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Item 4: Anthrosols/Technosols

Item 4: Anthrosols/Technosols

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SOIL ATLAS OF ASIA
2ND EDITORIAL BOARD MEETING
RURAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES,
JEONJU, REPUBLIC OF KOREA | 29 APRIL – 3 MAY 2019

SOIL ATLAS OF ASIA
2ND EDITORIAL BOARD MEETING
RURAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES,
JEONJU, REPUBLIC OF KOREA | 29 APRIL – 3 MAY 2019

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Item 4: Anthrosols/Technosols

  1. 1. Anthrosols / Technosols • Anthrosols: soils resulting from centuries- long, recurrent, mono-management practices, for example: intensive fertilization, continuous application of earthy material, irrigation with sediment-rich water, or wet cultivation. • Technosols: soils, the properties and pedogenesis of which are dominated by their technic origin or other profound human influence such as transportation. They accommodate urban, industrial, trafficked and military soils (referred to collectively as “urban soils”).
  2. 2. Anthrosols (from Gr. anthropos, human being) Anthrosols comprise soils that have been modified profoundly through (long term) human activities, such as • addition of organic materials or household wastes (earthy manure, compost, mud…), • fertilization, • irrigation, and • cultivation.
  3. 3. Key to the RSGs 2014 Principal qualifiers Supplemetary qualifiers Other soils having: 1. a hortic, irragric, plaggic or terric horizon ≥ 50 cm thick; or 2. an anthraquic horizon and an underlying hydragric horizon with a combined thickness of ≥ 50 cm; or 3. a pretic horizon, the layers of which have a combined thickness of ≥ 50 cm, within ≤ 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. ANTHROSOLS (AT) Hortic/ Hydragric/ Irragric/ Plaggic/ Pretic/ Terric Acric/ Lixic/ Alic/ Luvic Alcalic/ Eutric/ Dystric Andic Arenic/ Clayic/ Loamic/ Siltic Calcic Dolomitic/ Calcaric Escalic Ferralic/ Sideralic Fluvic Gleyic Endoleptic Novic Oxyaquic Regic Salic Skeletic Sodic Spodic Stagnic Technic Toxic Vertic Vitric
  4. 4. Key to the RSGs 2006
  5. 5. Anthrosols  Plaggic and Terric Anthrosols occur mainly in Western Europe (Belgium, Denmark, Germany, The Netherlands, UK and Ireland), covering some 500 000 ha  Large areas of , Antraquic and Hydragric Anthrosols are found in the Far East (China, Japan, Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam)  Irragric Anthrosols are found in arid and semi-arid regions. Large tracts occur in the Middle East (Euphrates and Tigris valleys)  Hortic Anthrosols occur everywhere where long-term intensive cultivation has taken place
  6. 6. Plaggic horizon • Results from long-term addition of sods • mixed with farmyard manure: • ! Uniform texture (sand or loamy sand) • ! Average organic C > 0.6 percent • ! P2O5 > 250 mg kg-1 in upper 20cm • ! Base saturation < 50 percent
  7. 7. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Org. C (%) 130-150 cm 120-130 cm 110-120 cm 65-100 cm 30-65 cm 0-30 cm Plaggic Anthrosol Plaggic horizon: A plaggic horizon (from Dutch plag, sod): is a black or brown human-induced thick mineral surface horizon that has been produced by long-continued manuring. In medieval times, sod and other materials were commonly used for bedding livestock and the manure was spread on fields being cultivated. Base saturation is typically low.
  8. 8. Terric horizon Results from long-term addition of earthy manure, compost or mud (raised surfaces) : ! Non-uniform texture ! Colour depending on source material ! Base saturation 50 percent or more
  9. 9. Terric Anthrosols (Mexico) Terric horizon: (from Latin terra, earth) is a human-induced mineral surface horizon that develops through addition of earthy manures, compost, beach sands or mud over a long period of time. It builds up gradually and may contain stones, randomly sorted and distributed.
  10. 10. Hortic horizon Results from deep cultivation, intensive fertilisation and/or long-term application of organic wastes: ! Munsell value and chroma 3 or less ! Average organic C 1 percent or more ! P2O5 > 100 mg kg-1 in upper 25cm ! Base saturation 50 percent or more
  11. 11. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Org. C (%) 360-400 cm 210-270 cm 124-170 cm 38-89 cm 0-5 cm Hortic Anthrosol (Eutric, Clayic) Hortic horizon (from Latin hortus, garden): is a human-induced mineral surface horizon that results from deep cultivation, intensive fertilization and/or longcontinued application of human and animal wastes and other organic residues (e.g. manures, kitchen refuse, compost and night soil).
  12. 12. Anthraquic horizon Results from long-term wet cultivation and includes a puddled layer and a plough pan: ! Platy structure in plough pan ! Rust mottles along cracks and root holes ! Bulk density of plough pan 20 percent or more compared to that of puddled layer ! Porosity in plough pan 10-30 percent than that of puddled layer
  13. 13. Hydragric horizon Subsurface horizon having characteristics associated with wet cultivation (below the puddled layer): ! Fe-Mn accumulation or coatings of illuvial Fe and Mn; or, at least, 2x more Fed or 4x more Mnd than surface horizon; or ! Redoximorphic features associated with wet cultivation; and ! Thickness more than 10cm
  14. 14. Anthrosols with anthraquic and a hydragric horizon ← anthraquic ← hydragric horizon puddled layer plough pan
  15. 15. Apl Adl 2Bcl 3Cr Puddled layer Anthaquic horizon Plough pan Hydrargic horizon Pedon 3
  16. 16. Irragric horizon Results from long-term irrigation with sediment-rich water: ! Munsell value and chroma more than 3 ! Uniform structure ! Average organic C > 0.5 percent, and remaining > 0.3 percent at its lower limit ! Even distribution of carbonates and clay ! Higher clay content than underlying soil
  17. 17. Technosols from Greek technikos, skilfully made All kinds of materials made or exposed by human activity that otherwise would not occur at the Earth’s surface. Pedogenesis in these soils is affected strongly by materials and their organization. Occur mostly in urban and industrial areas. i.e. cities, roads, mines, refuse dumps, oil spills, coal fly ash deposits and the like are included in Technosols.
  18. 18. Key to the RSGs 2014 Principal qualifiers Supplemetary qualifiers Other soils: 1.with all of the following: a)having ≥ 20% (by volume, weighted average) artefacts in the upper 100 cm from the soil surface or to continuous rock or technic hard material or a cemented or indurated layer, whichever is shallower; and b)not having a layer containing artefacts that qualifies as an argic, chernic, duric, ferralic, ferric, fragic, hydragric, natric, nitic, petrocalcic, petroduric, petrogypsic, petroplinthic, pisoplinthic, plinthic, spodic or vertic horizon starting ≤ 100 cm from the soil surface, unless buried; and c)not having continuous rock or a cemented or indurated layer starting ≤ 10 cm from the soil surface; or 2.having a continuous, very slowly permeable to impermeable, constructed geomembrane of any thickness starting ≤ 100 cm from the soil surface; or 3.having technic hard material starting ≤ 5 cm from the soil surface. TECHNOSOLS (TC) Ekranic Linic Urbic Spolic Garbic Cryic Isolatic Leptic Subaquatic/ Tidalic Reductic Hyperskeletic Alcalic/ Eutric/ Alumic/ Dystric Andic Anthraquic/ Hortic/ Irragric/ Plaggic/ Pretic/ Terric Archaic Arenic/ Clayic/ Loamic/ Siltic Aridic Calcic Cambic Carbonic Densic Dolomitic/ Calcaric Drainic Fluvic Folic/ Histic Gleyic Grossartefactic/ Skeletic Gypsic Gypsiric Humic Hyperartefactic Immissic Laxic Lignic Mollic/ Umbric/ Ochric Novic Oxyaquic Relocatic Ruptic Salic Sideralic Sodic Protospodic Stagnic Sulfidic Tephric Thionic Toxic Transportic Vitric
  19. 19. Key to the RSGs 2006 Principal qualifiers Supplemetary qualifiers Other soils: 1.with all of the following: a)having ≥ 20% (by volume, weighted average) artefacts in the upper 100 cm from the soil surface or to continuous rock or technic hard material or a cemented or indurated layer, whichever is shallower; and b)not having a layer containing artefacts that qualifies as an argic, chernic, duric, ferralic, ferric, fragic, hydragric, natric, nitic, petrocalcic, petroduric, petrogypsic, petroplinthic, pisoplinthic, plinthic, spodic or vertic horizon starting ≤ 100 cm from the soil surface, unless buried; and c)not having continuous rock or a cemented or indurated layer starting ≤ 10 cm from the soil surface; or 2.having a continuous, very slowly permeable to impermeable, constructed geomembrane of any thickness starting ≤ 100 cm from the soil surface; or 3.having technic hard material starting ≤ 5 cm from the soil surface. TECHNOSOLS (AT) Ekranic Linic Urbic Spolic Garbic Cryic Isolatic Leptic Subaquatic/ Tidalic Reductic Hyperskeletic Alcalic/ Eutric/ Alumic/ Dystric Andic Anthraquic/ Hortic/ Irragric/ Plaggic/ Pretic/ Terric Archaic Arenic/ Clayic/ Loamic/ Siltic Aridic Calcic Cambic Carbonic Densic Dolomitic/ Calcaric Drainic Fluvic Folic/ Histic Gleyic Grossartefactic/ Skeletic Gypsic Gypsiric Humic Hyperartefactic Immissic Laxic Lignic Mollic/ Umbric/ Ochric Novic Oxyaquic Relocatic Ruptic Salic Sideralic Sodic Protospodic Stagnic Sulfidic Tephric Thionic Toxic Transportic Vitric Key to the RSGs 2006
  20. 20. 10 20 Technic hard material 30 in 5 cm 40 50 ≥20 % 60 (artefacts 70 geomembrane 80 90 100 1 m 1 m-en belül TECHNOSOLS
  21. 21. Ekranic Technosol (Endoreductic) Ausztria
  22. 22. Urbic Technosol Verőce Urbic: olyan szint amely 100 cm-en belül kezdődik, vastagsága ≥ 20 cm és műtermék tartalma ≥ 20%, amelynek ≥ 35% emberi települések maradványaiból áll.
  23. 23. Linic Technosol Linic: rendelkezik egy csekély vízáteresztő képességű, vagy vizet egyáltalán át nem eresztő geomembránnal a talajfelszíntől számított 100 cm-en belül
  24. 24. Ekranic Technosol
  25. 25. Spolic Technosol

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