2. Yeast Bread Basics
■ All yeast breads must
contain flour, liquid, salt,
■ Many recipes also
include sugar, fat and
3. ■ You can use all-purpose flour for making
yeast breads. However, many yeast bread
recipes call for bread flour. Bread flour
contains more gluten than all-purpose flour.
■ When mixed with liquid and kneaded, the
flour develops gluten which supports the
carbon dioxide produced by the yeast.
4. Liquids in Yeast Breads
■ You can use plain water, potato water, or milk as the
liquid in yeast breads. You must warm all liquids to
activate the yeast.
■ Milk adds nutrients to bread and helps bread stay
fresher longer. It also gives bread a softer crust.
■ Some yeast bread recipes state that you should scald
the milk. This step is unnecessary if you are using
pasteurized milk.(Unpasteurized milk contains
enzymes that can cause doughs to soften during
■ If you will be dissolving the yeast in water, heat the
liquids to 105°-115°.
■ If you are combining yeast with other dry ingredients,
heat the liquids to 120°-130°.
■ Temperatures that are too high will kill the yeast cells.
Temperatures that are too low can slow or stop
■ When preparing bread in a bread machine, liquids
should be at room temperature (75°-85°)
6. Salt in Yeast Breads
■ Salt regulates the action
of the yeast and inhibits
the action of certain
enzymes in the flour.
■ Without salt, a yeast
dough is sticky and
hard to handle.
■ Yeast leavens bread. Use the amount of
yeast specified in the recipe. Using too much
yeast will cause the dough to rise too quickly.
■ Temperatures affect yeast cells.
Temperatures that are too high will kill the
yeast, temperatures that are too low will slow
down or stop yeast activity.
8. Types of Yeast
■ Fresh Yeast-also called
compressed yeast. Usually
purchased in 1 lb. Cakes.
Active Dry Yeast-dry,
granular form of yeast. Must
be rehydrated in warm water
■ Instant Yeast-also a dry
granular form of yeast, does
not have to be dissolved in
water before use. Also
called rapid rise or quick rise
9. Other Ingredients
Sugar-provides extra food for
the yeast so the dough will rise
faster. If too much sugar is
used, the dough will actually rise
Sugar also influences browning,
flavor and texture.
Eggs-add flavor and richness to
They also add color and
improve the structure.
Other ingredients can be
added such as raisins, nuts,
cheese, herbs, and spices.
These ingredients add flavor
and variety, but they may also
increase the rising time.
•Most recipes call for solid fat,
such as shortening, butter or
margarine. Some recipes call
for oil.Use the type specified
in the recipe.
10. Steps in Yeast Bread Production
1. Mise en place (scale
11. Steps in Yeast Bread Production
7. Benching-allow the dough to rest before
8. Makeup and panning
13. Traditional Method
■ Soften the yeast in warm
Add the sugar, fat, and salt to
the milk. The milk should be
room temperature to
Combine the yeast with the
liquid mixture, and add some
of the flour . Beat the mixture
until smooth. Add the
remaining flour gradually to
form a dough.
You can also use the traditional
method to prepare refrigerator
yeast breads. These breads
often call for extra yeast, sugar
and salt. Mix and knead the
dough and place in a covered
bowl in the refrigerator. Shape
the dough and bake it the next
day. The is sometimes called the
14. Mixer Method
This method works well with active dry or fast rising yeast. It also
allows ingredients to blend easily and eliminates softening the
■ Mix the yeast with some of the flour and all of the other
■ Heat the liquid and fat together to a temperature of 120°-
130°F, and add to the dry ingredients with an electric
■ Add eggs, if required, and add the remaining flour to form
■ Using the mixer helps develop the gluten and shortens
the kneading time.
15. Batter Method
■ Uses less flour, so the yeast mixture is
thinner than a dough.
■ Vigorous stirring, rather than kneading helps
develop the gluten.
■ If the recipe requires two risings, rise first in
the mixing bowl, then spread the batter in the
baking pan for the second rising.
16. Food Science Principles of Preparing Yeast
■ Preparing yeast breads requires the development of
gluten and the formation of carbon dioxide.
■ The gluten develops during mixing and kneading.
■ The gluten will form the framework of the bread and
hold the carbon dioxide produced by the yeast during
■ The yeast will produce carbon dioxide which will give
volume to the bread.
■ Although some of the gluten develops during
mixing, kneading develops most of the gluten.
■ To knead means to press the dough with the
heel of the hands, fold it, and turn it.
18. ■ You must knead yeast dough until smooth and
■ It is important not to add too much flour during
kneading. Too much flour will make the dough
■ Do not be too rough with the dough. Too much
pressure at the beginning of kneading can keep
the dough sticky and hard to handle. Too much
pressure at the end of kneading can tear or mat
the gluten strands that have developed.
19. Kneading the Dough
The dough has been
kneaded enough when it
passes the windowpane test.
To perform the windowpane
test, cut off a small piece of
dough from the batch and
gently stretch, pull and turn it
to see if it will hold a paper-
thin translucent membrane.
If the dough falls apart
before it makes the
mixing or kneading for
another minute or two and
■ After kneading a yeast dough, you must allow it to
rest in a warm place. During the rest time, the yeast
acts upon the sugars in the bread dough to form
alcohol and carbon dioxide. This is called
■ The alcohol evaporates during baking, the carbon
dioxide causes the bread to rise.
21. ■ The dough should double in volume.
■ To test to see if the dough has doubled, press
two fingers into the dough, if an indentation
remains, the dough has risen enough.
22. ■ Fermentation time varies depending on the kind
and amount of yeast, the temperature of the
room, and the kind of flour.
■ The room temperature for fermentation should
be 80°-85° F.
■ If the kitchen is not warm enough, place the
dough on a wire rack over another bowl filled
with warm water.
23. Punching the Dough
■ When the dough has completed
rising, you must punch it down
to release some of the carbon
Punch dough down by firmly
pushing a fist into the dough.
Fold the edges of the dough
toward the center, and turn the
dough over so that the smooth
side is on top.
At this point, some doughs
require a second rising time.
■ After punching the dough down, use a sharp
knife to divide it into portions as the recipe
directs. Allow the divided dough to rest 10
minutes. After resting, the dough is easier to
■ Allow the dough to rise again after shaping.
25. ■ To shape dough, first flatten dough into a
■ The width of the dough should be about the
length of the bread pan.
■ Use a rolling pin to help you work out any large
■ Cover the shaped dough and allow to rise in a
warm, draft free place until they have doubled
■ Baking times and temperatures vary depending upon
the kind of dough and size of the loaf.
■ Place most yeast breads in a hot oven to begin baking.
■ During baking, the gas cells expand. The walls of
dough around these cells set and become rigid.
■ During the first few minutes of baking, the dough will
rise dramatically-this is called oven spring.
28. ■ Shortly after oven spring occurs, you may
reduce the oven temperature so the bread
finishes baking in a moderately hot oven. This
■ After baking, immediately remove the bread
from the pans and place it on cooling racks.
Cool thoroughly before slicing and storing.
29. Characteristics of Yeast Breads
■ A high-quality loaf has a large volume, and a smooth,
rounded top. The surface is golden brown.
■ When sliced, the texture is fine and uniform. The
crumb is tender and elastic, and it springs back when
■ If a yeast dough has been under or over worked, the
finished product will have a low volume. (The carbon
dioxide has leaked out of the dough.)
30. ■ If you allow bread to rise for too long before
baking, it may have large, over-expanded cells.
The top of the loaf may be sunken with over-
hanging sides. The texture may be coarse, and
■ Bread that has not been allowed to rise long
enough before baking may have large cracks
on the side of the loaf, and the texture will be
31. Time Saving Yeast Bread Techniques
■ Cool-Rise Doughs
■ Prepared from recipes that are specially
designed to rise slowly in the refrigerator. Mix
the ingredients and knead the dough, then
after a brief rest, you shape the dough and
place it in a pan. Cover and refrigerate. The
dough will rise and be ready to bake 2-24
32. ■ Refrigerator Doughs
■ Prepared from recipes that are specially
designed to rise slowly in the refrigerator.
■ Often uses the batter method.
■ Shaped after refrigeration.
■ Dough can remain in the refrigerator for 2-24
hours. Then you shape the dough, let it rise and
33. ■ Freezer Doughs
■ Recipes allow you to mix and knead the dough.
Then you can freeze the dough before or after
■ Store the dough in the freezer for up to one
month. When you are ready to eat it, thaw,
shape if necessary, let rise and bake.
34. Bread Machines
■ Fastest, easiest way to produce homemade bread.
■ Each machine model behaves differently.
■ Carefully follow the manufacturers directions.
■ You can check the texture of the dough by opening
the machine’s lid partway through the first knead
cycle. The dough should form a soft ball that is
somewhat sticky to the touch.
35. ■ If the dough is too moist, the loaf will collapse
■ To correct, add 1 Tablespoon of bread flour at a
■ Weather conditions have an effect on dough
prepared in a bread machine.
36. Microwaving Yeast Breads
■ You can defrost frozen bread dough in the
■ You can also raise and bake yeast bread in
■ Bread baked in the microwave will lack the
crisp, brown crust of a conventionally baked
37. Defrosting Frozen Bread Dough
■ Step 1: Microwave 1 cup water for 3-5 minutes on
HIGH, until boiling.
■ Place the frozen bread dough in a greased,
microwavable loaf pan.
■ Microwave on the defrost setting for 3 min.
■ Turn dough over and rotate the pan.
■ Microwave on defrost for another 3 min. , until the
dough is soft to touch. Allow the dough to stand for 5
min. until pliable.
38. Raising Dough in the Microwave
■ Place dough in a greased bowl, turning to
grease on all sides.
■ Cover the bowl with waxed paper and place it
in the microwave with a dish of warm water.
■ Microwave on low power for 1 min. Let the
dough stand for 15 min. Rotate the dish ¼
turn. Repeat this step until the dough is
40. Other Types of Yeast Breads
■ Challah-the traditional
bread for Jewish
Celebrations. Rich with
eggs and flavored with
honey, it is braided into
oval loaves and topped
with poppy or sesame
41. Other Types of Yeast Breads
■ Croissants-fat is
incorporated through a
process of rolling and
42. Other Types of Yeast Breads
■ Brioche-a rich, tender
bread made with lots of
eggs and butter. It can
be a difficult dough to
work with. It is
traditionally made in
fluted pans and has a
topknot of dough
43. Other Types of Yeast Breads
■ The New Orleans tradition,
began in the 1870s, borrows
heavily from European
customs. As part of the
celebration of Mardi Gras, it is
traditional to bake an oval
cake in honor of the three
kings - the King Cake. The
shape of a King Cake
symbolizes the unity of faiths.
Each cake is decorated in the
traditional Mardi Gras colors:
purple represents justice,
green represents faith and
gold represents power. A
small baby, symbolizing the
baby Jesus, is baked into