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  1. 1. FPD Lecture 5 Tadesse Aklog
  2. 2. Diplomacy  refer to ‘ the application of intelligence and tact to the conduct of official relations between governments of independent states (Satow, 1917, p.ix).  a formal practices and methods whereby states conduct their foreign relations including: o Exchange of ambassadors o Dispatch of messages among official representatives
  3. 3.  In modern days, diplomacy involves:  it involves both formal and informal ways of communication where the chances of leaders and citizens becomes significant  Summit diplomacy : due to the benefit of ICT, LEADERS themselves engage in bargaining and communication  Includes Multilateral approach  Practices in open manner/ public diplomacy
  4. 4. Development of Diplomacy 1) Increasing relevance of bargaining process over warfare in Europe, 2) Shift from ‘secrecy’ to ‘open’ kind of diplomacy; and the concomitant development to multilateral diplomacy than the exclusive focus on bilateral diplomacy . 3) Submit diplomacy where leaders encounter-face – to face than through traditional head of missions(amabasadors) –intermediaries
  5. 5. 4) The development of Technology The development of nuclear energy-negative development The ICT- positively changed the spread of interaction where extensive communication reduced the level (a) asymmetry of information between the Westphalia state –closed sovereign state that should control in out of citizens and aliens
  6. 6. 5) Regime Development  to regulate issues of common concerns including Nuclear energy, trade, fiancé ,environment , human rights violations.. etc.; Regimes, in the form of international agreements stipulating rules and regulations of conduct and – at best – allowing for sanctions against those parties that do not comply with the understandings that have been made, can compensate for lack of trust by imposing control.
  7. 7. They provide information about the parties’ behavior and monitor their activities; Regimes, in transforming negotiations into increasingly rationalized tools, dealt with the problem of trust in an effective way. The development of trust is the third remarkable trend in the evolution of inter-state negotiation;
  8. 8. 6) The notion of power has increasingly been diffused as compared to the classical period:  decentralization,  globalization, even  the emergence of terrorist organization has put limitation on the perception and use of power as force • So instead of resolving issues through force, negotiation has become the norms 7) The emergence of International organization: • (both private and public) • Global(universal-regional-sub-regional), IMF, IBRD,WTO, UN and subsidiary organs .. etc
  9. 9. Diplomatic norms and practices facilitating conflict resolution: coexistence and reciprocity(exchanging things for mutual benefit) ; open communication channels; shared language; commitment to peace; diplomatic immunity; and pacta sunt servanda- meaning agreements must be kept in good faith (Jönsson and Aggestam, 2009).
  10. 10. Diplomatic Negotiation as instrument of FP A) What is Negotiation • is the peaceful management of common and opposing interests and values of sovereign states through the process of give and take. • negotiation is an instrument in diplomacy • Negotiation can be used to avoid wars, and but paradoxically it is nearly always used after wars are over.
  11. 11. B) When to use Negotiation? Context matters.  The question of whether negotiation and bargaining will be effective as a tool in conflict resolution is also very much connected to its context.  William Zartman (Zartman, 2005) postulates that we need a push and a pull in order to start any negotiation process and to create an outcome.  The push is the ‘mutual hurting stalemate’ : a status quo that is painful for all the involved parties, to the extent that they prefer a change (through negotiation) over the situation into which they are locked.
  12. 12.  At the same time there should be a perceived way out of the deadlock: the pull in the form of a ‘mutual enticing (providing pleasure) opportunity’  The idea of the ‘mutual hurting stalemate’(MHS) is not applicable in every cultural context • However, it(MHS) may well be a typically Western rationalist notion. • There are cultures, for instance, where suffering is the highest good. The hero is the one who suffers. In such a cultural context, suffering is more likely to aggravate the problem of negotiation than to resolve it.
  13. 13. C) Nature of Negotiation  there are two or more parties; who have a conflict of needs and desires; they choose to negotiate because they think it is in their interest to do so; give and take’ is to be expected; they prefer negotiation over open fighting
  14. 14. D) Negotiation Process A negotiation process means going through various phases:  preparation and diagnosis,  information, searching for formulations,  bargaining, and  the drafting of all the details (Dupont and Faure, 1991). The way in which parties reach a settlement can also be divided into three categories. 1) Synthesis of interests  In the first place, there is the procedure whereby parties would like to see all-important points included in the settlement  A synthesis is often difficult to reach and even more difficult to implement.
  15. 15. 2) Synergy (cooperation for a combined effect) of interests:  when one tries to work not from a partial interest, but from a mutual interest. These kinds of results can be very satisfying, and can be well implemented. However, requirements include a very good atmosphere during the negotiations, and lots of time. 3) Compromise /compensation Compromise comes in the form of mutual concessions, in which each party loses some points and wins some, or in which parties compensate each other for their losses by trading concessions;
  16. 16. 4) Implementation • experienced negotiators will arrange the agreement in such a way that it can be implemented step by step in order to reduce uncertainty (Jönsson, 2001). • The implementation is, as it were, ingrained in the agreement and still leaves room for negotiations during the implementation process
  17. 17. E) What determines for success in the Negotiation process? I- Power differential thesis II- The nature of the negotiator III- The interactive argument I) Does Power difference matter for success? • It is interesting to note here that negotiation processes between equal powers are as a rule not very effective. • Some power difference is needed in order to get the negotiation process to flow.
  18. 18. • Power can be distinguished in three components: 1) behavioral power/power of conduct /: power that is marginal and originates from the negotiator ; 2) Structural power- power of the state being represented ; and 3) Issue-specific power/Comparative power/: power that belongs to the state regarding the issues being negotiated(Habeeb, 1988).
  19. 19. Structural power involves the total of power factors that are available to a country in relation to that of other nations. This power is determined by issues such as: • the size and location (for example, a strategic position) of the territory or state, • the nature of its borders, its inhabitants, the presence of natural resources, • its economic structure and financial power • the level of technological development: “The fungibility of power’-ability to change the butter into gun and vice versa
  20. 20. • Power difference is a necessary, but not a sufficient, condition for explaining negotiation results (Habeeb, 1988). • comparative power should be drawn into the analysis. • By comparative power- the power structures around the issues being negotiated, or the power that is relevant in a particular situation.
  21. 21. • For example, does the Russian Federation, or the Republic of Turkey for that matter, because of its enormous army, have increased power over, for example, Italy when negotiations are taking place in the field of economic cooperation? That is very doubtful. • The existence of such an army certainly plays a role, but the danger is neutralized by : a) the politico–military coalitions in which Italy finds itself-NATO + b) Italy is famous in having technologies to produce quality cars as compared to Turkey Or Russia
  22. 22. Comparative power is influenced by three factors. 1) the alternatives that might be available for the relevant issue: the fewer alternatives a country has, the weaker its cause. 2) to what extent has the country committed itself: how far will willingness go to make use of its power factors? Is there, for example, a willingness to weaken a country’s economic power in favor of its military power? 3) to what extent does the country have control over the issues under negotiation?
  23. 23. II) Actor based arguments for effective negotiation  To Rubin(2002), it is vital to ask the question ‘who is the actor?’, as negotiation is very much about the choice of partners. • He then discusses the difference between actors who only represent themselves and those acting as an agent for a group of people, an organization, or a state – • thus actors who need to be instructed, who need a mandate written by their superiors.
  24. 24. Rubin sees five attributes of effective negotiators. A) flexibility: negotiators will have to be flexible on means and firm on goals. B) be sensitive to various social cues about the other negotiator, although this does not necessarily mean that they have to react to that. C) inventiveness is important: an effective negotiator has to be creative. D) a negotiator has to be patient and should not react right away. E) the negotiator should be tenacious; persistence is important.
  25. 25. According to Mastenbroek ( 2002) effective negotiator has to:  realize his own interests;  influence the power balance; promote a constructive climate; and  obtain flexibility.
  26. 26. • Mastenbroek noted that the most successful actors were those who worked on the relationship with the other side empathy (understand and share the feeling of others) but not sympathy (favorable attitude) – using the process for generating new options and thereby ‘enlarging the cake’, while at the same time being determined to get what they wanted by using their power and influence in a civilized way
  27. 27. • Lee Ross ( 2008 ) identifies three significant barriers to successful negotiations: structural, strategic, and psychological. 1) Structural barriers : domestic audience costs and spoilers. 1.1. Audience costs- are those an actor “pays” when displeasing some of its constituents 1.2. Spoilers- are actors who disrupt the peace process among negotiators.
  28. 28. 2) Strategic barriers include negotiating tactics such as :  bluffing(Mislead/deceive ) and  secrecy. 3) psychological barriers include differing conceptions of the past and reactive devaluation- that actors will devalue proposals simply because they were offered by an adversary that is not trusted
  29. 29. iii) Relational approach  Focus on the interactive effects of diplomacy Pruitt six conditions for building ‘working relationships’. 1) rationality. One should be rational, even if the other party acts emotionally. 2) understand the other party, even if they do not understand us.
  30. 30. 3) communicate with them and consult them, even if they are not listening. 4) be honest and trustworthy, even if the other party tries to deceive you. 5) persuade them and do not go along with them if they want to coerce. 6) be open to learning from the other party and care about them, even if they reject your concerns
  31. 31. obstacles to efficiently reaching a negotiated outcome: a) objective choice is difficult if not impossible, and even if the parties choose the best path, they might be hindered in following it; b) there is normally more than one criterion for choice; and c) there are process-generated stakes, meaning that negotiators are not robots, but have an interest in keeping up appearances, and that interest might override the material interests for which they are striving
  32. 32. In general Negotiation was seen as an instrument to be used in situations where competition and cooperation are both immanent. • If competition is dominant, distributive negotiation(win-lose) can be expected; • where cooperation is the dominating mode(win- win), integrative negotiation can be implemented
  33. 33.  despite these approaches , the practice of diplomacy however involves the admixture of soft power and hard power showing the significance of power difference among the states Carrot and stick Bargaining strategy • It is the heart of the negotiation process: the phase of compromising and compensating, of trading concessions and emotions 1) The stick approach: Threats(hypothetical) and punishment(action-real) 2) The carrot approach: promise(hypothetical) and rewards(real) Both 1& 2 can be used in combination
  34. 34.  N.B credibility and potency are ingredients for the success of the bargaining process. Credibility-state ‘A’ can intend fully to honor a promise or to carry out a threat on state ‘B’. Potency- in order for state ‘A’ to influence state ‘B’ , a promise or threat by state ‘A’ must be believable and sufficiently weighty in the eyes of the leader;  promises and threats that are credible but lack potency are likely to fail. Similarly promises and threats that might be potent but lack credibility are likely to fail.
  35. 35.  Bluffing can also be used.  Leaders can be bluffing in their promises or threat, but what matters a is whether the target state is convinced. ‘A bluff taken seriously is more useful than a serious threat (or promise) interpreted as bluff” Henry Kissinger
  36. 36. Coercive Diplomacy(CD) What is it?  It is a diplomatic method used by a country in which the application of economic sanctions or embargoes (stoppage), as well as the use of force or military action, is threatened or hinted at in order to force another country to give in to a certain demand or not engage in a particular course of action(Perez, 2015, p.1) Economic sanctions :  Embargo- refusing to export needed goods  boycotts –refusing to import  freezing of foreign assets(expropriation )
  37. 37.  CD has been utilized throughout history as a tool of foreign policy to present a peaceful alternative and means to curtail military intervention or escalation to warfare. reinforced the traditional mechanism of carrot and stick approach to diplomacy According to Mitchel, A framework limited to “carrots and sticks” :  ignores recent theoretical developments highlighting the role that capacity, ideas, and norms play in state decision making.  it also constrains creative, systematic design of untried—but potentially effective— nonproliferation policies
  38. 38. • Accordingly a more ‘coercive ’ mechanism of carr and stick-Coercive Diplomacy(CD) has gotten wi currency among scholars and practitioners with t view of curving the 21st challenges pertaining to a) the Regulation of proliferation of Nuclear Ener and b) prevalence of ‘ rogue’-irresponsible states -wh try to possess Nuclear power or any Weapons o Mass Destruction(WMD)
  39. 39. Mitchell, Ronald B.(1997) ‘ international Control of Nuclear proliferation : Beyond Carrot and Stick’ has identified a bundled strategies of CD 1) deterrent and remunerative(give services) strategies o sticks and carrots—manipulate the consequences a potential proliferant faces in an attempt to make desirable behavior more attractive or undesirable behavior less attractive;
  40. 40. Deterrents strategies involve :  sanctions, threats, coercion, and other efforts to discourage undesirable behavior by increasing its costs.  Calls for “treaties with teeth” and for better monitoring, verification, and enforcement Remunerative strategies:  Side payments or rewards
  41. 41. 2) preventive and generative strategies o reduce a potential proliferant’s opportunities for undesirable behavior or increase the opportunities for desirable behavior Generative strategies o Supplying Nuclear Energy for civilian purpose under strict conditions could in away deny the usage of the material for military purpose
  42. 42. Preventive strategies o Preventive strategies seek to eliminate the choice of noncompliance as an option rather than simply making it less attractive 3) Cognitive and Normative strategies o alter the potential proliferant’s perception of a given reality, either by altering the information would be proliferants have or the value that they attach to certain behaviors and consequences.
  43. 43. Bruce Jentleson in ‘Coercive Diplomacy: scope and limits in the Contemporary World’ applied coercive diplomacy to explain the successes of US foreign policy over Libya during M/Qadaffi. He argues that Libya`s peaceful surrender to eliminate WMD and permission to provide compensation for the Lockerbie incident is the result of the new Coercive Diplomatic style
  44. 44. Background • US-Libya had rows since 1988 Pan AM 103- Lockerbie case (in which 259 people including 189 Americans lost their lives ; • Such relations was further strained by the ambition of Muamur Gadhafi to acquire weapon of Mass Destruction( WMD). • Libya then agreed to eliminate WMD and offer compensation to the Accident. • What was the reason for Libya to surrender to US?
  45. 45. Jentleson argues that Libya`s peaceful surrender to eliminate WMD and permission to provide compensation for the Lockerbie incident is the result of the new coercive diplomatic style that combined the following three strategies; 1) Proportionality: making the objective policy – rather than regime change ; the policy –not-regime change reassurance provided though the secret talks and other channels was critical
  46. 46. 2) Reciprocity : involves carefully calibrated carrot and stick diplomacy establishing step by step linkages b/n the carrot offered and the concession made and building trust after decades of bitter conflicts 3) Corrosive credibility : came from multilateral economic sanctions and to some extent , although much less than claimed by the Bush administration, the backdrop of military force,
  47. 47.  The Vice Presidents of America, Dick Cheney’ was reported to have said the following: this was one of the bi product of …what we did in Iraq and Afghanistan…..five days after we captured Saddam Hussein , Muammar Qaddafi came forward and announced that he was going to surrender all of his nuclear materials to the U.S( Jentleson,2006,P.2)
  48. 48. Propaganda It involves the selective use of information to induce in a target audience a desired perception of certain political phenomena The information selected may be either factual or fabricated ( often it is a chemistry of fabrications+ factual(F+F)=P)  Repetition and sensationalism is ch/stics of successful propaganda Example USA , use human right to china
  49. 49. • Falsified documents, photographs, films became powerful media of prop • Carefully designed fabricated disinformation will be provided by propaganda machines • the overall objectives is the defeat of the opponents; • aims at the overthrow of the opponent often by aiming at fomenting (stir up) a rebellion or other transformation in domestic political arrangements;
  50. 50. • couched in this language explicitly adopt a conflict mode “if the object of war, either overt or covert, is the breaking of the enemy’s will to resist, then psychological warfare is a major dimension of international conflict “ ( Couloumbis and Wolf, 1981,p.139) Tore kefetaw, were ye fetaw! Ethiopian proverb.
  51. 51. ?? In which system , dictatorial or democratic regime, propaganda becomes successful? Why?
  52. 52. Public diplomacy  It about image cultivation about ones state to wards the other societies • Public Diplomacy exist to create an image of the nation in the minds of foreigners a positive image will make foreigners want to support our policies, visit (or emigrate) to our country, invest in our industries or buy our goods and services • Critical scholars have attacked nation branding for the way that it imposes uniformity on diversity (Jansen 2008, Kaneva, 2011).
  53. 53.  What is the difference b/n propaganda and PD? Is it like an old wine with new bottle? My answer No, because pd is by the consent of two countries and it is not by false information. Pd is not targeted on defeating the other state. But propaganda is targeted on defeating opponents and applies false information to deceive the population of the opponent state . Plus to this propaganda not based on the deliberation of states ( it is based on the will of the state used it). And I think that, PD my not on the basis of wine lose approach. In case of propaganda one state may be the winner and the other my be the loser.
  54. 54.  The actor/institution unlike the propaganda apparatus, non state actors serve the purpose;  Non political and non economic issues such as culture , music+ sport could be used;  PD for cultural relations Cultural relations work will lead to growing mutual understanding and appreciation the co existence of the different cultures will enrich the human experience (Parkinson, 1977)
  55. 55. The Three layers of Public diplomacy effective public diplomacy requires that state and private actors communicate with the people of other nations by moving from Monologue to Dialogue and Collaboration 1) Monologue (i.e., one-way) communication: Diplomats have long recognized the singular role of public pronouncements and other forms of monologue designed for mass audiences in other countries, using one-way communication forms and outlets that are inherently self-contained;
  56. 56.  monologues take many forms. Speeches; editorials; proclamations; press releases; and cultural works such as movies, books, poetry, and works of visual art are all typically one-way, closed-container forms of communication. In today's world, monologue is an essential advocacy tool that public diplomacy practitioners can and must use to raise awareness about their country's policies, identities, or values, deliberate advocacy is only a small component of the messages flowing across borders
  57. 57. 2) Dialogue • dialogue refers to myriad situations in which ideas and information are exchanged an communication is reciprocal and multidirectional. There are multiple forms and multiple levels of dialogue. Ideas and information can be exchanged: in formal summits attended by elites; in academic or professional conferences;  in call-in talk shows; on interactive Web sites; and through citizen participation in cross-cultural sports, cinema
  58. 58. • number of public diplomacy scholars and practitioners have called for increased cross- national dialogue/ "conversation of cultures" (Lynch, 2000; Blaney and Inayatullah, 1994). • While dialogue between cultures is an admirable goal, it begins with dialogue between individuals, whether they are representatives of governments or private citizens meeting in a hotel conference room or in an online chat room. • These dialogic relationships provide the building block through which broader dialogue between civilization can evolve.
  59. 59. • Dialogue has the power to transform the Conflict situations both in intra and inter state nature. • technology had made it easier to incorporate call- in talk show programs on radio and television, the Voice of America announced its intention to move from "monologue to dialogue." • It did so based on the hypothesis that people tend to listen more closely and to be more receptive when their questions are being addressed and their comments heard, and when they believe that they, or people like them, are a part of the conversation
  60. 60. 3) Collaboration collaboration as a form of public diplomacy refers to initiatives in which participants from different nations participate in a project together; • Collaborative projects almost without exception include dialogue between participants and stakeholders, but they also include concrete and typically easily identifiable goals and outcomes that provide a useful basis and structure upon which to form more lasting relationships.
  61. 61. • Superordinate goals coined by Muzafer Sherif(1958), refer to "goals that are compelling and highly appealing to members of two or more groups in conflict but cannot be attained by the resources and energies of groups separately" (pp. 349-50). • In a study of conflict resolution among children, Sherif found that cooperative projects were critical in facilitating reconciliation. • Citing a number of successful collaborative endeavors, Stephen Ryan (2007) similarly argued that superordinate goals are a critical method of creating a new playing field in which trust and understanding can be fostered across social fractures
  62. 62. • For example, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) launched the Action for Cooperation and Trust, which brings together Greek and Turkish Cypriotes from both sides of the Green Line to work on common projects that benefit the island as a whole. • In Lebanon, the Unity through Sports program brings together youths across religious lines to play side by side in sporting events. • Different Drums, a program in Northern Ireland, connects Catholic and Protestant musicians who play together while "still marching to the beat of different drums."