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Intellectual property & digital business

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Lecture given @ ICHEC during my class of "strategy for digital business"

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Intellectual property & digital business

  1. 1. IPR IPR & Digital business Jacques Folon President gdprfolder.eu GDPR Director Edge Consulting DPO Professor ICHEC Brussels Maître de conférences Université de Liège Visiting professor Université de Lorraine ESC Rennes
  2. 2. Some IPR Criticisms 3 http://pyersedandridge.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/website-home-page-critique-550x322.jpg
  3. 3. 80% of the French Internet Users do consider that Pyracy is not theft 4
  4. 4. History of IPR
  5. 5. 6 COPYRIGHT LENGHT INCREASES
  6. 6. 7 IPR is outdated Beaumarchais created the first copyright society in 1777 FRANCE IS THE « DROIT D’AUTEUR» COUNTRY
  7. 7. IS IPR a property like any other one? • No, it is limited in time 8
  8. 8. • No, it creates a temporary monopoly position 9 IS IPR a property like any other one?
  9. 9. IPR limits research 10
  10. 10. IPR limits art 11
  11. 11. What is the purpose of IPR? • It allows the possibility for an author to live • It gives various type of protection 12
  12. 12. Février 2008 IDEAS Ideas are not protected works. They are not subject to property and are free as far as they are not proposed in an external way (CA Paris 12 sept 1989)
  13. 13. IPR • Inventions – Patents – GMO – IT Chips • Signs – Trade mark – Names – Geographical protection • Esthetical objects & design – Design • Copyright, droit d’auteur & neighboring rights 14
  14. 14. « Droit d’auteur » Original • « shows the personality of the author » • Plagiarism is not original Concretization • Ideas are not protected • A minimum of concretization is enough • two criteria needed Source: Lionel Maurel http://www.slideshare.net/calimaq/droit-de-linternet-et-de-linformation-complet
  15. 15. 16 Questions to raise before using protected works • Are these protected works? • Are we authorized to use them? • Do we have a written agreement? => what are the basic principles?
  16. 16. 17 Basic principles •Exclusive right •70 Years after author’s death •Preliminary authorization •transfer of rights •forbidden by law !! Crédit image: http://www.tetedequenelle.fr/2010/03/droit-dauteur-mal-tourne/
  17. 17. 18
  18. 18. 19 Categories « Droit d’auteur » « copyright system » creative commons assignment of rights Public domain
  19. 19. What is protected ? Text Conferences theatre choreography circus movie paintings music photo maps architecture software design fashion
  20. 20. 21 Membership of collective societies • SACD - SACEM - SAIF • SGAE - GEMA… Authors assign their rights to • Publishers (books, press, etc.) • Producteurs (musique, cinéma) Author’s keep some rights • Reproduction (xerox copy) • Representation Contract Trough mandate they keep moral right Source: Lionel Maurel http://www.slideshare.net/calimaq/droit-de-linternet-et-de-linformation-complet Various assignments or representation
  21. 21. 22 Protection of the work •Official declaration in the copyright system •Nothing for « droit d’auteur »
  22. 22. 25 The Author  Copyright system the producer Droit d’auteur: the individual
  23. 23. 24 • The author has the exclusive right – to make a copy or accept reproduction – communication to the public – translation – adaptation – sales • Duration in EU: 70 years after the author’s death Crédit image: http://www.rtbf.be/culture/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/AFPgoncourt1.jpg
  24. 24. 25 Patrimonial rights Patrimonial rights could be assigned to a third party trout a contract, against payment or for free reproduction adaptation communication to the public translation representation Crédit image: http://www.moneyandfinanceblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/Money-transfer-sending-money.jpg
  25. 25. 27 reproduction right •A copy of the work •Xerox copy •3D printing •Recording •copy of a film •etc. • IFFRO and copy
  26. 26. 27  Contracts   the author is the weak party strict interpretation assignment of right clause
  27. 27. 28 The fact that one buys an object does not means that he/she automatically owns the copyrights 118
  28. 28. Copyright protection does not vary following •the nature of the work (music, sculpture, etc.) •its form (digital, 3D or 2D, etc.) •Its beauty or its price
  29. 29. 30 Moral right Only in some countries end of the work could not be seazed Paternity respect destruction honor & reputation 120
  30. 30. Exceptions 32 Quotations legal licences reprography family news communication as minor element fair use public domain
  31. 31. Triple test • Exceptions may apply: – only for limited cases – if they do not limit exploitation – if not against rightsowners
  32. 32. FAIR USE – the usage of the work may be accepted depending on • the usage (education • the type of work • size and quantities of use • consequences on the market share 34
  33. 33. 35
  34. 34. 36 Neighboring rights categories that help the author or created specific rights !performing artists !producers !broadcasters !database producers !duration 70 years
  35. 35. Various type of remuneration • Proportionnal • Assignment of rights • Collective organisations • individual negociations • Employee • Legal licence
  36. 36. Which authorization for internet use? • Reproduction rights • Communication to the public • ! each use s/b authorized • Do not forget moral right • assignment of right s/b in writing
  37. 37. To whom may we ask the authorization? • Author • Performing artists • Neighboring rights • Broadcasters • Rightsowners • Collective organizations may help
  38. 38. Collective organizations • Contracts with rights owners • Reciprocal agreements • Contracts with users – internet – TV • Documentation • Distribution
  39. 39. Assignment of rights (Droit d’auteur) • in writing • Strict interpretation • S/B precise – which right – remuneration – how long – for which territory • Difference with the copyright system
  40. 40. Sub contractors (droit d’auteur) • in writing • Strict interpretation • S:B precise – which right – remuneration – how long – for which territory • Difference with the copyright system
  41. 41. What if no assignment? • The author keeps his rights • Negociation at the end of the contract • legal action from the author possible
  42. 42. What is not protected ? • laws • political speeches (with exceptions) • some public documents
  43. 43. IPR and ICT 45
  44. 44. 46
  45. 45. Open source software 47
  46. 46. 48
  47. 47. Other licences
  48. 48. « What » No authoriza5on needed as far as you respect the licence A contract is needed for an addi5onal use (commercial by instance) Example Creative Commons 4 criteria 6 liences
  49. 49. « free » licences • origin; open source world • « copyleft »
 • Philosophy : positive exploitation in order to authorize copy, distribution, re-use, modification, in order to increase share, creation and the creation of common goods
  50. 50. What is new • individual rights management • Preliminary authorization • usage pre-defined
  51. 51. the most popular is CC invented by Lawrence Lessig philosophy oh the library of Alexandria Free as a free speech not as a free beer
  52. 52. • 4 criteria : – atribute)
 – no derivative 
 – Share-alike 
 – Non commercial (nc)
  53. 53. • Six licences : – By – By-nd – By-nc-nd – By-nc – By-nc-sa – By-sa
  54. 54. • The licence follow the work
  55. 55. Now you know how to handle droit d’auteur, copyright & neighboring rights don’t forget it ! 58
  56. 56. TRADEMARKS An image, a graphic design a word, an image useful to recognize products forbid confusion with other products Duration 10 years renewable by country and for EU
  57. 57. CONDITIONS not forbid by law no confusion new means nothing similar already protected DISTINCTIVE <> GENERIC, USUAL OU DESCRIPTIVE Third party could refuse (ex:Apple)
  58. 58. Trademark disruption
  59. 59. Trademarks, domain names & user names in social media 200 millions domain names 2 billions user names google search identifies user names crédit image: http://www.them.pro/files/images/domain-names-extensions.jpg
  60. 60. No coordination = CONFLIT source FREDERIC BOURGUET 
 http://www.slideshare.net/search/slideshow?searchfrom=header&q=noms+de+domaine trademarks usernames
  61. 61. !64 Some conflicts • pre-existing trademark (Milka) • idem but reasons (armani) • trademark created after a domain name 78
  62. 62. Usernames easy to obtain no control used by search engines crédit image: http://www.saadkamal.com/social-media/change-facebook-username/
  63. 63. Trademark is important • important since the beginning ! • Part of the e-reputation • Allows to refuse other trademarks requests • need to follow what happens on line
  64. 64. Design & models Protects appearance if it is new it is specific Duration 25 years http://lyc-stpaulnotredame-72.ac-nantes.fr/IMG/jpg/Philippe_Starck_1949-_-_Presse-Agrume_1_.jpg https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRLU6-6-PHFcb9sXL9Vmx10ANW5L_gBg2a6RL2f79VbD5dxkQFlMg
  65. 65. Patents
  66. 66. Promotes research by giving during a limited time (20 years) a monopoly to a person or a company who invent a product a process that is new
  67. 67. In order to receive a patent 4 conditions : – new technical effect – industrial consequences –new (unknow by the public) –Innovative (as expert decide)
  68. 68. 71 Why did Google bought Motorola ?
  69. 69. Right on his/her image 72
  70. 70. Basic principles • International treaties • privacy means also right to his image • principally no need for a damage • Preliminary authorization needed • duration 20 years after the individual’s death
  71. 71. How ? Prior authorization requested Exceptions: – person with a public status - even temporary (only during public life) – consent for a shooting does not mean consent for usage the person needs be identified (>< crowd)
  72. 72. Remember authorization is also needed for • Artwork • Buildings and monument (Eiffel tower) • Houses • trademarks • design • For pictures two authorizations needed – photographer – subject (individual or not) • discussion for journalists: right of information >< right of image
  73. 73. Internet: digital far west ? 76
  74. 74. 77 First court case
  75. 75. Legal questions on Internet ? OPTE Project Map of the Internet – CC-BY 78 •Peer to peer •drugs •counterfeits products •Diffamation Virtual world– real world National law - internet
  76. 76. INTERNET LAW ? •There is no internet law •digital is not different •new usages & international level •Digital influence the legal framework 79
  77. 77. Digital influence 80Source: http://www.slideshare.net/calimaq/ecriture-web-et-dimension-juridique •Cut & paste •multimedia (voice, music, video, ) •co-working •immediate publication •re-use, re-create, re-publish •a work has an independent life
  78. 78. We are in a cut & paste civilisation Will Lion. Copy Culture. CC-BY-NC-NC Each use of a digital work implies a copy
  79. 79. 82 Big change •Collaborative creation •Collective intelligence •Use of hyperlinks
  80. 80. Digital and the law Laws do exist but are not respected New problems that are not covered by existing laws Who is responsible? (creator, hosted, telecom operator,…) Applicable law ? 83
  81. 81. Google Book Search •US law vs. French law • French stops Google •Finally agreements 84
  82. 82. • more & more influence of the terms & conditions Applicable law is a complex matter
  83. 83. 86 Did you read them ?
  84. 84. 87 http://static.freepik.com/free-photo/psd-social-icon-social-media-social-media-icons_29-30000199.jpg
  85. 85. 88 Is it legal ???
  86. 86. Is a tweet a protected work?
  87. 87. some examples
  88. 88. 3D Printers 92
  89. 89. Myth of 30 seconds 93
  90. 90. Another myth 94
  91. 91. How to suppress copyrights 95
  92. 92. It’s quite confusing • wording not really understood (copyright, free, free for use,…) • many new laws and regulations • and everything could be copied in one clic
  93. 93. Where is the limit? • What happens after your death? "emails "social media ? "virtual goods "e-reputation CC-BY-NC-ND Henning 97 Source: Lionel Maurel http://www.slideshare.net/calimaq/droit-de-linternet-et-de-linformation-complet
  94. 94. Where is the limit ? 98Source: Lionel Maurel http://www.slideshare.net/calimaq/droit-de-linternet-et-de-linformation-complet Theft in videogames ?
  95. 95. WHERE IS THE LIMIT? ARE AVATARS BECOMING LEGAL ENTITIES ? Sur Second Life 99
  96. 96. Another example: IS CURATION ILLEGAL ? 100
  97. 97. http://www.scoop.it/t/any-need-for-reinventing-copyright-droit-d-auteur-intellectual-property-news 101 AUTHOR ? A few lines Photo Share… legally?
  98. 98. 102
  99. 99. Jacques Folon Jacques.folon@ichec.be
  100. 100. 104 Q & A Crédit image: http://jillsbooks.wordpress.com/2010/09/15/hellooooo-anybody-out-there/raise-your-hand-2/

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