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Chapter-1.pdf

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Chapter-1.pdf

  1. 1. University of Gondar College of Natural and Computational Sciences Department of Geology Compiled by: Yohannes Dessalegn (M.Sc. in Petroleum and Coal Geology) 2022/23 G.C Petroleum and Coal Geology (Geol 3131) Course
  2. 2. Chapter 1 Introduction to the Various Energy Sources you should be able to answer these questions:  What is the difference between a renewable resource and a nonrenewable resource?  How can you protect natural resources?  What are the different kinds of fossil fuels?  What are some kinds of alternative energy?  What are some benefits of alternative energy?  What are some problems with alternative energy? After you learn this section,
  3. 3. What are Earth’s Resources? Earth provides what you need to survive. You breathe air from Earth’s atmosphere. You drink water from Earth’s rivers, lakes, and other water bodies. You eat food from Earth’s living things. A is any material obtained from the Earth in nature that is used by humans. Air, soil, fresh water, petroleum, rocks, minerals, forests, and wildlife/animal are examples of natural resources. People use some natural resources, such as coal and wind, for energy. The energy in these resources comes from the sun.
  4. 4. Summarize: After you read this section, make a chart giving the defi nitions of renewable and non-renewable resources. In the chart, include two examples of each kind of resource. Fig.1.1: Some Examples of Natural Resources Define: In your own words, write a definition of natural resource. Identify: Give two examples of natural resources that are not shown in the figure
  5. 5. Nonrenewable Resources ∏ Some resources, such as minerals, coal, petroleum, and natural gas, take millions of years to form. ∏once they have been used, they have gone. ∏can’t be replenished in a short period of time. ∏ is a resource that is used/consumed much faster than it can be replaced/formed. i.e., they can’t be or at a scale comparable with their consumption. ∏ means “to begin again.” ∏When nonrenewable resources are used up, people can no longer use them.  What Types of Resources Exist on Earth? Natural resources are grouped based on how fast they can be replaced/In the light of the availability of various resources in nature. Some natural resources are non-renewable/Exhaustible/Limited. Others are renewable. Renew
  6. 6. Renewable Resources(RR) Some natural resources, such as , trees and fresh water, can grow or be replaced quickly. i.e., they can be in a short period of time. A renewable resource is a natural resource that can be replaced as quickly as people use it can be replaced at the same rate at which the resource is consumed. Many renewable resources are renewable only if people do not use them too quickly. For example, wood is usually considered a renewable resource. However, if people cut down trees faster than the trees can grow back, wood is a renewable resource. Some renewable resources, such as , will never be used up, no matter how fast people use them. RR will not run out because they can easily be regenerated.
  7. 7. Fig.1.2. Fresh water and trees are both renewable resources. However, they can be used up if people use them too quickly. Explain: Describe how some renewable resources can become non-renewable resources.
  8. 8. How Can We Protect Natural Resources? o Whether the natural resources you use are renewable or non-renewable, you should be careful on how you use them. o In order to conserve natural resources, you should try to use them only when you have to. For example, ⸿ leaving the water running while you are brushing your teeth wastes clean water. ⸿ Turning the water off while you brush your teeth saves water so that it can be used in the future. Explain: Why is it important to conserve all natural resources, even if they are renewable resources?
  9. 9. Table 1.1. Some ways we can conserve energy. Instead of… You can… …leaving the lights on all the time …turn them off when you’re not in the room …running the washing machine when it is only half full …run it only when it is full …using a car to travel everywhere …walk, ride a bike, or use public transportation when you can Brainstorm: Fill in the blank spaces in the table with some other ways you can conserve natural resources.
  10. 10. # Recycling (using things that have been thrown away to make new objects) is another way. # Objects made from recycled materials use fewer natural resources than objects made from new materials. # For example, it takes less energy to recycle an aluminum can than to make a new one, hence it energy. # Newspaper, some plastic containers, and many types of papers can also be recycled. # Besides these, conserving resources also means of them even when you are not using them. # For example, our drinking water . Polluted water can harm the living things, including humans, that need water in order to live.
  11. 11. ₰ How do plants and animals that lived hundreds of millions of years ago affect your life today? ₰ Plants and animals that lived long ago provide much of the energy we use. • If we turned on the lights or traveled to school in a car or bus, we probably used some of this energy. • Energy resources are natural resources that people use to produce energy, such as heat and electricity. • Most of the energy we use for heating and electricity use comes from fossil fuels.
  12. 12. * A is an energy resource made from the remains of plants and that lived long ago. * The different kinds of fossil fuels are petroleum, , and natural gas. * When fossil fuels burn, they release a lot of energy. * Power plants use the energy to produce . * Cars use the energy to move.  However, there are also some problems with using fossil fuels. They are nonrenewable, which means that they cannot be replaced once they have been used. Also, when they burn, they release pollution. Compare: In your notebook, make a table to show the similarities and differences between different kinds of fossil fuels. Identify: Where do we get most of the energy we use?
  13. 13. Alternative Energy Resources What is Alternative Energy? What would your life be like if you couldn’t turn on the lights, microwave your dinner, take a hot shower, or ride the bus to school? Since fossil fuels have a lot of problems, many scientists are trying to find alternative energy sources. Some alternative energy sources can be converted easily into usable energy. Others are not as easy to use. Compare and Contrast: In your notebook, make a chart to show each kinds of alternative energy sources and their benefits and problems.
  14. 14. Here are the different kinds of alternative energy sources
  15. 15. Fig.1.3. Fission Identify: What are the fission products in the figure? Fission Benefits  it does .  Mining uranium, the fuel for nuclear power, is less harmful to the environment than mining other energy sources, such as coal. Explain: Why is nuclear energy called a “clean” energy source?
  16. 16. Fission Problems  Fission products created in nuclear power plants are poisonous.  Nuclear fission plants can release harmful radiation into the environment.  Also, nuclear power plants must release extra heat from the fission reaction.  This extra heat cannot be used to make electricity. The extra heat can harm the environment. B. FUSION  happens when two or more atoms join to form a heavier atom.  This process occurs naturally in the sun.  releases a lot of energy.
  17. 17. Identify: How many protons and how many neutrons are there in the helium-4 nucleus? Fusion’s Benefits and Problems ψ It does not create a lot of dangerous wastes. ψ The fuels used in fusion are renewable.  The main problem with fusion is that it can take place only at  The reaction is difficult to control and keep going to create usable energy. Fig.1.4. Fusion
  18. 18. Wind Power-Energy From the Wind # Wind is the air that is moving hence contains energy. # People can use windmills to turn the wind energy into electricity. # The electricity that is produced by windmills is called wind power. # Since the wind can’t be used up, wind energy is . # Wind power does not cause air pollution. # However, in many areas, the wind isn’t strong or enough to generate enough electricity. Infer: In most cases, people use a large number of windmills to create electricity. What do you think is the reason a lot of windmills are used, instead of just one or two?
  19. 19. Fig.1.5 Windmills near Livermore, , produce electricity Explain: Based on what you see in the figure, what do you think is the reason windmills are not used in or other areas?
  20. 20. Fig. 1.6. Wind power
  21. 21. Solar Energy-Energy from the Sun €Most forms of energy come from the . For example, the fossilfuelswe use today were made from . €The heat and light that Earth gets from the sun is solar energy. SolarEnergy: is a , resourceand does not producepollution. is used to create electricityand to heat buildings. cells, or solarcells, can change into energy.  However, some don’t have enough sunny days to be able to use solar energy all the time.  Even though sunlight is free, solar cells are to make.
  22. 22. Why is energy from the sun renewable? Fig. 1.7. Solar Energy
  23. 23. The Sun The Sun is the original source of most energy resources. Plants store the Sun’s energy through photosynthesis. Animals then eat the plants.
  24. 24. : Have you ever used an object that was powered by sunlight? In a small group, talk about the different ways that sunlight can be used for energy. Hydroelectric Energy-Energy From Flow of Water ¥ Water have been used since ancient times to help people do work. ¥ is electrical energy produced from and is generally to produce. ¥ it causes no air pollution and is considered renewable. , ¥ it can be produced only in places that have a lot of fast-moving water. ¥ building a dam and a power plant to generate hydroelectric energy can be . ¥ Dams can harm wildlife living in and around the river. ¥ Damming a river can cause flooding and erosion.
  25. 25. Fig. 1.8. A dam in California which can create electricity because a lot of water moves through it every day.  Plants store energy from the sun Leaves, wood, and stems contain stored energy.  Even the dung of plant eating animals has a lot of stored energy.  These sources of energy are called biomass, which is an organic matter.  Biomass is commonly burned in its solid form to release heat.
  26. 26. Æ However, can also be changed into a liquid form. Æ The and in plants can be made into and used as fuel. Æ can be mixed with to make a fuel called gasohol. Æ Biomass is not very expensive and it is available almost everywhere. Æ Since biomass grows quickly, it is considered a resource. Æ However, we must be not to use up biomass faster than it can back. : What would happen if biomass were used at a faster rate than it was produced?
  27. 27. Geothermal Energy-Energy From Earth’s Heat © is energy produced by the heat within Earth. © This heat makes solid rocks get very hot. © If there is any water contained within the solid rock, the water gets hot, too. © The hot water can be used to generate electricity and to heat buildings. © It is considered because the heat inside Earth will © It does not create air pollution or the environment. © However, it can be used only where hot rock is near the surface. : What are the two uses for water that has been heated by hot rock?
  28. 28. Describe: On the figure, draw arrows showing the path that the steam takes as it moves through the power plant. Fig. 1.9.Geothermal Energy Generation Path ways

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