2. Table Of Contents
WHAT IS A POLICY
PUBLIC ISSUES ON WHICH POLICIES USUALLY MADE
TYPES OF PUBLIC POLICY
MAKING POLICY: POLICY FORMULATION AND ADOPTION
HOW A PUBLIC POLICY IS ADOPTED
HOW PUBLIC POLICIES WORK?
A political party is developed on an agenda , and every
political party has its own motto or agenda .
They work on certain policies.
They deliver their role in regulating the government , by
convincing people that this is a problem and the present
government needs to do this or that.
what they do?
they make Policies.
5. WHAT IS A POLICY?
A policy is an official position on an issue or
a plan of action that is intended to achieve certain results.
It is a position or plan of action can be taken by:
A government body.
A not-for-profit organization.
6. Public Policy
Public policy refers to governmental
programs, rules, and courses of
Public policies are in statutes,
executive orders, administrative
regulations, judicial rulings, treaties
and executive agreements.
Federal Reserve Board decisions
(monetary policy), and budgets
7. Public Issues On Which Policies Usually Made
Sex and Violence in
the Media and Music
Indecency And The
8. Types of Public Policy
It provide goods and services. This policy include government spending programs that
provide welfare, public education, transportation systems, public safety, or other benefits as
well as tax policies.
These policies are intended to change the behaviour of individuals or organization.
Regulatory policies are usually used where there is broad consensus about what good
behaviour is and what bad behaviour is e.g.
Traffic laws enforced by fines; “sin” taxes on alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and gambling.
It includes a broad range of both redistributive and regulatory policies. Social policy is often
distributive policy insofar as it entails taking resources from one group and providing them to
another groups, or from a general population to a particular population.
9. Making Policy: Policy Formulation and Adoption
The process of putting the problem on the government agenda for action is called
The Political Parties do this , by their campaign strategies like by providing
awareness to the public that this is the problem from which people are suffering and
present government is not doing this or that.
This increases the pressure on the in-office government. For example: e.g. Prince’s
Purple Rain music album case.(but this was an unsuccessful issue as law was not
While, talking about all the previous public issues following policies could be
formulated : Health Policy, Environment Policy, Energy Policy
11. How Public Policies work?
Public policy is both an academic discipline and a profession.
The professional association of public policy practitioners, researchers, scholars, and
students is the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management.
The academic discipline of public policy includes a broad range of social science
fields including political science, economics, sociology, and public administration.
A government is responsible for taking action and make policy and implement it.
e.g. If a government decision is not to make a policy for climate change,
health issues , food security . it is then, the responsibility of politics to do efforts and
agree the government to take action .
Andrews, J. C., Burton, S., Gundlach, G. T., Hill, R. P., Kees, J., Netemeyer, R. G., & Walker, K. L. (2021).
What Exactly Is Marketing and Public Policy? Insights for JPPM Researchers. Journal of Public
Policy &Amp; Marketing, 41(1), 10–33. https://doi.org/10.1177/07439156211042018.
Notas do Editor
as the title of presentation is how political parties is developed and their role in government today , so a party has its own agenda e.g. in Pakistan a famous political party named as PPP (Pakistan Peoples Party) is developed on an agenda of (food, cloth and shelter) that’s their agenda of convincing people and a party is made , so it is just a touch to the title . and then in government party apply policies to their agenda and today I am going to discuss two policies which is public and economic policy.
to explain public policy and economic policy , we first need to understand what policy is so according to TimothyOLenzMir_2018_CHAPTER13PublicPolicy_AmericanGovernmenent. this is the policy
The study of public policy includes decision-making (who makes decisions and how they are made), substance (what the official position is), and analysis of impact (implementation and effectiveness)
While talking about media and music regulation Tipper Gore, at that time the wife of Senator Al Gore, bought Prince’s Purple Rain for their daughter mistakenly thinking it was a children’s album
She was offended by the explicit lyrics. In 1985, she testified before Congress that music should be labeled, primarily to protect children from an increasingly coarse culture where sex and violence were more explicit. Worries about explicit lyrics were similar to earlier worries that watching violent television programming caused violent behavior in children.
According to Andrews et al. (2021).
The first stage is individuals, interest groups, or even government officials identify a problem and
put it on the government agenda. The problem might be pollution, taxes, inflation, food or drug safety, crime, terrorism, health care, immigration, bad roads, or bad schools
how much budget could be spend on this
implementation (without implementation , it is just a waste of effort)
and see how it is going
now the question is what is the role of political parties here?
Role of Politics requires convincing people that something is a problem AND that the government should do something about it.
here, politics stand for political parties to force present government to take action and this is one of many ways a political party act in s=and play their role in today’s government