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Product concept and design

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Product concept and design

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Deck I created for IEM 628: Product and Process Design and Development, Master of Science in Industrial Engineering and Management at Polytechnic University of the Philippines.

Topic assigned: Comprehensive Guide to Product Concept and Design
I used JUUL to illustrate the basic concepts of product design.

Last slide includes references used for this deck. Some text in slide 17 are not visible due to animation, sorry about that.

Deck I created for IEM 628: Product and Process Design and Development, Master of Science in Industrial Engineering and Management at Polytechnic University of the Philippines.

Topic assigned: Comprehensive Guide to Product Concept and Design
I used JUUL to illustrate the basic concepts of product design.

Last slide includes references used for this deck. Some text in slide 17 are not visible due to animation, sorry about that.

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Product concept and design

  1. 1. Comprehensive Guide to Product Concepts & Design Ella Quing Elaijah Claireese Quing
  2. 2. Agenda • The Significance of Product Design • The process of Product Design • JUUL & Product Design
  3. 3. It’s Not You. Bad Doors are Everywhere Source: Vox Youtube
  4. 4. Source: Puresolution (Shuttershock)
  5. 5. How do you start to design a product? Source: Rodgers & Milton (2011) Julia Lohmann “I usually start by identifying an area of thought that intrigues me; a question I have been asked or a fundamental one facing our society.” What problems do you commonly have to address? “Can it be made? What should it be made of? How do I source materials? Who can help me make it? What happens with it when it breaks? Can it have another life or function? How can I design out waste? Empathy in design.”
  6. 6. Source: Vox Youtube
  7. 7. Source: Vox Youtube
  8. 8. Product Design Source: Babich (2018) The process of identifying a market opportunity, clearly defining the problem, developing a proper solution for that problem and validating the solution with real users. “Design in its widest sense is about identifying problems and addressing them. Product design concerns itself with the three-dimensional world and our interaction with objects.” Source: Milton & Rodgers (2011) The design process is a series of steps that product teams follow during the formulation of a product from start to finish. It helps you to stay focused and helps you to stay on schedule. Source: Babich (2018)
  9. 9. Design Thinking human-centered approach to innovation that draws from the designer’s toolkit to integrate the needs of people, the possibilities of technology and the requirements for business success. Source: Babich (2018))
  10. 10. Source: Babich (2018)) Keeley Triangle
  11. 11. What is a Product Concept? Prerequisites Organizational Goals “Consumers will prefer products that have better quality, performance, & features.” The understanding of an opportunity that can be capitalized, based on company’s resources + market need To narrow down ideas for new products or enhancements Market Need (Voice of the Customer) Resources (material, skill, tech) Source: Bhasin (2018) Source: Flight (2018) Source: Haines (2014) New concepts come from intensive market analysis, observation, and even structured ideation activities. Source: Haines (2014) “There will always be more ideas than resources to commercialize them.” Haines (2014) Marketing Myopia
  12. 12. Marketing Myopia • When a business focuses on its own goals rather than focusing on the needs & wants of the customers, ignoring the possible opportunities for growth • Companies should understand the basic needs of consumers and conduct regular research to find out how to improve product to retain consumer’s interest. Examples: Kodak vs Sony, Nokia vs Android & iOS, Yahoo! Vs Google Theodore Levitt
  13. 13. Source: Haines (2014) & Babich (2018) Research Ideation Design Testing & Validation Defining the Product Vision & StrategyMainStages Post-launch Activities
  14. 14. Source: Haines (2014) & Babich (2018) Defining the Product Vision & Strategy • Understand its context for existence • Vision = guidelines & direction (why we’re doing this) • Strategy = (how we’re doing this) • Answers what you are not building - Maps out the key aspects of the product: what it is, who it’s for, and when and where it will be used. - Have clear goals, objectives, key results (success criteria) Input Output Value Proposition & Key Results
  15. 15. Source: Haines (2014) & Babich (2018) Research • Conduct insightful research before making any product decisions • User & Market research • Saves time, money, & energy - Allows you to better understand your customers’ needs and the current market. Market research should also allow you to name your direct & indirect competitors. - Identify and validate pain points - Document: Product Innovation Charter Input Output Voice of Customer
  16. 16. Source: Gorchels (2011) Source: Flights (2018) 4 Basic Parts Source: Flights (2018) Product Innovation Charter Define the new product’s objectives Internal document that allows the product concept robust and keep it forward through the development process Background: How was the opportunity identified? Who will be involved? Who is the product aimed at? Focus: What’s the market opportunity we’re looking for? What resource can satisfy the need? How will it meet the ROI? Goals: How will the product concept meet the goals of the organizations? (profit, growth) Guidelines: What are the constraints of the product? AKA: Master Plan, Project Proposal, the brief, Product Design Specification “… mirror into the past, a bookmark for the product as it is currently situated, and as a roadmap to the future.” Source: Haines (2014) Touches on marketing, technical, sales
  17. 17. User Research Interviews Literature review Questionnaires & Surveys Focus Group Discussions Camera Journals Shadowing Personas • series of questions that are posed directly to the participants • structured, unstructured, & semi-structured interviews • good way for users to comment their relationship with product • effective evaluation of selected documents on a particular topic • include a review of published articles and papers, patent searches, a survey of competitors’ products, and an analysis of historical trends and anthropometric data. • Effective way to gather data from a large number of people • Possibility of low responses, unable to probe responses, gestures and other visual cues are potentially lost - Interview that capitalize on the communication between participants in order to generate information. - Uses group interaction as part of the method. - Effective way to generate ideas and develop understanding on particular themes without having to reach consensus. - recording users’ daily activities via a written and photographic diary. - Method for getting users to reveal real insights into their daily patterns of behavior. - Highly effective method for recording visual evidence of how people interact with products, spaces, and systems. - tagging along with people to observe and gain a good understanding of their day- to-day routines; - useful method for identifying potential design opportunities & learning first-hand how users interact with designed products, systems, and services. - Types: fly on the wall, guided tours, a day in the life - archetypal users with specific objectives and needs based on real research - Includes: name, age, gender, interests & hobbies, experience & education, photograph, demographic characteristics, personality details, barrier/challenged, specific goals, needs, & motivation
  18. 18. Source: Milton & Rodgers (2011) Identify customer needs, wants, & demands Translate customer statements into design objectives Rank the customers’ needs into a hierarchy “Recognizing the need is the primary condition for design.” - Charles Eames Establish the relative importance of the customers’ needs Reflect on the results and the process 1 2 3 4
  19. 19. Activity via Chat: What do you think are the challenges of smoking?
  20. 20. Pax Labs Goal: Create a better substitute for cigarettes / vaping Strategy: Use to tech design to create a product that will make smokers switch
  21. 21. User Research “I’ve been trying to quit smoking using alternatives but I miss the nicotine hit from a cigarette” “Vaping is alright but it so inconvenient to use” “I’m afraid to use vaping products, they don’t look easy to use”
  22. 22. Market Research
  23. 23. Customer Needs to Design Objective Adam Bowen & James Monsees A revolutionary way of smoking (major enhancement) Portable Could compare to smoking a cigarette No bulky design/buttons Easy to use User Research No foul smellFunctional Accessible Functional Accessible Aesthetics
  24. 24. Source: Haines (2014) Writing a PIC for JUUL What is the CM’s problem/s? Describe customer type How would opportunity solve CM’s problem? How is opportunity aligned w/ company’s strategy? Who are the competitors? 1
  25. 25. Source: Haines (2014) & Babich (2018) Ideation • Team brainstorm creative ideas that address the project goals.Input Output Viable Solution/s • Sketching, which is very helpful for visualizing what some aspects of the design will look like, to storyboarding, which is used to visualize the overall interactions with a product.
  26. 26. Source: Rodgers & Milton (2011) Concept Generation Methods Scenarios & Storyboards A scenario is a narrative describing a day in the life of a persona, including how a product fits into their life. A user story is a simple description of something that the user wants to accomplish by using a product; helps prevent user creep.
  27. 27. Source: Rodgers & Milton (2011) Concept Generation Methods Brainstorming Brainstorming is a technique used by design teams to generate ideas more rapidly and effectively. 1. State the problem or scenario to be discussed clearly and concisely. 2. Be visual—draw ideas or represent them with whatever is to hand. 3. Number your ideas, and set a target of ideas to be generated. 4. Stay focused on the task. 5. Keep the ideas flowing. 6. Approach the problem from different viewpoints. 7. Defer judgment. 8. Have one conversation at a time. 9. Go for quantity, the more ideas the better. 10. Every idea is valid.
  28. 28. Source: Rodgers & Milton (2011) Concept Generation Methods Attribute Listing Breaking a problem into smaller and smaller parts & looking at alternative solutions 1. Identify the key characteristics, or attributes, of the product or process in question. 2. Think up ways to change, modify, or improve each attribute. 3. Draw these changes and then compare and contrast them with the initial product or process.
  29. 29. Source: Rodgers & Milton (2011) Concept Generation Methods Analogical Thinking The transfer of an idea from one context to another context. • What else is like this? • What have others done? • Where can I find an idea? • What ideas can I modify to fit my problem? Example: Georges de Menstral invented Velcro after noticing plant burrs on his dog’s fur.
  30. 30. Source: Rodgers & Milton (2011) Concept Generation Methods Idea Checklists Guidelines that can encourage you to innovate S – Substitute C – Combine A – Adapt M – Modify P – Put to another use E – Eliminate R – Reverse A – Add something C – Change color T – Try new materials N – New design O – Odd shapes W – Winning sizes
  31. 31. Source: Rodgers & Milton (2011) Concept Generation Methods Lateral Thinking Popularized by leading design thinker Edward De Bono, attempts to change concepts and perceptions by rejecting traditional step-by-step logic. Challenge—Here you challenge the status quo to enable you to explore concepts beyond those parameters. Focus—observe the inadequacies in existing products with the aim of creating better end results. For example, combining notebooks and desktops led to Personal Data Assistants (PDAs). Provocation—In this technique you make some provocative statements using exaggeration, reversal, wishful thinking, and distortion to any given product.
  32. 32. Source: Haines (2014) & Babich (2018) Design • Product team should have a clear understanding of what they want to build • Will begin to create the solution to solve the client’s problem and implement concepts. An experimental model of an idea that enables you to test it before building the full solution. Input Output Prototype
  33. 33. Source: Haines (2014) & Babich (2018) 1.Prototyping Creating a solution that can be reviewed and tested. 2.Reviewing Giving your prototype to users and stakeholders and gathering feedback that helps you understand what’s working well and what isn’t. 3.Refining Based on feedback, identify areas that need to be refined or clarified. The list of refinements will form the scope of work for your next design iteration. Prototype
  34. 34. Paper Prototyping Source: Haines (2014) & Babich (2018)
  35. 35. Source: juul.com PLOOM Adam Bowen & James Monsees’ thesis in Stanford University
  36. 36. Source: Haines (2014) & Babich (2018) Testing & Validation • helps a product team ensure the design concept works as intended • “Eating your own dog food” is a popular technique of testing. • Usability testing, guerrilla testing, dairy study • Do it wrong and you’ll learn nothing. Do it right and you might get incredible, unexpected insights that might even change your product strategy. Input Output Feedback & Insight
  37. 37. “Good design is actually a lot harder to notice […] in part because good designs fit our needs so well that the design is invisible, serving us without drawing attention to itself. Bad design, on the other hand, screams out its inadequacies, making itself very noticeable.” Don Norman The Design of Everyday Things
  38. 38. Source: Haines (2014) & Babich (2018) Post-launch Activities • a product launch doesn’t mean the product design is over • product design is an ongoing process that continues for as long as a product’s in use. The team will learn and improve the product.Input Output UNDERSTAND HOW USERS INTERACT WITH THE PRODUCT
  39. 39. Next steps for JUUL Source: Different Flavors 5% or 3% Nicotine Salts a Bluetooth e-cigarette that tracks how much you vape
  40. 40. Conclusion 1. THE PROCESS SHOULD MORPH TO FIT THE PROJECT 2. PRODUCT DESIGN IS NOT A LINEAR PROCESS 3. PRODUCT DESIGN IS A NEVER-ENDING PROCESS 4. PRODUCT DESIGN IS BASED ON COMMUNICATION design is for people
  41. 41. Source: Vox YoutubeHow JUUL made nicotine viral
  42. 42. Babich, A. N. (2018). A Comprehensive Guide To Product Design. Retrieved from https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2018/01/comprehensive- guide-product-design/ Bhasin, H., Infoshelter, Danesi, I., Wmmalith, Zaina, Ola, A. A., & Badhon. (2019, June 21). What is Marketing Myopia and what does the theory suggest? Retrieved from https://www.marketing91.com/marketing- myopia/ Gorchels, L. (2011). The Product Manager’s Handbook 4E. Ch 6. Retrieved from https://learning.oreilly.com/library/view/the-product- managers/9780071772983/ch06.html#ch06 Haines, S. (2014). The Product Managers Desk Reference 2E. Ch 11. Retrieved from https://learning.oreilly.com/library/view/the-product- managers/9780071824507/ch11.html#ch11 Norman, D. A. (2013). The design of everyday things. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Rodgers, P., & Milton, A. (2011). Product design. London: Laurence King Pub. Retrieved from https://learning.oreilly.com/library/view/product- design/9781856697514/fm01-h1-004.html References
  43. 43. Flight, R. (2018). Product Concept Part 1. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SNu_FSF6Ph4 Vox Media. (2016). It’s not you. Bad doors are everywhere. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yY96hTb8WgI Vox Media. How JUUL made nicotine viral. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AFOpoKBUyok&t =78s Videos

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  • Pain points: lung cancer, smell, teeth stains, addiction

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