1. Compiled and Prepared by: Dr. Shanthi Bavani
TUTORIAL 2 (WEEK 3)
Individual differences: personality and ability
Values, attitudes, moods and emotions
Perception, attribution, and the Management of diversity
Revise Lecture 2
Students should be able to:
• Understand the nature of personality and how it is determined by both nature and nurture
• Describe the Big Five personality traits and their implication for understanding behaviour
• Appreciate the ways in which other personality traits, in addition to the Big Five,
influence employees’ behaviours in organisations
• Describe the different kinds of abilities that employees use to perform their jobs
• Understand why it is important to understand employees’ moods and emotions on the job
1. What is organizational behaviour?
According to Gary Johns, "Organizations are social inventions for accomplishing goals
through group efforts".
Organizational behaviour is concerned with people's thoughts, feelings, emotions and
actions in setting up a work.
2. Justify, with examples, why knowledge of organizational behaviour is important for
Understanding organizational behaviour allows the managers to better manage employee
manager relations, improves job satisfaction, and stimulates innovation and creativity
thus guiding him into creating a dynamic working climate.
2. Compiled and Prepared by: Dr. Shanthi Bavani
3. Why is it important to match between personality and the career an individual chooses?
Matching between personality and the career will help the individual to make decisions
as occupational choice, early career socialization, job performance, career satisfaction,
and career changes are affected by personality.
4. Why it is important to understand employees’ moods and emotions on the job?
It is to realize their strengths and to develop their less preferred functions.
5. Describe the Big Five personality traits and their implication for understanding behavior
Openness - Openness to experience describes a person's degree of intellectual
curiosity, creativity, and preference for novelty and variety. Some disagreement remains
about how to interpret this factor, which is sometimes called intellect.
Conscientiousness - Conscientiousness is a tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully,
and aim for achievement. Conscientiousness also refers to planning, organization, and
Extraversion - Extraversion describes energy, positive emotions, assertiveness,
sociability, talkativeness, and the tendency to seek stimulation in the company of others.
Agreeableness - Agreeableness is the tendency to be compassionate and cooperative
towards others rather than suspicious and antagonistic.
Neuroticism - Neuroticism describes vulnerability to unpleasant emotions like anger,
anxiety, depression, or vulnerability. Neuroticism also refers to an individual's level of
emotional stability and impulse control and is sometimes referred to as emotional
Understanding what personality components drive the behavior of subordinates is a
highly useful informational data point for management that can be used to determine
what type of assignments should be set, how motivation should be pursued,
what team dynamics may arise, and how to best approach conflict and/or praise when
6. Describe the different kinds of abilities that employees use to perform their jobs.
Cognitive ability, physical ability, and emotional intelligence are three examples of
abilities that employees use to perform their jobs. There are 8 types of cognitive ability
identified and described by Jim Nunnally. Verbal ability is the ability to understand and
use written and spoken language. Numerical ability is the ability to solve arithmetic
problems and deal with numbers. Reasoning ability is the ability to come up with
solutions for problems and understand the principles by which different problems can be
solved. Deductive ability is the ability to reach appropriate conclusions from an array of
observations from an array of observations or evaluate the implications of a series of
facts. Ability to see relationships is the ability to see how two things are related to each
other and then apply this knowledge to other relationships and solutions. Ability to
remember is the ability to recall things ranging from simple associations to complex
3. Compiled and Prepared by: Dr. Shanthi Bavani
groups of statements or sentences. Spatial ability is the ability to determine the location
or arrangement of objects in relation to one’s own position and to imagine how an object
would appear if its position in space were altered. Perceptual ability is the ability to
uncover visual patterns and see relationships within and across patterns. Physical ability
are motor skill and Physical skill. Motor skill: the ability to physically manipulate
objects in an environment. Physical skill: a person’s fitness and strength.
7. Describe your mood over the past week or two. Why have you felt this way? How has
your mood affected your behavior?
8. Define personality.
Personality is a set of individual differences that are affected by the development of an
individual: values, attitudes, personal memories, social relationships, habits, and skills.
You are to find a partner in class (2 students). Your partner should be someone you have just
known or not familiar. You are to discuss and observeyour partner’svalues and attitude. You
will be given 30 minutes to present your understanding based on your knowledge of the subject.
You are not allowed to discuss your thoughts or give any hints to your partner. This should be
conducted in a professional manner.
**Please take note: All questions should be prepared before attending tutorial classes.
Students failing to do so, will need to see your lecturer for clarification.