measurement temperature industrial flow meters quantity flow meter mass flow meter laser level sensor engineering electrical pressure transducer temperature measurement open channel flow meter definition positive displacement flow meter venturi meter bernoulli's equation elastic pressure transducer dispersion introduction bio medical instrumentation rotameter orifice plate weir pitot tube flume reynolds number lvdt bjt rectifiers electrical engineering mems rheometer magnetic flow meter thermal flow meter turbine flow meter ultrasonic level measurement electrical method of level measurement indirect method of level measurement laser based level measurement strain gauge active transducers passive transducers sensors units of measurement optical fibre led types of laser non newtonian fluid newtonian fluid spectrometry mcq dynamic characteristics of turn of switching thyristor protection static characteristics axioms of information source coding polarizable electrode half cell potential nernst equation basic components of ms scattering spectroscopy variable area meter target meter flow nozzle elbow tap annubar tube dall tube calibration method for liquid flow meter factors affecting flow measurement coanda effect eddy current level measurement system hydraulic pressure type reluctance pressure transducers strain gauge pressure transducers dead weight piston gauge solid state temperature measurement rtd peltier effect seebeck effect thermocouple quartz crystal ionization gauge pirani gauge ring balance manometer radiometry photon theory photometry mosfet gto choppers igbt technology actuators energy substrate instrumentation engineering block diagram mechanical engineering electronics engineering interdisciplinary studies physician specialization doctor medicine ringing resonant frequency reactance q meter q factor oscillation ohase noise numerical representation of q factor interpretation of q factor values general spurious signals effects of q factor damping ratio damping factor components of q meter circuit diagram of q meter bandwidth capacitor banks phase advances improvement of power factor causes of low power factor output conditions of power factor meter schematic diagram of power factor meter working principle of power factor meter power factor meter volt-ampere reactive power actual power current voltage phase angle phase difference lagging phase leading phase lagging leading power factor schematic representation of megger working principle of megger construction og megger components of electronic megger components of handheld megger applications of megger pros and cons of handheld megger pros and cons of electronic megger handheld megger electronic type megger megger types megger insulation resistance resistance insulation cell constant mho conductivity conductance thermodynamic reaction quotient silver chloride mercurous chloride ag-agcl hg-hgcl glass electrode standard electrode reference electrode logarithmic scale ph dielectric constant optical hygrometer gravimetric hygrometer thermal hygrometer crystal hygrometer capacitive hygrometer resistive hygrometer hygrometer psychrometry wet bulb temperature dry bulb temperature dew point absolute humidity relative humidity rh flow through capillary viscometer vroc vibrational viscometer zahn cup redwood viscometer sybolt viscometer torque kinematic viscosity dynamic viscosity stokes centipoise poise shearing rate shearing stress viscous coefficient definition of viscosity viscosity ultrasonic flowmeter coriolis effect variable head flow measurement force balancing method measuring vacuum methid piezoelectric pressure gauge capacitive pressure gauge mc leod gauge diaphragm bourdon tube manometer method for pressure pressure measuring method definition of pressure optical based method for level measurement liquid purge method air bellow direct method of level measurement radiation method capacitance method air purge method pressure gauge method displacer indicator level measurement pyrometer cold junction compensation pt 100 thermistor resistance thermometer photoelectric effect thermoelectric effect triple point law of heterogeneous temperature law of intermediate metal law of homogeneous material thompson effect electronic measurement electronics piezoelectric full bridge half bridge quarter bridge strain gauge press transducer transduction gauge factor thin film strain gauge rosette rosette strain gauge semiconductor strain gauge unbonded strain gauge bonded strain gauge rotary potentiometer linear potentiometer potentiometer load cell skew ray raman scattering brillouin scattering mode coupling rayleigh scattering extrinsic material absorption intrinsic material absorption fundamental ir absorption uv absorption modal dispersion material dispersion waveguide dispersion non-linear losses radiation losses scattering losses material absorption attenuation coefficient optical fibre losses mutual inductance self-inductance active sensors passive sensors inductive transducers resistive transducers capacitive transducers transducers si units of photometric parameters numerical expression of power conversion to lux common photometric units area coverage due to photometric conversion converting to photometric units lambertian surface projected solid angle solid surface solid angle photometric qunatities radiometry quantities em power em spectrum zero order instrument working standard traceability static error secondary standard second order instrument random error primary standard measurement system international standards of units instrument error hysteresis gross error first order instrument errors quiz gandhi quiz quit india movement civil disobedience movement non cooperation movement kheda movement khilafat movement champaran movement dandi march quit india civil disobedience non-violence non-cooperation gandhi mahatma gandhism gandhian working principle of double beam filter photometer working principle of single beam filter photometer difference between spectrophotometer and colorimet experimental steps of double beam filter photomete experimental steps of single beam filter photomete double beam filter photometer single beam filter photometer characteristics of a good photometer types fo photometer standard photometer advantages and disadvantages of colorimeter pros and cons of colorimeter parts of colorimeter colorimeter equipment diagram colorimeter schematic diagram colorimeter theory colorimeter definition x-ray uv-vis basic components of spectroscopic instruments photon as signal source signal source spectrophotometry atomic fluorescence scattering spectroscopy emission spectroscopy absorption spectroscopy atomic transitions classification of spectroscopy fiber types optica fiber communication phenomenon wave guide waveguide calculation numerical aperture total internal reflection silica optical fiber types optical fiber manufacture optical fiber construction avalanche photo diode pin light detectors ild optical fiber architecture optical fibre light sources pros and cons of optical fibres optical fiber communication system optical fiber diffused homojunctions double confinement single confinement heterojunctions homojunctions energy k-plot applications of led disadvantages of led advantages of led led efficiency led materials led device structure led structure light extracting process indirect recombination direct recombination types of recombination of carriers light generation process basic theory beam splitter sagnac efffect applications of interferometer fabry perot interferometer sagnac interferometer michelson interferometer mach zahnder interferometer physical principles of interferometers definition of interferometer interferometer determination of wavelength fresnel's biprism newton's ring thickness of film thin film interference ydse young's double slit interference fringe pattern dark fringe bright fringe fringe width destructive interference constructive interference coherent sources division of amplitude division of wavefront types of interference classes of interference conditions of interference advantages and disadvantages of different types of applications of different types of lasers semiconductor laser carbon dioxide laser he-ne laser ruby laser nd-yag laser laser principle of laser operation applications of laser pumping lasing einstein's coefficient population inversion stimulated emission spontaneous emission absorption hagan-poiseuille turbulent flow laminar flow velocity type flow meter differential pressure holographic recording photopolymers dichromate gelatins silver-halide emulsions object beam reference beam wavefront reconstruction working principle of holography multi channel holography integral holography embossed holography computer generated holography hybrid holography transmission holography reflection holography spatial light modulator slm hologram definition of holography holography crossed polarizers birefringent materials birefringence dichroism optical rotation polarization by refraction polarization by reflection circular polarization brewsters' angle degree of polarization malu's law polarization of light fresnel geometry far field diffraction near field diffraction fraunhofer diffraction at circular aperture fraunhofer diffraction at double slit difference between fraunhofer and fresnel diffract fraunhofer diffraction at single slit rayleigh's criterion diffraction grating double slit interface resolvance resolving power of diffraction first order diffraction fresnel number fresnel diffraction fraunhofer diffraction diffraction grating diffraction due to narrow slit bragg's law difraction wave theory of light luminous intensity candela flux luminance illuminance radiant intensity irradiance spectral radiance emittance radiant flux physical optics geometric optics em theory of light corpuscular theory of light theories of light light optics surgery operations treatment neurofibromatisis tumuors electrodessication chromatography analytical instrumentation tomography power electronics application devices application devices ups smps 12 pulse rectifiers 6 pulse rectifiers center tapped rectifiers centre tapped rectifiers bridge rectifiers 1 phase rectifiers 3 phase rectifiers phase controlled rectifiers centre tapped rectifier bridge rectifier full wave rectifier half wave rectifier 3 phase rectifier single phase rectifier diode rectifiers diode buck boost chopper boost chopper buck choopper class b chopper class a chopper triac diac insulated gate bipolar transistor igct bipolar junction transistor v - i characteristics of power diodes fast recovery diode shockley diode schottky diode zener diode types of diodes ideal characteristics of a power device comparison between ideal and practical switches diode law shockley equation semiconductor devices symbols power devices conductor rating power devices multiple choice questions class f commutation class e commutation class d commutation class c commutation class b commutation class a commutation natural commutation forced commutation commutation scrum voltage rating of scr thuristor rating selection of fuse for scr snubber circuit crowbar circuit protection techniques in scr types of gate triggering thyristor turn on methods two transistor model v - i characteristics four modes of operation effect of gate current types of thyristors ideal switch scr characteristics thyristor structure symbol and construction of scr mean absolute percentage error rmse residuals mad mãe absolute error mean absolute error standard deviation variance spread percentage error of estimate mape mse coefficient of dispersion variability mean absolute deviation mean square error root mean square error error detection techniques linear block code overview of error control coding technique bit rate code weight channel coding code efficiency types of error control error correcting techniques classification of codes error correction classification of errors drawbacks of coding techniques types of errors definition of code rate data compression types of linear block code information source capacity of additive gaussian noise joint entropy shannon - hartley law conditional entropy logarithmic measurement of information information information theory types of channels information rate average information entropy proof of shannon hartley law information content of a discrete memoryless syste channel capacity information content of a symbol mutual information discrete memeryless channel activation overpotential action potential concentration overpotential overpotential propagation of action potential properties of bio electrode polarization synaptic transmission resting potential motion atrefact bio electrode ohmic overpotential perfectly polarizable electrode types of bio electrode electrode - skin interface bio potential applications o bio electrodes ion detectors electron multiplier tube emt high resolution ms mass analyzers microchannel plate applications of ms icp faraday cup channeltron types of ms ms ionization method introduction to ms demerits of ms basic principle of ms daly detector merits of ms inductively coupled plasma isotopes working principle of ms quantitative analysis main components of gc working principle of gc chromatographic classification gc instrumentation stationery phase tcd mobile phase ovens aed gc modes of separation basic terms related to gc definition of gc fpd ecd qualitative analysis introduction to gc fid detectors involved in gc columns monochromators derivation of beer lambert law radiation sources introduction to analytical instrumentation limitations of beer lambert law beer lambert law beer law lambert law atomic emission optical filters prerequisites of beer lambert law atomic absorption deviations of beer lambert law selection methods of analytical instruments classification of bio medical instruments sources of bio medical signals physiological systems of the human boby man - instrument interface basic objective of bio medical instrumentation measurements medical instrumentation constraints of medical instrumentation circulatory system reciprocating piston diaphragm pump oscillating piston oval gear nutating disk metering pump lobed impeller linear resistance element flow meter coriolis flow meter variable reluctance tacho generator peristaltic piston rotating vane cylinder flow meter vortex shedding vortex meter thermal meter magnetic meter piston type flow meter ultrasonic flow meter turbine meter doppler flow meter swirl meter comparison between orifice and venturi meters coriolis efect fluid type selection of flowmeters basic requirements for flow measurement unit of flow quantities involved in flow measurement types of flow calibration methods for gas flow meters methods of liquid level measurement indirect measurement vibrating fork ultrasonic level detector microwave level switch optical level detector direct measurement electrical method selection of level measurement devices buffer solution measurement of ph calomel reference electrode buffer calibration electrode types process effects on the glass ph electrode what is ph? application of ph meters merits and demerits of ph meters nernst’s equation hg - hgcl reference electrode process effects on reference electrodes bell type pressure gauge capacitive pressure transducers potentiometric pressure transducers electrical pressure transducers force balancing pressure gauge piezo electric pressure transducers servo pressure transducers linear variable differential transformers thermister ultrasonic temperature measurement optical temperature measurement thomson effect expansion thermometer fahrenheit filled system thermometer celsius units of temperature mcleod gauge hot cathode tube absolute pressure units of pressure manometer vacuum pressure gauge pressure high pressure barometer inclined manometer low pressure electromagnetic theory optometry maxwell theory dual theory corpuscular theory voltage regulators power electronics ujt inverters cycloconverters thyristors instrumentation introduction
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