3. MASLOW (1954)
• Proposed that values are structured hierarchically in terms of endurability or
conversely, in terms of their propensity to change.
LIPHAM AND HOEH (1974)
• Concluded that personality needs are structured hierarchically in
terms of greater or less primacy or potency.
• Within this view, a model for ordering and understanding value orientations has
4. THE DYNAMICS OF
6. LEVEL 1: SACRED VALUES
- When it is urged that the school
teach “American way of life”
- We appeal when we wish to
legitimize significant social action
7. THE SACRED OR CORE VALUES SERVE AS A SOURCE
FOR THE LEGAL AND POLITICAL STRUCTURE OF THE
SOCIETY AND RECEIVE EXPRESSION IN:
1. The constitutional and charter provisions of national, state, and local governments;
2. Laws and ordinances;
3. Judicial decisions and interpretations by the courts; and
4. Executive decisions in the form of orders and board and administrative
8. THE DYNAMICS OF
9. LEVEL II: SECULAR VALUES
• Secular Values
- Subject to wide interpretation and differential implementation of the sacred or
“Monday through Saturday” values include:
- work-success ethic
- future-time orientation
- independence or the autonomous self
- moral commitment
(Getzels, Lipham, and Campbell, 1968)
• From the independent and autonomous self to organizational and group
conformity to renewed stress on personal authenticity
• From Puritan morality to a relativistic “God is dead” philosophy to a renewed
idealism of moral commitment. (moral orientations)
11. TRADITIONAL VALUES
♠The earlier secular values of work success, future-time orientations, independence,
and moral commitment
♠Sociability, present-time orientation, group conformity, and moral relativism
POST EMERGENT SECULAR VALUES
♠The socially responsible, relevant, authentic, and morally committed orientation that
is extant, for clarity in analysis.
12. THE DYNAMICS OF
13. LEVEL III: OPERATIONAL VALUES
Level 1 Each student is of paramount importance
Level 2 Traditional teachers undoubtedly will view this sacred value differently from
emergent teachers, thereby posing the possibility of major cleavages within
Level 3 The teachers who similarly possess emergent values, may choose drastically
different means to “individualize instruction”, thereby introducing additional
The manager must understand the relationship of cultural value orientations
to institutional expectations, individual needs, and social behavior if he is to
function effectively as the leader of the school.
14. THE MANAGER AND INDIVIDUAL
(Lipham and Hoeh)
Guidelines for improving the manager’s organizational role relations:
1. The manager should become sensitive to the individual value orientations of
those with whom he frequently interacts.
2. The manager should assess both his own values and the strength of his
tendency to ascribe or project these values to others.
3. The limits of tolerance for value differences might be explored at the time of
4. The manager should recognize that in the decision-making aspects of his role,
individual values held by the decision-maker play a continuing and significant
15. MANAGEMENT AND SOCIETY
Social institutions that have affected the value system of
1. The family
2. The educational system
3. The church
4. The government
16. FOUR SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT
1. Profit maximization as socially desirable.
2. No long-run conflict between corporate and social
3. Improvement of one’s own organizational behavior best leads
to social betterment.
4. Management as trustee.
Regardless of which school is followed, the manager must develop some strategy
concerning (1) how his company will adjust to external factors and (2) what
impact his organization will have on its environment.
17. • It is not only the concept of management that has broadened in
scope; the orientation of management has also broadened in the
last several decades.
Should management become involved in community planning, marital
counseling or religious activities? (Social issue)
18. “community” in “community planning”
- the community where the business enterprise is located. (Massie)
operations within the organization
interactions between the organization and its environment
19. “community participation” (Ed. Act of 1982)
- participation involving the members and elements of the “educational
Through school participation in community activities, the manager thereby applies
the concept of macro-management.
Cooperation between the school and its environment
20. “marital counseling”
- matters pertaining to family, marriage, etc. are included in the school
curriculum, and that within the concept of academic freedom, schools, colleges, and
universities have the prerogative to conduct conferences, workshops, and other
meetings so as to exchange information and observations relative to family,
marriage, and so forth.
23. MANAGER’S VALUE SYSTEM
1ST SOURCE (DR. ESTRADA)
1. Basic in Philippine culture is the belief in Divine Providence, appropriately
reflected in the preamble to our Constitution.
2. Our values are fundamentally neither Asian nor Western but human. And,
ours being a rational nature, we should with a nice discernment allow
ourselves to be enriched by the finest elements in both the cultures of
Asia and those of the West.
3. Not everything in Philippine culture is good and to be preserved.
4. It has been suggested that the National Goals be taken into account in
determining which items are to be included in the list of values to be
inculcated in the youth of the land.
5. There are certain absolute human values which do not change. These
values relate to man as a physical and rational being.
24. 6. Although true human values are good for all peoples of all cultures as long as
men are men, the precise manner of satisfying the hunger for such values will vary
vary according to race and culture and specific geographical and climatic
7. The traditional virtues of justice, charity, the love of beauty, honesty, truthfulness,
industry, diligence, frugality, wisdom, alertness, adaptability, strength of character,
perseverance, self-reliance, and a sensitivity to the needs of others should be
kept alive and sedulously cultivated.
8. Other virtues worth inculcating are humility, purity, modesty, temperance or
moderation, loyalty, spirit of friendliness or disposition to be ever helpful to
others, politeness, obedience to legitimate authority, reverence in speech, a spirit
of true patriotism, the proper care of ourselves both in body and spirit, personal
and collective discipline, popular participation in decision-making, respect for
authority, punctuality, keeping one’s word, and respect for the dignity of the
9. With respect to two cultural values, namely, utang na loob and bahala na.
25. SECOND SOURCE OF VALUES FOR
• An individual who is a manager can, for example, acquire the values of industry or
diligence, perseverance, alertness, strength of character, punctuality, self-reliance,
sensitivity to the needs of others, and respect for the dignity of the human person
– through his own experience.
Two Kinds of Experience
* vicarious or indirect
* actual or direct
McGregor’s Theory X (traditional view) and Theory Y (integration)
Integration – the creation of conditions such that the members of the organization
can achieve their own goals best by directing their efforts towards the success of the
27. PHILOSOPHY OF MANAGEMENT
• Refers to those general concepts and integrated attitudes that are
fundamental to the cooperation of a social group.
• One philosophy might be good for Organization A but not useful to
28. THIRD SOURCE OF VALUES FOR
• The increasing interrelationships among nations in business have
made managers acutely aware that the cultural assumptions of
managerial practices have an impact on managerial concepts.
Notas do Editor
Parents/guardians , students, school personnel, school itself
For the promotion of their common interest
Religion – PRIMARY SOURCE OF MANAGERIAL VALUES
DR. ARISTON ESTRADA – medical practitioner and educator from UST
Should be preserved and strengthen not because indigenous but its true
Love of God provides the primary motivation for living the kind of life we wanted
5. Physical – biological needs for survival
Rational – basic values need for development (freedom and love)
Human beings and organizations
Can provide the source of their own values
Theory Y is more effective, he will acquire and internalize the value of integration