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Attitudes and Job Satisfaction - Organizational Behavior

This is a focus on Attitudes and Job Satisfaction. Managers should be interested in their employees’ attitudes because attitudes give warnings of potential problems and influence behavior. Creating a satisfied workforce is hardly a guarantee of successful organizational performance, but evidence strongly suggests that whatever managers can do to improve employee attitudes will likely result in heightened organizational effectiveness. Attitudes are evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events. Attitudes are made up of three components. The cognitive component is made up of the belief in the way things are. The effective component is the more critical part of the attitude as it is calls upon the emotions or feelings. The behavioral component describes the intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something. These three components work together to aid in our understanding of the complexity of an attitude. Sometimes we observe people who will change what they say so it doesn’t contradict their behavior. When attitudes and behaviors don’t line up, individuals will experience cognitive dissonance. This incongruity is uncomfortable and individuals will seek to reduce the dissonance to find consistency.
People are willing to live with some discomfort but the degree to which this is true depends upon the importance of the elements, how much influences the individual has in the situation, and the rewards available.

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Attitudes and Job Satisfaction - Organizational Behavior

  1. 1. Attitudes and JobAttitudes and Job SatisfactionSatisfaction 3-1 Organizational Behavior
  2. 2. Contrast the ThreeContrast the Three Components of an AttitudeComponents of an Attitude 3-2 Evaluative statements or judgments concerningEvaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or eventsobjects, people, or events Three components of an attitude:Three components of an attitude: The emotional orThe emotional or feeling segmentfeeling segment of an attitudeof an attitude The opinion orThe opinion or belief segmentbelief segment of an attitudeof an attitude An intention to behaveAn intention to behave in a certain wayin a certain way toward someone ortoward someone or somethingsomething
  3. 3. Cognitive dissonanceCognitive dissonance  Cognitive Dissonance: is any incompatibilityCognitive Dissonance: is any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behaviorbetween two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes. Individuals seek to reduce thisand attitudes. Individuals seek to reduce this uncomfortable gap, or dissonance, to reach stabilityuncomfortable gap, or dissonance, to reach stability and consistency. Consistency is achieved byand consistency. Consistency is achieved by changing the attitudes, modifying the behaviors, orchanging the attitudes, modifying the behaviors, or through rationalization. The desire to reducethrough rationalization. The desire to reduce dissonance depends on:dissonance depends on:  Importance of elementsImportance of elements  Degree of individual influenceDegree of individual influence  Rewards involved in dissonanceRewards involved in dissonance 1-3
  4. 4. Changing attitude or behaviorChanging attitude or behavior  Sometimes we observe people who will change what theySometimes we observe people who will change what they say so it doesn’t contradict their behavior. When attitudessay so it doesn’t contradict their behavior. When attitudes and behaviors don’t line up, individuals will experienceand behaviors don’t line up, individuals will experience cognitive dissonance. This clash is uncomfortable andcognitive dissonance. This clash is uncomfortable and individuals will seek to reduce the dissonance to findindividuals will seek to reduce the dissonance to find consistency.consistency.  People are willing to live with some discomfort but thePeople are willing to live with some discomfort but the degree to which this is true depends upon the importancedegree to which this is true depends upon the importance of the elements, how much influences the individual has inof the elements, how much influences the individual has in the situation, and the rewards availablethe situation, and the rewards available 1-4
  5. 5. Summarize the RelationshipSummarize the Relationship Between Attitudes and BehaviorBetween Attitudes and Behavior 3-5  The attitudes people hold determine what they do.The attitudes people hold determine what they do.  Festinger proposed that cases of attitude followingFestinger proposed that cases of attitude following behavior illustrate the effects of cognitivebehavior illustrate the effects of cognitive dissonance.dissonance.  Cognitive Dissonance is incompatibility an individualCognitive Dissonance is incompatibility an individual might perceive between two or more attitudes ormight perceive between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes.between behavior and attitudes.  Research has generally concluded that people seekResearch has generally concluded that people seek consistency among their attitudes and between theirconsistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and their behavior.attitudes and their behavior.
  6. 6. Summarize the RelationshipSummarize the Relationship Between Attitudes and BehaviorBetween Attitudes and Behavior 3-6 Attitude Predicts Behavior MitigatingVariables  Importance of the attitudeImportance of the attitude  Its correspondence to behaviorIts correspondence to behavior  Its accessibilityIts accessibility  The presence of social pressureThe presence of social pressure  Whether or not a person has hadWhether or not a person has had direct experience with the behaviordirect experience with the behavior  The attitude/behavior relationship isThe attitude/behavior relationship is stronger if it refers to something instronger if it refers to something in our direct personal experienceour direct personal experience
  7. 7. Compare and ContrastCompare and Contrast the Major Job Attitudesthe Major Job Attitudes 3-7  Job SatisfactionJob Satisfaction  A positive feeling about the job resulting fromA positive feeling about the job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristicsan evaluation of its characteristics  Job InvolvementJob Involvement  Degree of psychological identification withDegree of psychological identification with the job where perceived performance isthe job where perceived performance is important to self-worthimportant to self-worth  Logical EmpowermentLogical Empowerment  Belief in the degree of influence over the job,Belief in the degree of influence over the job, competence, job meaningfulness, andcompetence, job meaningfulness, and autonomyautonomy
  8. 8. Compare and ContrastCompare and Contrast the Major Job Attitudesthe Major Job Attitudes 3-8  Organizational CommitmentOrganizational Commitment  Identifying with a particular organization andIdentifying with a particular organization and its goals, while wishing to maintainits goals, while wishing to maintain membership in the organization.membership in the organization.  Three dimensions:Three dimensions:  Affective – emotional attachment toAffective – emotional attachment to organizationorganization  Continuance Commitment – economic valueContinuance Commitment – economic value of stayingof staying  Normative – moral or ethical obligationsNormative – moral or ethical obligations
  9. 9. Compare and ContrastCompare and Contrast the Major Job Attitudesthe Major Job Attitudes 3-9  Organizational Commitment (cont)Organizational Commitment (cont)  Has some relation to performance, especiallyHas some relation to performance, especially for new employees.for new employees.  Theoretical models propose that employeesTheoretical models propose that employees who are committed will be less likely towho are committed will be less likely to engage in work withdrawal even if they areengage in work withdrawal even if they are dissatisfied, because they have a sense ofdissatisfied, because they have a sense of organizational loyalty.organizational loyalty.
  10. 10. Compare and ContrastCompare and Contrast the Major Job Attitudesthe Major Job Attitudes 3-10  Perceived Organizational Support (POS)Perceived Organizational Support (POS)  Degree to which employees believe theDegree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution andorganization values their contribution and cares about their well-being.cares about their well-being.  Higher when rewards are fair, employees areHigher when rewards are fair, employees are involved in decision making, and supervisorsinvolved in decision making, and supervisors are seen as supportive.are seen as supportive.  High POS is related to higher OCBs andHigh POS is related to higher OCBs and performance.performance.
  11. 11. Compare and ContrastCompare and Contrast the Major Job Attitudesthe Major Job Attitudes 3-11  Employee EngagementEmployee Engagement  The degree of involvement with, satisfactionThe degree of involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the job.with, and enthusiasm for the job.  Engaged employees are passionate aboutEngaged employees are passionate about their work and company.their work and company.
  12. 12. Compare and ContrastCompare and Contrast the Major Job Attitudesthe Major Job Attitudes 3-12  Are These Job Attitudes Really Distinct?Are These Job Attitudes Really Distinct?  No: these attitudes are highly relatedNo: these attitudes are highly related  Variables may be redundantVariables may be redundant (measuring the(measuring the same thing under a different name)same thing under a different name)  While there is some distinction, there is alsoWhile there is some distinction, there is also a lot of overlapa lot of overlap  Overlap may cause confusionOverlap may cause confusion
  13. 13. Define Job SatisfactionDefine Job Satisfaction and Show How It Can Be Measuredand Show How It Can Be Measured 3-13  Job satisfactionJob satisfaction  A positive feeling about a job resulting from anA positive feeling about a job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristicsevaluation of its characteristics  Two approaches for measuring Job Satisfaction areTwo approaches for measuring Job Satisfaction are popular:popular:  The single global ratingThe single global rating  The summation of job facetsThe summation of job facets
  14. 14. Define Job SatisfactionDefine Job Satisfaction and Show How It Can Be Measuredand Show How It Can Be Measured 3-14 Insert Exhibit 3.2
  15. 15. Summarize the MainSummarize the Main Causes of Job SatisfactionCauses of Job Satisfaction 3-15  Pay influences job satisfaction only to a point.Pay influences job satisfaction only to a point.  After about $40,000 per year (in the U.S.), there isAfter about $40,000 per year (in the U.S.), there is no relationship between amount of pay and jobno relationship between amount of pay and job satisfaction.satisfaction.  Money may bring happiness, but not necessarilyMoney may bring happiness, but not necessarily job satisfaction.job satisfaction.
  16. 16. Summarize the MainSummarize the Main Causes of Job SatisfactionCauses of Job Satisfaction 3-16 Insert Exhibit 3-3
  17. 17. Summarize the MainSummarize the Main Causes of Job SatisfactionCauses of Job Satisfaction 3-17 Insert Exhibit 3-4
  18. 18. Summarize the MainSummarize the Main Causes of Job SatisfactionCauses of Job Satisfaction  Personality also plays a role in Job Satisfaction.Personality also plays a role in Job Satisfaction.  People who have positive core self-evaluations,People who have positive core self-evaluations, who believe in their inner worth and basicwho believe in their inner worth and basic competence are more satisfied with their jobscompetence are more satisfied with their jobs than those with negative core self-evaluations.than those with negative core self-evaluations.  Those with negative core self-evaluations setThose with negative core self-evaluations set less ambitious goals and are more likely to giveless ambitious goals and are more likely to give up when confronting difficulties.up when confronting difficulties. 3-18
  19. 19. Identify Four EmployeeIdentify Four Employee Responses to DissatisfactionResponses to Dissatisfaction 3-19 Insert Exhibit 3-5
  20. 20. Ways to express dissatisfactionWays to express dissatisfaction  Exit: a Behavior directed toward leaving the organization,Exit: a Behavior directed toward leaving the organization, including looking for a new position as well as resigning.including looking for a new position as well as resigning.  Voice is actively and constructively attempting to improveVoice is actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions, including suggesting improvements,conditions, including suggesting improvements, discussing problems with superiors, and some forms ofdiscussing problems with superiors, and some forms of union activity.union activity.  Loyalty is passively, but optimistically, waiting forLoyalty is passively, but optimistically, waiting for conditions to improve, including speaking up for theconditions to improve, including speaking up for the organization in the face of external criticism, and trustingorganization in the face of external criticism, and trusting the organization and its management to “do the rightthe organization and its management to “do the right thing.”thing.”  Neglect involves passively allowing conditions toNeglect involves passively allowing conditions to worsen, including chronic absenteeism or lateness,worsen, including chronic absenteeism or lateness, reduced effort, and increased error rate.reduced effort, and increased error rate. 1-20
  21. 21.  Exit and neglect behaviors encompass ourExit and neglect behaviors encompass our performance variables—productivity, absenteeism,performance variables—productivity, absenteeism, and turnover. Voice and loyalty are constructiveand turnover. Voice and loyalty are constructive behaviors allow individuals to tolerate unpleasantbehaviors allow individuals to tolerate unpleasant situations or to revive satisfactory workingsituations or to revive satisfactory working conditions. It helps us to understand situations,conditions. It helps us to understand situations, such as those sometimes found among unionizedsuch as those sometimes found among unionized workers, where low job satisfaction is coupled withworkers, where low job satisfaction is coupled with low turnover.low turnover. 1-21
  22. 22. Summary and ImplicationsSummary and Implications for Managersfor Managers  Satisfied and committed employees have lowerSatisfied and committed employees have lower rates of turnover, absenteeism, and withdrawalrates of turnover, absenteeism, and withdrawal behaviors.behaviors.  Managers will also want to measure job attitudesManagers will also want to measure job attitudes effectively so they can tell how employees areeffectively so they can tell how employees are reacting to their work.reacting to their work.  The most important thing managers can do to raiseThe most important thing managers can do to raise employee satisfaction is focus on the intrinsic partsemployee satisfaction is focus on the intrinsic parts of the job, such as making the work challenging andof the job, such as making the work challenging and interesting.interesting.  Although paying employees poorly will likely notAlthough paying employees poorly will likely not attract high-quality employees to the organization orattract high-quality employees to the organization or keep high performers, managers should realize thatkeep high performers, managers should realize that high pay alone is unlikely to create a satisfying workhigh pay alone is unlikely to create a satisfying work environment.environment. 3-22

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This is a focus on Attitudes and Job Satisfaction. Managers should be interested in their employees’ attitudes because attitudes give warnings of potential problems and influence behavior. Creating a satisfied workforce is hardly a guarantee of successful organizational performance, but evidence strongly suggests that whatever managers can do to improve employee attitudes will likely result in heightened organizational effectiveness. Attitudes are evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events. Attitudes are made up of three components. The cognitive component is made up of the belief in the way things are. The effective component is the more critical part of the attitude as it is calls upon the emotions or feelings. The behavioral component describes the intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something. These three components work together to aid in our understanding of the complexity of an attitude. Sometimes we observe people who will change what they say so it doesn’t contradict their behavior. When attitudes and behaviors don’t line up, individuals will experience cognitive dissonance. This incongruity is uncomfortable and individuals will seek to reduce the dissonance to find consistency. People are willing to live with some discomfort but the degree to which this is true depends upon the importance of the elements, how much influences the individual has in the situation, and the rewards available.

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