2. What is renewable energy?
• Renewable energy is energy which comes from
natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain,
tides, waves and geothermal heat, which are
renewable (naturally replenished).
• According to our book, only 7% of energy
consumption that is used in the U.S. is renewable
3. • The four main topics of renewable energy we are
going to cover today is: Wind, Solar, Geothermal,
5. What is Wind Energy?
• Wind energy is a form of energy
conversion in which turbines
convert the kinetic energy of
wind into mechanical or
electrical energy that can be
used for power.
6. History of Wind Energy
• By 1908 there were 72 wind-driven electric
• By the 1930s windmills were widely used to
generate electricity on farms in the United
• From 1974 through the mid-1980s the United
States government worked with industry to
advance the technology and enable large
commercial wind turbines
7. • The world's first megawatt-sized wind
turbine near Grandpa's Knob Summit
in Vermont in 1941
9. Wind energy in Idaho
• Windmills have provided
power to pump water in
Idaho for decades. More
recently, new technologies
such as wind turbines and
wind energy converters
have begun to generate
electricity in Idaho, and
more are in development.
10. How Wind is Converted to Energy
• Rotation is Converted to
• P = ½ ρ A v3 Cp
– P: Power Attained
– ρ: Density of Air
– A: Sweep Area of Wind
– v: Velocity of Wind
– Cp: Power Coefficient
27. Solar Energy
•In 1839 Alexandre Edmond Becquerel discovered the
photovoltaic effect which explains how electricity can be
generated from sunlight.
•Over 100 years later, in 1941, Russell Ohl invented the solar
cell, shortly after the invention of the transistor.
•Today, solar panels are becoming widespread and
increasingly efficient due to improvements in design
1. When the sun is shining, the panels of a
solar power system capture sunlight and
convert it into solar DC power.
2. The system converts this power into 240V
AC electricity you can use around your
home, using what’s called an inverter.
3. Under a net feed–in system this electricity
then gets distributed for use around your
property, and any electricity that is not
used, is fed into the electricity grid through
your electricity meter.
4. Under a gross feed–in system all of the
electricity generated is fed into the
electricity grid through your electricity
Monocrystalline Silicon Cells: The principle advantage of
monocrystalline cells are their high efficiencies, typically around 15%,
although the manufacturing process required to produce
monocrystalline silicon is complicated, resulting in slightly higher costs
than other technologies.
Multicrystalline Silicon Cells: Multicrystalline cells are cheaper to
produce than monocrystalline ones, due to the simpler manufacturing
process. However, they tend to be slightly less efficient, with average
efficiencies of around 12%.
Amorphous Silicon: Amorphous silicon can be deposited on a wide
range of substrates, both rigid and flexible, which makes it ideal for
curved surfaces and "fold-away" modules. Amorphous cells are,
however, less efficient than crystalline based cells, with typical
efficiencies of around 6%, but they are easier and therefore cheaper to
produce. Their low cost makes them ideally suited for many
applications where high efficiency is not required and low cost is
30. ==Geothermal energy is any energy harvested from the natural heat retained by the Earth’s
--Earth’s surface maintains temperatures of 50-60 degrees F as shallow as 10 feet
--Geothermal energy is available 24/7
--90% and up energy availability from plants (very efficient)
--Produces much less waste than conventional power sources(Coal, natural gas,
--geothermal wastes in the form of CO2 and wastewater.
--CO2 emissions 1/6 that of clean natural gas
--Wastewater can be treated at any municipal water treatment facility or can be
re-injected into geothermal reservoir
--Small scale systems can be installed almost anywhere
--Industrial scale power plants can be placed anywhere with tectonic or hot
spring water activity, although future technology will expand this resource
--A typical plant today would produce power at about $0.05 per kWh
-- The U.S produces approximately 2700 MW of electricity via geothermal plants
per year, roughly equal to burning 60 million barrels of oil.
--Small but growing for of power in America and the world.
--EGS is very expensive to establish (high introductory costs)
31. Direct-Use and Heat
Direct Uses of geothermal energy
-electricity saving uses
for hot water
*heating fish farms
*hot water for
--large or small scale use
--series of pipes run liquids or
gasses underground to disperse
heat or collect it.
--no visual impact
--large initial cost (20-30k on a
residential level) but saves enough
energy to compensate in 8-12 years.
32. Direct Dry Steam, Flash/Double Flash Cycle, and Binary Cycle Power Plants
--Direct Dry Steam plants use super-heated liquids that decompress into steam that is
funneled directly to a turbine. Since this steam drives the turbine no fuels are burned,
transported, or stored.
--Flash/Double Flash plants pump super heated liquids into a low pressure tank causing
them to instantly vaporize. This gas is then pushed through a turbine. For double flash
processes the liquid can be vaporized in two consecutive tanks(to make sure all liquid is
Binary Cycle plants create energy by extracting more common, moderate temperature
water and cycling it through a heat exchanger. Also running through this heat exchanger is a
second liquid, or binary liquid which boils at a very low temperature. This binary liquid is
vaporized and pushed through the turbine. There are no emissions from this process because
all liquids are contained in a closed loop.
--EGS– Future projects and research are geared towards using already existent fissures and
man made wells. Many of these are deep enough to touch superheated rocks below. By
injecting water into these fissures, letting the naturally hot rocks boil the water, and capturing
the steam in a turbine system, energy is created. This can be done almost anywhere but is still
extremely expensive based on current tech.
34. Geothermal Energy
• Almost entirely emission free
• Zero Carbon
• No fuel required (no mining or
• Not subject to the same fluctuations
as solar or wind.
• Smallest land footprint of any major
• Virtually limitless supply
• Simple and Reliable
• Plants have the opportunity to be
• Some level of geothermal energy is
available in most places
• New technologies are working on
utilizing cooler temperatures
• Massive potential
• Prime sights are very location
specific and are often far from
big population centers
• Losses due to the long distance
transmission of electricity
• High construction cost
• Large amounts of water
• Sulfur dioxide and silica
• Drilling into heated rock is
difficult and causes surface
• Generally, at least boiling water
required (100˚C or 212˚F)
Energy Use in
• Native Americans used hot
springs for multiple uses
bathing, warmth, and
• Burgdorf Hot Springs were
used by trappers in the
1860’s; and Challis and
Givens Hot Springs
opened for business in the
• In 1892, Idaho became the
first state to have a
district, which is still in
use today: Warm Spring
• This district heated over
200 buildings including
homes, business, and the
Natatorium (a local
• In 1930, Edward’s
Greenhouse became the
greenhouse to use
geothermal energy; they
still use it today (the are
located off of Hill Road).
• In 1973, near
the first man
• In the early 1980s
the State of Idaho
drilled two wells in
the vicinity of the
By 1982, the State
was supplying heat
to nine buildings in
the Capitol Mall
the State Capitol.
38. Geothermal Energy Use in Boise
• During the United Nations Climate Change
Conference in 2009, Boise was voted one of the
top ten geothermal cities in the world along with
Reno, Nevada, Copenhagen, Denmark, Perth,
Australia, and Madrid, Spain.
– Three reasons got them onto this list: Boise has the
largest direct use of geothermal energy, we give back
100% of the water back to the aquifer, and because our
major buildings downtown already use geothermal
energy including the capitol and its mall, the Federal
Courthouse, City Hall, Boise High School, Ada County
Courthouse and the Boise Centre.
• Boise currently has four geothermal districts,
there are only seventeen in the whole country.
39. Boise State University’s Geothermal Project
• In August of 2011, BSU began their geothermal project.
• The heated water needed to be transferred across the
• The project is converting many buildings over to
geothermal heating: the Morrison Center, Multipurpose
Classroom Building, Interactive Learning Center,
Administration Building, Student Union Building, the
Mathematics and Geosciences Building, the
Environmental Research Building, and the Micron
Business and Economics building.
• When completed, it is estimated that approximately
625,000 square feet of building space will be heated
using geothermal energy.
42. Types of Hydroelectric Plants
• High Head- Used to store water at an
increased elevation. Able to be controlled for
• Low Head- Less efficient due to shorter
vertical drop of water.
• Pumped storage- Transfer of water from
one reservoir to another at a higher elevation.
43. Local Examples
• Boise River Diversion Dam-1909
Provided 1,500 kw of electricity for construction of Arrowrock
Now provides surplus power when needed
• Arrowrock Dam-1915
Portland cement and sand, new concrete in 1935.
Designed to store water to push Idaho’s agriculture standing in
• Anderson Ranch Dam-1950
Highest embankment dam in the world when completed.
Generators updated in 1986 from 27,000 kw to 40,000 kw
• Lucky Peak Dam-1955
Originally single outlet with potential for hydropower, 1986-
installed second outlet and went online with powerhouse in 1988.
Primary purpose- flood control, Secondary purpose- irrigation
45. New Technological Processes
Harvesting energy from ocean waves, tides, and river currents
• Wave power buoys
-No Solid waste
-Minimal impact on seabed
• Underwater turbines
-No land space required
-Water is more efficient
46. Hydroelectric Power, Worth It?
Readily available due to rainfall and
Expensive to build
Low failure rates and operating costs High hazard risk
Clean fuel source Nutrients can be built up behind dams
Extremely efficient- Easy ON/OFF Disrupts wildlife and other natural
No depletion of natural resources Causes low oxygen levels in water
Domestic source of energy Changes habitat
Cheap harvesting costs
Source of recreation
Three parts of a dam: Electric plant, dam to control water flow, reservoir where water can be stored.
Vertical distance of which water falls
Wave power buoys- does not generate solid waste, minimal impact on seabed, visually pleasing,
Potential Benefits: may act as a artificial reef, promotes marine life growth.
Underwater turbines- no land space required, water is more dense and is moving more than winds, dependable.