planning applications for people with reduced mobility to design trips that fit their acces- sibility needs. In all, 9 applica- tions have been built within the community, and have received official approval by STAR. But the use of the platform
  34. 34. 29 wasted when searching for one, and improves traffic circula- tion. As this example shows, it’s possible! Let’s play a game. Imagine that I am the biggest motorway operator in France. You now have 60 seconds to convince me to open my data. Jean-Marc: Okay, Ms. Motorway Operator, so you’re clearly inte- rested in keeping maintenance costs down, ensuring safety on your motorway, managing traffic, and being able to anticipate spending on roadway projects. You likely have some systems to already do this monitoring, but how good are the visualizations you’re able to get from them, and are you able to share them with your innovative community? When you open up your data, you open yourself up to the possibi- lity of working collaboratively on future highway projects. Maybe your data will clearly show you where traffic jams most frequently occur. People that use your highway every day likely already are aware of it, but can use the data to come up with ideas to best redevelop the road. You’re immediately saving money on consulting costs, keeping project costs lower, but most importantly, you’re working together with your users ensuring a more successful project, while creating a great brand image for yourself. You can use this posi- tive image in your favor to help you win future contracts as well to manage more highways and thus help build your business further. This is just one example of how you can reuse your data. Sold? Ok, let’s say you convinced me. I’m now ready to open my data. But what happens after? Where and how should I start? Some tips? Jean-Marc: Why yes of course I have some tips! I’d tell you to start off small with just a few data- sets to learn best practices and ensure high data quality. You’ll be able to build up supporters for your project this way. After that, you’ll want to pick a topic that you want to publish data about. This makes it easier to get data published at first that you can then share with your collabora- tors and ecosystem. After that, be sure to give context to your data to make it easy to find, and so that your users will know what is contained in the dataset. Give your dataset structure, give it a clear reuse license, put it online, and share it with the world! My data are now online and available for all. That might be pretty cool, but me, I need people to play with it and foster the development of innovative new services. How to proceed? Jean-Marc:The most important step in making sure your data are reused is to make sure that people know they are there. Be sure that you have filled out the metadata to help them to be found by search engines, for example, and so that people know what they are looking at. You should also make some noise in local media about the data project! People need to know that the data are there before they can develop ways to reuse them. Be sure that there’s an API that can search within the dataset to sort and filter the records to build the best, most powerful and useful applications. Again, it’s also really important to provide details about the license with the data so that people know what they can and can’t do with the data. Finally, my data are online and I have a community to work on it. We now have the two key ingre- dients for successful smart city innovations. Thank you Jean- Marc for your time. That’s up to you, people who are watching us, to start making cities healthier and more sustainable places to live. What about the storage of data? For example, some services are predicting things such as the way people will move, park their car or go to the city mall. To be able to predict such things you have to store a huge amount of data and it consumes a lot of power. How could it be integrated in a smart city? Jean-Marc: I want to start off by saying that we are not primarily a big data analytics platform, but we make data available for sharing, visualization, and reuse. That being said, we do have some big data capabilities. Let me provide this example. In Paris, there is a dataset contai- ning data on the amount of cars recorded by different traffic sensors spread throughout the city each hour. It is not updated in real time, but every month by the city of Paris. The dataset contains over 27 million records, so it is quite large. This dataset is reused, however, in a parking application that predicts the availability of parking spaces in a given area. It combines this dataset with others available on Paris’ Open Data portal and uses a predictive algorithm inde- pendent of the portal to predict available spaces. This fits within the framework of the Smart City as it facilitates finding a parking space, reducing fuel emissions
  35. 35. 30 PARTNERSHIP four key reasons why we need it. • Transparency - By defini- tion, open data are available data which are free to access and free to use: This means that everyone can reuse open data with complete confidence. • Cities of the future need mobility data - The current trend for cities is to produce a huge amount of data. However, they now require platforms to collect and distribute those data so we can develop new services and applications to improve data. It is used to upload, analyse, store and share open mobility data while guaranteeing quality and the maintenance. “Catalogue is an openly-go- verned community that relies on the collaborative input of its members, with the goal of boosting innovation in mobi- lity.“ Rahul Kumar- Senior Vice President at Transdev Why do we need it? First question we could ask ourselves is, why do you need an open source platform that provides open data ? Here are the The project Catalogue D o you ever wonder why it is so complicated to find a way to reach a point B when your point A is in another city? Why is there no platform that all the transport data? Why don’t we have a mobile or web application that collects all passenger transport operators? By the end of 2016, Transdev is supposed to launch Catalogue, a project in which la Fabrique has been invested since the beginning. Catalogue is there to help you and tries to solve those issues at the same time. This should be the world’s first fully open source platform for mobility
  36. 36. 31 they are using. A platform only a click away Producers are given a guarantee that they can access to their data at any time, still free of charge. Data users can also access Catalogue’s data without worrying about out-of-pocket costs. Catalogue assures you that all the data are open source and free to use. People who wish to have a full access to Catalogue and its tools, in exchange for a small fee, can obtain and use an API. Real-time data trans- port Catalogue also provides real-time mobility data through instant sharing or data stream. Therefore, users can easily create an inno- vative way to plan a multimodal trip. It must be emphasised that the organization of data is driven by the principle of continuous improvement in a collaborative approach. La Fabrique is proud to take part in Catalogue. By working together collaboratively, we can change the future of mobility. We hope that Catalogue will lead the creation of a great number of innovative transport services for everyone around the world. If you want to play with data and be part of the world’s most comprehensive global transport open source data pool, join the Catalogue community! lifestyles. • Participation and commit- ment - Catalogue is based on collaborative process with a community of data produ- cers, data consumers and developers. Each member of the community must ensure the accuracy and update of data. In return, the commu- nity can have faster and easier access to any informa- tion collected in Catalogue. • Creation of economic and social value - With open data, each and every player - inclu- ding developers, govern- ments, and even corpora- tions - has the ability to find an innovative way to use data and optimize the way we move. The new applica- tions and services will create new markets, create a more sustainable way to consume, and finally improve our living conditions. An efficient organiza- tion First, producers freely store data in Catalogue. Then data are iden- tified and categorized by origin. To retrieve data more efficiently and smoothly, an easy-to-use interface has been developed and implemented. The users of Catalogue can easily find what they are looking for by using key characteristics and filters, such as location. Data management is consistent with the open data storage rules, as data are stored in the universal GTFS format. To ensure data quality All the data are checked. In this way, data producers can easily and quickly correct them. This is how the data consumers can rest assured of the data quality. Moreover, Catalogue is synchro- nized with only reliable data sources. Finally, an early warning system has been set up to notify both producers and consumers when there is an update on data Tools Data aggregator Community
  37. 37. 32 “Software, education, industrial design, data, sciences, art and culture, open models are everywhere. The actors who make use of these open approaches often question the positions defined by traditional actors. Communities frequently organize themselves to collectively solve issues that centralized organizations come up against. Tabby, the car avai- lable as an open source kit, Protei, the marine open source drone and OpenStreetMap are just a few examples. What do these open models teach us? Under which conditions can they develop their impact? What kind of dialogue and interactions are possible with traditional actors? Researchers, entrepreneurs, managers in major companies, designers, experts, writers and philosophers respond to these questions in Open Models, business models of the open economy.” Open Models, L.D.Benyayer Business Models for Open Source development FOCUS ON Louis-David Benyayer in Open Models proposes 14 very relevant measures to support open source. FabMob is starting to produce some answers in the field of transportation. We will document feedbacks from all stakeholders, iterate to adjust and propose best solutions to support open source developments.

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