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Simple past1

  2. 2. PAST TENSES Part I
  3. 3. PENDAHULUAN  The simple past tense digunakan untuk membicarakan tentang aktivitas-aktivitas yang terjadi pada satu waktu tertentu di masa lalu. Bentuk ini dinyatakan dengan menggunakan kata cara pewaktuan (a time adverb).  The simple past dituliskan dengan sebuah verb ditambah dengan akhiran -ed pada bentuk regular verb tetapi adapula yang memiliki penulisan yang berbeda dengan bentuk simple nya( irregular verb forms). Pola : [VERB+ed] or irregular verb
  4. 4. To be Statements + To be Statements - Questions ? I was. I wasn't. Was I? He was. He wasn't. Was he? She was. She wasn't. Was she? It was. It wasn't. Was it? You were. You weren't. Were you? We were. We weren't. Were we? They were. They weren't. Were they?
  5. 5. Regular Verb (to work) Statements + Regular Verb (to work) Statements - Questions Short answer + Short answer - I worked. I didn't work. Did I work? Yes, I did. No, I didn't. He worked. He didn't work. Did he work? Yes, he did. No, he didn't. She worked. She didn't work. Did she work? Yes, she did. No, she didn't. It worked. It didn't work. Did it work? Yes, it did. No, it didn't. You worked. You didn't work. Did you work? Yes you did. No, you didn't. We worked. We didn't work. Did we work? Yes we did. No, we didn't. They worked. They didn't work. Did they work? Yes they did. No, they didn't.
  6. 6. PENGGUNAAN 1 : AKTIFITAS-AKTIFITAS KESELURUHAN TERJADI DI MASA LAMPAU  Gunakan the Simple Past untuk mengekspresikan ide bahwa kegiatan-kegiatan yang dilakukan terjadi dan selesai pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau. Kadang- kadang, pembicara tidak menyebutkan waktu yang spesifik tetapi dalam kalimatnya tersirat waktu yang dimaksudkan oleh pembicara.
  7. 7. Contoh:  I saw a movie yesterday.  I didn't see a play yesterday.  Last year, I traveled to Japan.  Last year, I didn't travel to Korea.  Did you have dinner last night?  She washed her car.  He didn't wash his car.
  8. 8. PENGGUNAAN 2 : AKTIVITAS-AKTIVITAS SERIAL YANG TERJADI DI MASA LAMPAU  Kita menggunakan the Simple Past untuk mengurutkan serial aktivitas yang terjadi secara keseluruhan di masa lampau. Aktivitas ini terjadi secara berurutan pertama, kedua, ketiga, keempat dan seterusnya.
  9. 9. Contoh:  I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim.  He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00.  Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs?
  10. 10. PENGGUNAAN 3 : DURASI TERJADI DI MASA LAMPAU  The Simple Past dapat digunakan dengan durasi yang dimulai dan selesai di masa lampau. Durasi adalah aktifitas yang lebih lama dan sering diindikasikan dengan ekspresi seperti : for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc.
  11. 11. Contoh:  I lived in Brazil for two years.  Shauna studied Japanese for five years.  They sat at the beach all day.  They did not stay at the party the entire time.  We talked on the phone for thirty minutes.  A: How long did you wait for them? B: We waited for one hour.
  12. 12. PENGGUNAAN 4 : KEBIASAAN DI MASA LAMPAU  The Simple Past dapat pula digunakan untuk menggambarkan kebiasaan yang biasa dikerjakan dan berhenti pula di masa lampau. Penggunaan ini memiliki arti yang sama dengan penggunaan kata "used to." Untuk memperjelas tentang kebiasaan tersebut maka biasanya dalam penggunaan ditambahkan ekspresi-ekspresi sbb : always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc.
  13. 13. Contoh:  I studied French when I was a child.  He played the violin.  He didn't play the piano.  Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid?  She worked at the movie theater after school.  They never went to school, they always skipped class.
  14. 14. PENGGUNAAN 5 : FAKTA ATAU GENERALISASI PADA MASA LAMPAU  The Simple Past juga dapat digunakan untuk menggambarkan sesuatu yang terjadi fakta atau generalisasi pada masa lampau yang tidak lagi benar di masa sekarang. Sebagaimana pada penggunaan 4, penggunaan the Simple Past juga mirip dengan ekspresi "used to."
  15. 15. Contoh:  She was shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing.  He didn't like tomatoes before.  Did you live in Texas when you were a kid?  People paid much more to make cell phone calls in the past.
  16. 16. KLAUSA WHEN  Klausa adalah sekelompok kata yang memiliki arti tapi seringkali bukan merupakan sebuah kalimat lengkap. Beberapa klausa mulai dengan kata "when" misalnya "when I dropped my pen...“ atau "when class began..." Klausa-klausa ini disebut klausa -when (when-clauses), dan klausa ini sangat penting dalam bahasa Inggris. Contoh :  When I paid her one dollar, she answered my question.  She answered my question when I paid her one dollar.
  17. 17.  When-clauses penting karena bentuk ini selalu terjadi terlebih dahulu ketika dua klausa berada pada masa lampau. Kedua contoh di atas memiliki arti yang sama: first, I paid her one dollar, and then, she answered my question. Tidaklah penting kalau kalimat "when I paid her one dollar" berada pada awal atau akhir dari kalimat. Tetapi, contoh di bawah memiliki arti yang berbeda dari kalimat : First, she answered my question, and then, I paid her one dollar. Contoh:  I paid her one dollar when she answered my question.
  18. 18. ACTIVE / PASSIVE Contoh:  Tom repaired the car. Active  The car was repaired by Tom. Passive Penjelasan : 1. The simple past tense diekpresikan dengan bentuk past verb.  My grandfather died last year. (Correct)  My grandfather was died last year. (Incorrect) My grandfather has died last year. (Incorrect)
  19. 19. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE  Kita menggunakan bentuk the past continuous tense untuk mendeskripsikan aktifitas-aktifitas pada masa lampau pada suatu perioda waktu. Contoh:  Q) "What were they doing yesterday?" A) "They were working all day."
  20. 20.  Bentuk ini dapat digunakan untuk menggambarkan apa yang sedang dikerjakan seseorang pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau. Contoh: Q) "What were you doing at 7.30 last night?" A) "I was watching television."  The past continuous juga dapat digunakan untuk memperlihatkan sebuah aktifitas yang berlangsung rutin pada perioda waktu Q) "What did you do on holiday?" A) "I went skiing a lot."
  21. 21.  Seringkali bentuk the past continuous digabungkan dengan penggunaan the past simple untuk memperlihatkan apa yang sedang terjadi ketika aktifitas lainnya terjadi. The past continuous merujuk pada kejadian yang lebih lama periodanya dan bentuk the simple past merujuk pada kejadian yang mengiterupsinya. Contoh: "I was driving to work when I crashed my car." atau As I was driving to work, I crashed my car."
  22. 22. BEBERAPA MASALAH PADA BENTUK THE PAST TENSE 1. Menggunakan bentuk the present tense ketika bentuk past tense seharusnya digunakan. Last week, Tonya fix her neighbor's car. (Tidak Benar) Last week, Tonya fixed her neighbor's car. (Benar) 2. Menggunakan "was" dengan verbs pada the past tense. It was happened one night in September. (Tidak Benar) It happened one night in September. (Benar)
  23. 23. Perhatikan penggunaan the past tense pada cerita berikut ini : Yesterday Mrs. Hubbard had a very rough day. In the morning, she went to the kitchen and looked in the cupboard for some food for her dog, but the cupboard was empty. Her poor dog stared up at her with its hungry eyes, and she knew she had to do something quickly. She hurried to the grocery store to buy some dog food, but unfortunately the store was out of her dog's favorite brand, so she had to catch a bus downtown. After buying the food, she waited for a half hour in the rain to get a taxi. When she finally got home, her dog was sound asleep on the living room sofa.
  24. 24. EXERCISE Part 1. Change the verbs in the following sentence into past tense. 1. Yesterday, I go to the restaurant with a client. 2. We drive around the parking lot for 20 minutes in order to find a parking space. 3. When we arrive at the restaurant, the place is full. 4. The waitress asks us if we have reservations. 5. I say, "No, my secretary forgets to make them." 6. The waitress tells us to come back in two hours. 7. My client and I slowly walk back to the car. 8. Then we see a small grocery store. 9. We stop in the grocery store and buy some sandwiches. 10. That is better than waiting for two hours.
  25. 25. Correct the mistakes in the following sentences: 1. Last night, Samantha have pizza for supper. 2. My pet lizard was died last month. 3. Yesterday I spend two hours cleaning my living room. 4. This morning before coming to class, Jack eats two bowls of cereal. 5. What was happened to your leg?
  26. 26. CONVERSATION PRACTICE 1. Tell your partner or classmates what you did yesterday. Remember to use past tense. Example, Yesterday, I went to the mall. I bought some shorts and a baseball cap. I spent almost $20. 2. Ask your partner what he/she did last weekend. Respond with related questions. For example, What did you do last Saturday? I stayed home and cleaned my room. Did you do anything fun? Not really. 3. Tell about a childhood experience. One day, when I was about 7 years old, there was a knock on our door. When I opened the door, I saw that nobody was there. I felt something was wrong, so I called my mother. . .
  27. 27. PRESENT PERFECT Part 2
  28. 28. PENDAHULUAN  The present perfect simple tense digunakan untuk membicarakan sesuatu yang terjadi pada masa lampau, dimana memiliki arti yang sangat kuat pada masa sekarang.  Kita membentuk the present perfect simple dengan menggunakan the auxilliary verb have/has dan the regular verb dengan akhiran -ed (the past participle) Pola : [has/have + past participle]
  29. 29. Statements + Statements - Questions Short answer + Short answer - I've worked. I haven't worked. Have I worked? Yes, I have. No, I haven't. He's worked. He hasn't worked. Has he worked? Yes, he has. No, he hasn't. She's worked. She hasn't worked. Has she worked? Yes, she has. No, she hasn't. It's worked. It hasn't worked. Has it worked? Yes, it has. No, it hasn't. You've worked. You haven't worked. Have you worked? Yes you have. No, you haven't. We've worked. We haven't worked. Have we worked? Yes we have. No, we haven't. They've worked. They haven't worked. Have they worked? Yes they have. No, they haven't.
  30. 30. PENGGUNAAN 1 : WAKTU YANG TIDAK TENTU SEBELUM MASA SEKARANG  Kita menggunakan the Present Perfect untuk mengatakan bahwa sebuah aktifitas terjadi pada masa yang tidak tentu sebelum sekarang. Waktu yang tepat tidaklah penting. Kita tidak dapat menggunakan the Present Perfect dengan ekspresi pewaktuan tertentu seperti: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. Kita DAPAT menggunakan the Present Perfect dengan ekspresi yang tidak spesifik seperti: ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc.
  31. 31. Contoh:  I have seen that movie twenty times.  I think I have met him once before.  There have been many earthquakes in California.  People have traveled to the Moon.  People have not traveled to Mars.  Have you read the book yet?  Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.  A: Has there ever been a war in the United States? B: Yes, there has been a war in the United States.
  32. 32. BAGAIMANA PENGGUNAAN THE PRESENT PERFECT?  Konsep “waktu tak tentu/spesifik” kadangkala sangat membingungkan bagi orang yang sedang belaar Bahasa Inggris. Sangatlah baik untuk menghubungkan Present Perfect dengan topik- topik berikut: 1. Pengalaman (Experience) 2. Perubahan waktu (Change Over Time) 3. Ketuntasan (Accomplishment) 4. Aktifitas yang diharapkan tapi tidak selesai 5. Beberapa aktifitas pada waktu yang berbeda.
  33. 33. TOPIK 1 : PENGALAMAN (EXPERIENCE)  Kita dapat menggunakan the Present Perfect untuk menggambarkan pengalaman kita. Hal ini sama dengan mengatakan, "I have the experience of..." Kita juga dapat menggunakan tense ini untuk menyatakan bahwa kita tidak pernah mengalami suatu pengalaman tertentu. The Present Perfect tidak digunakan untuk mendeskripsikan kejadian- kejadian tertentu.
  34. 34. Contoh:  I have been to France. Kalimat ini menyatakan bahwa anda sudah memiliki pengalaman di Perancis. Mungkin anda sudah kesana sekali, atau beberapa kali.  I have been to France three times. Anda dapat menambahkan beberapa kali pengalaman terjadi pada akhir kalimat.  I have never been to France. Kalimat ini menyatakan bahwa anda tidak memiliki pengalaman sama sekali untuk pergi ke Perancis.  I think I have seen that movie before.  He has never traveled by train.  Joan has studied two foreign languages.  A: Have you ever met him? B: No, I have not met him.
  35. 35. TOPIK 2 : PERUBAHAN WAKTU  Kita dapat menggunakan the Present Perfect untuk membicarakan perubahan yang terjadi pada perioda waktu tertentu. Contoh:  You have grown since the last time I saw you.  The government has become more interested in arts education.  Japanese has become one of the most popular courses at the university since the Asian studies program was established.  My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.
  36. 36. TOPIK 3 : KETUNTASAN (ACCOMPLISHMENTS)  Kita sering menggunakan the Present Perfect untuk membuat daftar ketuntasan individu dan manusia. Kita tidak dapat menyebutkan waktu tertentu. Contoh:  Man has walked on the Moon.  Our son has learned how to read.  Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.  Scientists have split the atom.
  37. 37. TOPIK 4 : AKTIFITAS YANG DIHARAPKAN TAPI TIDAK SELESAI  Kita sering menggunakan the Present Perfect untuk menyatakan sebuah aktifitas yang kita harapkan tapi tidak terjadi. Menggunakan the Present Perfect menyatakan bahwa kita sedang menunggu sebuah aktifitas akan terjadi. Contoh:  James has not finished his homework yet.  Susan hasn't mastered Japanese, but she can communicate.  Bill has still not arrived.  The rain hasn't stopped.
  38. 38. TOPIK 5 : BEBERAPA AKTIFITAS PADA WAKTU YANG BERBEDA.  Kita juga dapat menggunakan the Present Perfect untuk membicarakan tentang beberapa aktifitas berbeda yang terjadi pada masa lampau pada waktu yang berbeda pula. Present Perfect mengindikasikan bahwa proses kejadian tidak selesai dan beberapa aktifitas lain juga dimungkinkan. Contoh:  The army has attacked that city five times.  I have had four quizzes and five tests so far this semester.  We have had many major problems while working on this project.  She has talked to several specialists about her problem, but nobody knows why she is sick.
  39. 39. EKSPRESI PEWAKTUAN DENGAN PRESENT PERFECT  Ketika kita menggunakan the Present Perfect, ini berarti bahwa sesuatu telah terjadi pada satu masa dalam kehidupan kita sebelum masa sekarang. Ingatlah, bahwa waktu tepatnya terjadi kejadian tersebut tidaklah penting.
  40. 40.  Kadang-kadang, kita ingin membatasi waktu yang sedang dibicarakan untuk sebuah pengalaman. Kita dapat melakukan hal ini dengan ekpresi-ekspresi seperti : in the last week, in the last year, this week, this month, so far, up to now, etc.
  41. 41. Contoh:  Have you been to Mexico in the last year?  I have seen that movie six times in the last month.  They have had three tests in the last week.  She graduated from university less than three years ago. She has worked for three different companies so far.  My car has broken down three times this week.
  42. 42. Catatan :  Kata "Last year" dan "in the last year" adalah berbeda dalam pengertian. "Last year" berarti tahun sebelum saat sekarang, dan dianggap sebagai suatu masa tertentu sehingga perlu menggunakan bentuk Simple Past. "In the last year“ berarti dari 365 hari yang lalu sampai sekarang. Pada bentuk ini tidak diperhitungkan sebagai satu spesifik waktu, sehingga perlu menggunakan bentuk Present Perfect. Contoh:  I went to Mexico last year. Saya pergi ke Mexico pada satu tahun kalendar sebelum sekarang.  I have been to Mexico in the last year. Saya berada di Meksiko paling sedikit sekali dalam waktu tertentu antara 365 hari yang lalu dan sekarang.
  43. 43. PENGGUNAAN 2 : DURASI DARI MASA LAMPAU SAMPAI SEKARANG (NON- CONTINUOUS VERBS)  Karena bentuk Non-Continuous Verbs dan non- continuous dengan menggunakan Mixed Verbs, Kita menggunakan the Present Perfect untuk memperlihatkan bahwa sesuatu dimulai di masa lalu dan terus berlanjut sampai saat ini. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," dan "since Tuesday" kesemuanya adalah durasi waktu dimana kita dapat menggunakan bentuk the Present Perfect.
  44. 44. Contoh:  I have had a cold for two weeks.  She has been in England for six months.  Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl. Meskipun pada bentuk Present Perfect di atas umumnya tidak dibatasi pada penggunaan bentuk Non-Continuous Verbs dan non-continuous sebagai Mixed Verbs, kata "live," "work," "teach," dan "study" kadangkala digunakan dalam bentuk ini meskipun kata-kata ini bukan merupakan bentuk Non-Continuous Verbs.
  45. 45. ACTIVE / PASSIVE Contoh:  Many tourists have visited that castle. Active  That castle has been visited by many tourists. Passive
  46. 46. EXERCISE Read the situations and write sentences. Choose one of the following : Arrive, break, go up, improve, lose, grow 1. Mike is looking for his key. He can’t find it. He..... 2. Margaret can’t walk and her leg is in plaster. She..... 3. Maria’s English wasn’t very good. Now it is much better. Her English..... 4. Tin didn’t have a beard. Now he has a beard. His beard.... 5. This morning I was expecting a letter. Now I have it. The letter.... 6. Last week the fare was 8o pence. Now it is 90. The currency....