Change is a critical aspect of every business.
According to Burnes (2004), change is an ever-present
feature of organizational life, both at an operational and
According to Kotter (2011), change management is an
approach to shifting or transitioning individuals, teams and
organizations from current state to a desired future state.
Some of the models are:
Kurt Lewin’s classic three-phase model of change
The Prosci ADKAR model
John Kotter’s popular 8 step change model
The McKinsey’s 7-S model
Beckhard and Harris formula of change
Streich 7 stages of change/change curve
Change should only be implemented for good reason.
Change should always be gradual.
All change should be planned, and not sudden.
All individuals who may be affected by change should be
involved in planning for the change.
the diagnosis stage
At this stage people realize that something is going to
change and they are dealing with strong emotions such as
denial, impatience, uncertainty and doubt.
Participants are made aware of problems in order to
increase their willingness to change their behaviour.
the intervention stage
Individuals experiment with new workplace behaviour.
the reinforcement stage
Individuals acquire a desired new skill or attitude and are
rewarded for it by the organization.
According to Hiatt (2006), “Effective management of the
people aspect of change requires managing five key goals
that form the basis of the ADKAR model:
Awareness of the need for change
Desire to participate and support the change
Knowledge on how to change
Ability to implement required skills and behaviors
Reinforcement to sustain the change
informing/sharing that a change is happening.
answering the Why question.
making a personal decision to support and participate in
It is regarded as the most difficult stage.
Skills and behaviors needed to support change once it
occur. It is only effective when individuals already have
awareness & desire the change.
This is where change actually occurs.
Required skills and behavior being implemented.
Coaching and mentoring.
A Awareness of the need of change
D Desire to participate and support the change
K Knowledge on how to change
A Ability to implement required skills and behaviors
R Reinforcement to sustain the change
A CASE STUDY OF RADIANT WELLNESS CENTER:
USING KURT LEWINS MODEL OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT
For better understanding of Lewin's change model of
Unfreezing, Change and Refreezing, here is an
application of the model using Radiant Wellness
Radiant Wellness Center is specialized in Network Spinal
Analysis established in 2005 by Dr. Brian Ghessi, in UK.
It is a unique chiropractic and healing experience with the
wisdom of traditional approaches to produce breakthrough
results for patients.
Radiant wellness center has decided to switch from using
hand-written medical records to electronic ones.
All of the staff have always relied on hand-written medical
records when performing their jobs and have expressed
concerns about switching to the new electronic format.
However, management believes that making the switch to
electronic records will increase efficiency and reduce the
amount of time that it takes to record patient information.
First, the management of Radiant wellness center will have to
spend time unfreezing the employees' belief that the old way of
recording patient records is adequate.
The management team will need to communicate the perceived
benefits of the new electronic method, making sure to
demonstrate how the pros outweigh the cons.
The staff will need to understand how much more efficient the
new method of electronic recording will be in comparison to
the old hand-written process.
Next, management will need to transition into the changing
stage by implementing the new electronic recording system.
This will mark a time of uncertainly in the staff, making it
necessary for the management team to offer training and
support as the employees become familiar with the new
Finally, management will need to refreeze the new method of
recording into the organization's culture, making sure that
the staff recognizes the electronic system as the new norm
and the manner in which they will record patient information
The management team would also recognize the efforts made
by the staff members to learn and use the new system by
offering them some sort of reward and praise.
1. Surprise and fear of the unknown
2. Fear of failure
3. Loss of status and/or job security
4. Peer pressure
5. Past success
6. Personality conflicts
1. Provide as much information as possible to employees
about the change.
2. Inform employees about the rationale for the change.
3. Conduct meetings to address employee’s concerns.
4. Provide employees the opportunity to discuss how the
proposed change might affect them.
Change should not be a threat, but should be seen as a new
challenge that will energize and motivate everyone.
Change management increases the success of
organizational change and project initiatives by applying a
structured framework of methods, tools and processes
managing the change from a current state to a future state.
The Kurt Lewin and Prosci’s ADKAR models can be used by
organizations to manage the change component successfully.
There is no right or wrong model of change management.
Management should create a vision for change, communicate
the vision for change and remove fears from the minds of
those who will get affected by the change.
Burnes, B. (2004). Managing Change: A Strategic Approach to Organisational
Dynamics, 4th ed. (Harlow: Prentice Hall).
Hiatt, J. M. (2006). ADKAR: A model for change in Business, Government and
Community. Loveland, CO: Prosci Inc.
Kotter, J. (2011). "Change Management vs. Change Leadership -- What's the
Difference?". Forbes online. Retrieved 12/21/11.
Schein, E. H. (1999). Kurt Lewin’s change theory in the field and in the classroom:
Notes toward a model of managed learning. Reflections, 1(1), 59-74.