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  1. Power is one of the most important concept and plays huge role in politics, from governing how decisions are made to how political actors interact with one another. Power doesn’t corrupt people, people corrupt power. - William Gaddis
  2. is the ability to get someone to do something he wants to accomplish, making things happens the way he wants. is a well prime ingredient of politics. “Power tends to corrupt : absolute power corrupts absolutely.”
  3. The process by which a person affects the behavior, thoughts and the feeling of another person.
  4. Authority is the right to change another person.
  5. Organizational Power is a power derived from a person’s position in an organization and from control over valuable resources afforded by that position.
  6. Reward power – it is an extent to which a leader can use extrinsic and intrinsic rewards to control and influence other people. Coercive power – it is the degree to which a leader can deny desired rewards or administer punishments to control over people and let them follow his wants. Legitimate power – it is the extent to which a leader can use subordinates internalized values or beliefs that the boss has a right of command to control his subordinates behavior.
  7. Information power – the leaders has an access to and control of information. Process power – the leader has full control over the methods of production and analysis. Representative power – the legal right to conferred to speak by the firm as a representative of a potentially significant group composed of individuals from another firm.
  8. Individual or Personal Power Is a power derived from personal characteristics that are of value to the organization.
  9. Expert Power  The ability to control another person’s behavior through the possession of knowledge, experience or judgement that the other person needs but does not have. Rational Persuasion  The ability to control another person’s behavior by convincing the other person of the desirability of a goal and a reasonable way of achieving it. Referent Power  The ability to control another’s behavior because the person wants to identify with the power source.
  10. Since organizational charts only reveal authority and not power, it is important to determine what the symbols of power across are across in most organizations.
  11. The primary characteristic of Kanter’s seven symbols of power is that they can provide an ability to aid or assist another person. The symbols are: 1. Ability to intercede for someone in trouble. 2. Ability to get placements for favored employees. 3. Exceeding budget limitations. 4. Procuring above-average raises for employees. 5. Getting items on the agenda at meetings. 6. Access to recent information. 7. Having top managers seek out one’s opinions.
  12. Powerlessness is a lack of power, which may have different symptoms in managers at various levels of the organization.
  13. Korda’s symbol of power are easier to determine, and they include office furnishings, time power and standing by.
  14. Clearly define roles and responsibilities. Provide opportunities for creative problem solving coupled with the discretion to act. Emphasize different ways of exercising influence. Provide support to individuals so they become comfortable with developing their power. Expand inducements for thinking and acting, not just obeying.
  15. 1. Personal Power – is used for personal gain and result in a win-lose approach. 2. Social Control – involves the use of power to create motivation or to accomplish group goals.
  16. 1. Consultation 2. Rational persuasions 3. Inspirational appeal 4. Ingratiation
  17. 1. Charismatic Authority – it is an influence possessed by person by virtue of their personal magnetism. They have the capacity to gain respect and even adulation to the point of moving followers to make great sacrifices. 2. Rational Legal Authority – it is a leadership based on established law. People obey the leader or executive because they accept his power under law. 3. Traditional Authority – the leadership is based from culture that is people often give allegiance to the one who occupy the institutional position. 4. Coercive Authority – the power to use force such as police or military force to demand obedience from the subordinates.