Course name: Principles of Aquaculture (FMA2001)
Credit 3 (2+1)
Learning outcomes: Students able to
1. relate history, principles and techniques in aquaculture
2. explain basic biology and economical principles related to
3. analyze problems related to aquaculture
This course covers the history and development of aquaculture,
differences between aquaculture practices, biological and economics
principles in aquaculture. The needs and physicochemical quality of
water is also emphasized.
Test 1 (before week 5) 10%
Test 2/Quiz (before week 9) 10%
Group assignment 10%
Final Exam 40%
1. The definition of aquaculture, mariculture
2. Purpose and importance aquaculture
3. History and development
•The farming of aquatic organisms including fish, mollusks, crustaceans
and aquatic plants. (Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the United Nations)
•Rearing of aquatic organisms under controlled or semi-controlled
conditions. Underwater agriculture.
•The controlled production of aquatic organisms
• Mariculture is a specialized
branch of aquaculture involving
the cultivation of marine
organisms for food and other
products in the open ocean, an
enclosed section of the ocean, or
in tanks, ponds or raceways which
are filled with seawater.
• Human basic needs: food and shelter.
• Collect and hunting.
• Increase population, less food availability.
• Culture plants and animals for food.
• Food surplus, pursue other priorities.
• Foraging and hunting.
• Agriculture and fishing.
• Story from spear and hooks, fishnets to mode of payment and salary,
herring industry, preserved herring, 15th century herring disappear,
commercial fishing, small boats, traps, nets, sailing vessels, larger vessels
and more developed methods.
• Resources depleted
• Develop from fishing practices (trapping > holding > maintain for freshness
• Gunditjmara people raised eels 6000B.C
• 3500 B.C, common carp.
• 475 B.C, documentation for broodstock selection, stocking, managing
• A.D 618-906, polyculture – grow more than one species in the same
• Fish rearing integrated with sugarcane, fruit, forage crops, vegetables
• Egypt: tilapia drawing on tomb. 2000 B.C
• Japan: Farming oyster. 1000 B.C
• India: Fattening fish in pond. 321-300 B.C
• Roman: saltwater and freshwater, fish pond, oysters. 1 B.C
• English and Europe: Artificially fertilize, incubate trout eggs. 11th
• Hawaii: coastal ponds flooded for stocking marine organisms. 500
• Korea: 15th century seaweed culture
• German: Farmer gathered fish eggs, fertilized, grew and raised. 1733
• Started 1920’s, Polyculture in ex-mining pools
• Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis)
• Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)
• Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)
• 1930’s, marine shrimp trapping ponds
• 1940’s, blood cockles (Anadara
• 1950’s, freshwater fish in earthern
• 1970’s, semi-intensive shrimp culture,
green grouper (Epinephelus coioides)
in floating net cage culture
• 1990’s, intensive commercial
Emergence of Aquaculture since 1950s
• Harvest stagnation
• High demand for protein
• Cheapest animal protein
• Fish have highest food conversion rate
• Government: food security, economy, employment opportunity
Status in Malaysia
• Brackish water, freshwater, pond, marine aquaculture
• Majority shellfish & finfish (blood cockles, tiger prawn, whiteleg shirmp,
tilapia, cat fish, carp)
• Government priority area in 1998-2010. Challenges: land acquisition,
production cost, lack skill labour, disease.
• Research priority: Aquaculture as alternative source of fish supply.
• Brackish water aquaculture (70% of total production in 2003)
● Aquaculture contributing 0.2% of Gross domestic product (GDP)
● Successful poverty alleviation program: bivalve molluscs culture at
coastal area, seaweed culture in Sabah, tilapia in earthen ponds,
floating net-cages in lakes and reservoirs.
● Development of marine fisheries & aquaculture under Department
of Fisheries Malaysia (DoF), Fisheries Act 1985.
● Development of freshwater fisheries & aquaculture under Ministry
of Modernisation of Agriculture, Native Land and Regional
Development, State Fisheries Ordinance 2003.
● 7th Malaysia Plan (1996-2000) - Aquaculture as critical activity to ensure food
● 8th Malaysia Plan (2001-2005) - Enhance aquaculture development
● Potential export earner after oil palm and rubber. (most productive income per
hectare per annum and return to investment)
● Aquaculture requires land. 400,000 ha of land and inland water bodies suitable.
Competition with other economic activities makes land acquisition difficult.
● High production cost, lack skill labour, threat of disease, quality of produce
● Fish consumption index 53.1kg (2011) 61.1kg (2020)
• Applied research, education and training: Fisheries Research
Institute Malaysia, UPM, USM, National Agriculture Training
• University Putra Malaysia
• University Malaysia Terengganu
• University Malaysia Sabah
• Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
• Universiti Selangor
• Tunku Abdul Rahman University College Johor Branch
● The United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Sustainable
Development Goal SDG14 : Conserve and sustainably use the ocean, seas and
marine resources for sustainable development
● The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2018: critical importance of
fisheries and aquaculture for food, nutrition and employment of millions of
● Fish production 2016 = 171million tonnes (88% for direct human consumption)