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• Minimum movements and Material handling
• Smooth and Continuous flow
• Cubic Space Utilization
• Safe and Improved Environments
• If a manufacturing facility produces a variety of products in
relatively small batches will use a process layout
• Process layout typically use general purpose machines that
can be changed rapidly to new operations for different
• Machines are arranged according to the type of process being
• Workers must be highly skilled
• Wide flexibility exists as regards allotment of work to equipment and
• Better utilization of the available equipment.
• Comparatively less number of machines are needed, thus involving
reduced capital investment.
• Better product quality, because the supervisors and workers attend to
one type of machines and operations.
• Varieties of jobs coming as different job orders make the work more
interesting for the workers.
• For the same amount of production, process layout
needs more space.
• Automatic material handling is extremely difficult.
• More material-in-process remains in queue for further
• Work-in-process inventory is large.
• Production control becomes difficult.
• It needs more inspections and efficient co-ordination.
• Product layout is often called Production line or assembly line
• Use specialized machines to perform specialized operations.
• Changeover takes greater expenses and long down times.
• The amount of skill, training and supervision required is
• Planning and scheduling activities associated with these
layouts are complex.
• Less space requirements for the same volume of production.
• Automatic material handling, lesser material handling
movements, times and costs.
• Less in-process inventory.
• Product completes in lesser time.
• Better co-ordination and simple production planning and
• Smooth and continuous work flow.
• Less skilled workers may serve the purpose.
• Change in product involves major changes in layout and thus the layout
flexibility is considerably reduced.
• The pace or rate of working depends upon the output rate of the slowest
machine. This involves excessive idle time for other machines if the
production line is not adequately balanced.
• It becomes difficult when one inspector has to look after many machines
in two or more production lines.
• It is difficult to increase production beyond the capacities of the
• In Cellular manufacturing, machines are grouped into
cells, and the cells function, like a product layout island
within a larger job shop or process layout.
• The layout of a cell can take on many different forms, the
flow of parts tends to be more like a product layout than
• Reduced material handling and transit time
• Reduced set up time
• Reduced work in process inventory
• Better use of human resources
• Easier to control
• Easier to automate
• Poorly balanced cells
• Expanded training and scheduling of workers
• Increased capital investment
• Missile assembly, large aircraft assembly, ship
construction, and bridge construction are examples of
fixed position layouts.
• Fixed position layouts are used when a product is very
bulky, large, heavy and fragile.
• Fixed position nature of the layout minimizes the
amount of product movement required.
• It is possible to assign one or more skilled workers to a
project from start to finish in order to ensure continuity
• It involves least movement of materials.
• There is maximum flexibility for all sorts of changes in
product and process.
• A number of quite different projects can be taken with
the same layout.
• It usually involves a low content of work-in-progress.
• There appears to be low utilization of labour and
• It involves high equipment handling costs.
• Most manufacturing facilities are combination of layout
types. In hybrid layout departments are arranged
according to the types of processes but the products flow
through on a product layout
• Final assembly of Boeing’s commercial aircraft is the
perfect example of hybrid layouts