Over the past century there have been many profound social, economic and technological
The future scenarios of the social, political, economic and cultural sectors will depend on the
contributions of today’s’ school students.
More than ever before, education has to be visionary and future-oriented to face of the
stunning technological and scientific changes and, innovations unprecedented socio-
economic challenges and opportunities.
Educational innovations are imperative, and would no doubt be effective if they are
research-based and imbued with technology of education and technology in education.
3. A Teacher’s Tool Kit
A teacher’s Toolkit is an independent resource which provides guidance for
teachers and schools on how to use their resources for attainment and
improvement of disadvantaged pupils.
Toolkit is an accessible summary of educational research on the strength
evidence of the effectiveness of different techniques and their applicability.
It contains a supplement to rather than a substitute for professional
It is important to emphasize that applying findings from educational research
in new contexts is never simple. Much depends on school; its teachers (their
levels of knowledge and experience), its pupils (their level of attainment and
their social background) and the educational outcomes that a teacher wants
to improve (knowledge and skills or understanding, attitudes and
5. New Professional Profile of the Teaching
The term 'professional' and its application to teachers, needs to be
reexamined in the light of changing aims of education, its teachers and
students. 'Professional' has different meanings in different contexts.
In “teaching” is scenario this term inextricably involves the questions of
salary, status and autonomy themes.
6. National professional standards
Subject Matter Knowledge
Human Growth and Development
Knowledge of Islamic Ethical Values/Social Life Skills
Instructional Planning and Strategies
Effective Communication and Proficient Use of Information Communication
Collaboration and Partnerships
Continuous Professional Development and Code of Conduct
7. Cooperative Teaching
Cooperative teaching as the name applied is to be cooperative with a
colleague in teaching. It must not be taken as cooperation to substitute for
the other teacher.
It is collaborating. With the increase in demands on the teacher’s time it is
worthwhile to be familiarized with the cooperative leaching.
8. Elements of Co-operative Teaching
Face-to-face primitive interaction
Appropriate use of collaborative skills
9. Basis for Selecting a Co-Teaching
Co-teaching is most effective when the approaches used are deliberately
selected. Here are four factors to weigh in selecting a co-teaching approach:
Student characteristics and needs
Teacher characteristics and needs
Curriculum, including content and instructional strategies
11. Importance of Cooperative Teaching
Tiered levels of instruction within the classroom
Access to a variety of instructional strategies supported by two highly
A supportive system for educators that addresses students’ needs
Opportunities for peer interactions
Accommodations for students
12. Remedial Teaching
Remedial teaching is defined in the Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary as
‘connected with school students who are slower at learning than others’.
The remedial teaching can also be defined as ‘the name implies, is designed
to cater to the needs of children unable to keep pace with the teaching-
learning process in a normal classroom.’
Remedial teaching will act as a safety valve for the students who are behind
the expected level of achievement.
It involves diagnosis of specific difficulties, provide suitable remedial
measures and provide support to prevent reoccurring of them again in future.
13. Characteristics of Learning among Pupils
with Learning Difficulties
Short attention span and are easily distracted by other things
Relatively poor comprehensive power
Lack of learning motivation
Lack of self-confidence and relatively low self-expectation
Weak in problem-solving power
Fail to grasp information effectively and mix things up easily
Have difficulty in understanding new/abstract concepts
Need more time to complete assignments or tasks
14. Objectives of Remedial Teaching
The aim of remedial is to provide learning support to pupils who lag far
behind their counterparts in school performance.
By adapting school curricula and teaching strategies, teachers can provide
learning activities and practical experiences to students according to their
abilities and needs.
They can also design individualized educational programmes with intensive
remedial support to help pupils consolidate their basic knowledge in different
subjects, master the learning methods, strengthen their confidence and
enhance the effectiveness of learning
15. Principles of Remedial Teaching
Remedial teaching should be planned properly
Various learning activities should be devised
Meaningful learning situations must be designed
Different teaching approaches should be adopted
Clear instructions should be provided
Main points must be summarized
Learning interest and motivation should be enhanced
The learning process should be focused
Show concern for the performances of individual pupils
17. Partnerships with Teacher Training
The following steps provide a road map for creating, implementing, sustaining
and evaluating partnerships between schools and businesses.
Identify and research potential partners.
Assess All Potential Offerings of Business Partners
Determine Which Schools and Students Have the Greatest Needs
Make Community Connections
Tap Internal Strengths
Understand your core values
Draft a partnership proposal and submit it to your potential partner.
Have a frank discussion about values, goals and needs. Establish Common
Ground Assess the impact of partnership on the academic, social and physical
well-being of students.
Define short- and long-range goals of partnership, including expected
Align activities with education goals of school.
19. Reflective Practice
Reflective practice is related with the learning which we gain from
Reflective practice is an important strategy of lifelong learning which is
effectively used by professionals.
Reflective practice is a source of development of qualified, autonomous, self
The use of reflective practice reduces the gap between theory and practice
and it stimulates the professional and personal
20. Key Elements of Reflection
Reflection has following key
Making sense of experience
‘Standing back’ to gain a better perspective of the experience.
Repetition and checking for missing things
Deeper honesty to accept the normal course of events
‘Weighing up’ and balanced in judgement
Clarity as viewing the events being reflected by a mirror
Making judgments to develop or adopt a strategy, activity or an approach.
21. Models of Reflection
Several models of reflection have been proposed for the engagement in the
process of reflection by the individual.
It depends upon the individual to select a model or framework for reflection
in which he finds himself comfortable and which helps him to learn from his
past learning experiences. Some of the important models of reflection have
been discussed below.
Gibbs Reflective Cycle
Johns (2000) Model for Structured Reflection
Rolfe et al (2001 Framework for Reflexive Practice
22. Modes of Reflective Practice
Reflection in Practice
Reflection on Practice
Reflection for Practice
23. Action Research
Action research is a type of applied research in which the researcher is
actively involved in the cause for which the research is conducted.
It is a process of systematic inquiry that seeks to improve social issues
affecting the lives of everyday people.
Historically, the term ‘action research’ has been long associated with the
work of Kurt Lewin, who viewed this research methodology as cyclical,
dynamic, and collaborative in nature.
24. Action Research in Education
It is one method that teachers use for improvement in both their practice and
their students’ learning outcomes.
The central goal of action research is positive educational change.
This change impacts significantly on the teachers involved and how they
In a school setting, participants could include teachers, students, parents
and community members.
As in all forms of research, records are kept of the process and findings are
published or presented to a wider audience.
25. Characteristics of Action Research
integrated conducted as part of a teacher’s normal daily practice
Reflective a process which alternates between plan implementation and
Flexible methods, data and interpretation are refined in the light of the
understanding gained during the research process
Active a process designed to generate change in small steps
Relevant meets the needs of teachers and/or their students
Focused on a single issue of school improvement.
Collaborative teachers and leaders working together to improve student
Planned an organized approach to answering a question learning simultaneous
construction of new knowledge by teachers about their practice.
28. The Promise of the Twenty-first Century
The entrance in the 21st century has manifold the responsibilities of teachers
and teacher educators as teachers are the personalities who can prepare a
nation to handle the challenges of this century successfully.
This is not a simple task. It is more demanding and complex as compared to
the past. First of all, we have to assess that what adjustments and changes
we have to make so that we can face these challenges with dynamism and
As a start we have to determine which skills have become essential for our
survival or what should be included in our new profile
Contemporary Dilemmas for Teacher Education
Developing Programs for Teachers, Training
Knowledge for Teaching
Program Designs and Pedagogies
Coherence and Integration