Personal tarbiyah for ideal muslimah

Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine at Florida State University em Florida State University
20 de Jan de 2014

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Personal tarbiyah for ideal muslimah

  1. For Muslim (submitted) men and women, For devout men and women, For truthful men and women, For men and women who are patient For men and women who humble themselves For men and women who give in charity For men and women who fast For men and women who guard their chastity For men and women who engage much in zikr For them has Allah prepared forgiveness and great reward.
  2. • “The world is a collection of treasures. The best treasure in this world is a righteous wife.” (Sunan Ibn Majah hadith no.1855 ) • • Abu Huraira (RA) told that when Allah's messenger was asked which woman was best, he replied, "The one who fills [her husband] with joy when he sees her, obeys him when he directs and does not oppose him by displeasing him regarding her person or property." (Mishkat) • The Prophet (SAW) said: "The best among your wives is the one who is chaste and loves her husband." (Kanz)
  3. • • Tarbiyah means to develop excellent skills and abilities to be efficient and productive Islamic workers. • Tazkiyah means 'to purify, to develop and to grow'. • This is an important characteristic of a Muslim/ Muslimah and the Islamic organization. • There must be a continuous struggle amongst workers of Islamic organization for moral and intellectual purification and development of excellent qualities
  4. • Truly he succeeds who purifies. (87:14) • Truly he succeeds that purifies it and he fails who corrupts it. (91 :8-9) • This process of Tazkiyah cleanses what is wrong in the Nafs and shows the righteous path and transforms the 'Nafs' into Nafs-eMutmainnah. • '0' you righteous soul!, in satisfaction come back to your Lord, well pleased and well pleasing unto Him. • (Surah Fajr, 89: 27-28)
  5. "A similar (favor have you already received) in that we have sent among you a messenger of your own, reciting to you our verses and sanctify-ing you and instructing you about book and wis-dom and you were before in manifest error." ( AL –BAQARA,2:151) "It is He who has sent amongst the unlettered messenger from amongst themselves to recite to them His verses, to sanctify them and to instruct them in scripture and wisdom, although they had been before in manifest error." (JUMA, 62: 2)
  6. Tazkiyah Ilm or knowledge Spiritual, Nafs and Qalb Amal or Actions Relations Physical Health
  7. They were commanded none else but to sub-mit to Allah with sincerity and total commitment. (Bayyanah, 98:5) There must be a group among you who should invite toward goodness, enjoin righteousness and forbid evils. (Ale-Imran, 3.104) In one Hadith, when Prophet (SAW) was asked what is “Ihsaan”? He replied that Ihsaan or excellence in goodness is that you worship Allah as if you witness His presence. If you are not able to attain such level of consciousness, then at least you should be fully aware ( of the undeniable fact that) He is watching you (and be fully conscious of all that you do.) Bukhari:Baabul Iman.
  8. • 1- Developing ideal Muslimah/Muslim who • i. Submit to the Will of Allah (SWT) with their heart's desire and pleasure • ii. Obey and submit to Allah (SWT) with constant fear and love and in conformity with Allah’s (SWT) commandments, being always conscious of His closeness. • 2-To form an organization of such dedicated Muslimahs/Muslims for establishing AI-Islam in their lives • 3- To engage in Dawah Ilallah in the family and the society
  9. • 1 Submission to 'Nafs' or one's desires And who is more astray than one who follows his own lusts, devoid of guidance from Allah. For Allah does not guide people given to wrong doings. Qasas,28:50 2- Blind following of forefathers- Just in the same way, whenever we sent a warner before you to any people, the wealthy ones among them said: "We found our fathers following a certain religion, and we will certainly follow in their footsteps." (Zukhruf,43:23)
  10. • 3- Obedience of other people- • If you were to follow the common run of that on earth, they will lead you away from Allah's way. (An’aam, 6:116) • 4- Love of this material world- • 0' you who believe! let not your riches or your children divert you from the remembrance of Allah. If any acts thus, the loss is their own. (Muafiqoon,63:9)
  11. Aban-Bin-Osman(R) reported from Zayd Ibn Thabit (R) that we heard from Prophet (SAW) who said,” Whoso is worried much about this material world, Allah (SWT) shall make his matters (of this world) complex and shall bring his deprivation between his eyes ( in front of him). He shall get only what is destined for him. Whoso intends for Akhirah, Allah (SWT) shall make his matters organized. He shall bestow Ghina (freedom from greed) in his heart and material things shall come to him. (Ibn Majah: #986) 5- Overlooking Satan's attacks and evil designs (Satan)said: 'Then by your power, I will put all of them in the wrong, except your servants amongst them, sincere and purified.
  12. • 6- Neglecting the Signs and Warnings of Allah• Those who, when they are admonished with the signs of their Lord they do not droop down as if they were deaf or blind. (25:73) • 7- Evil- Environment: • Abu-Huraira (R) reported that Prophet (SAW) said: “Every child is born on (Fitrah) righteous nature (of Islam). Then his parents turn him to Judaism or Christianity.” • 4 Types of influential environments• 1) International circle and its influences. • 2) National aptitudes, ways and traditions. • 3) Family circle and its values. • 4) Friends, and acquaintances
  13. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1- Relation with Allah (SWT) based on love, Taqwah, Ihsan 2- Haya, its concept and spirit 3- Ilm or knowledge from Qur'an, Sunnah and the literature 4- Establish 'Salah ‘ and other Ibadah 5- Fasting 6- Infaq fi sabilillah 7-Zikr 8-Dua 9- Taubah 10- Ideal Islamic Family 11- Excellent relations with others with spirit of selfless service and sacrifice 12- Physical well-being- Taharah, diet and exercise 13- Involvements in Dawah 14- Involvement in Islamic organization 15-Muhasibah or Self evaluation
  14. • Al Quran: Say my Salah, sacrifice, my life and my death is for Allah, the Lord of the universe. • They were not commanded except this that worship Allah sincerely. • Hadith. Have fear of Allah in open and in hiding. • Your reliance should be more on Allah than your own resources. • One may get the displeasure of people while achieving pleasure of Allah.
  15. ” • One who loves others for the sake of Allah, dislikes for the sake of Allah, gives for the sake of Allah, and holds back for the sake of Allah indeed perfected his faith. • O, Allah! We seek your help, we seek your guidance and we seek your forgiveness. We believe upon you and our dependence is upon you. All excellent praises are for you. We are thankful to you and we do not show ingratitude to you. We stay away from one who disobeys you
  16. • Prophets of Allah and righteous advised about the priority of strong relation with Allah. • Real motivation for all our actions must be our relation with Allah and His pleasure. • Stronger our relation with Allah the better is our struggle in His obedience. • Those struggling for Islamic movement, must have their relation with Allah dearer and stronger than any other relation.
  17. • 1-Marafa or recognition of Allah’s names, qualities and powers • 2-Ibada: We created human and jinn only for Ibada. (Zariat: 56) Meaning of Ibada- obedience with utmost humility. ( Lisanul Arab vol.4) • 3-Love of Allah. Believers have the utmost love of Allah.2;165.
  18. • • • • • • • • • 4-SHUKR (Thankfulness)Keep in mind the open and hidden blessings. Blessed us without any of our rights. Look towards those who have less than us in worldly possessions. 5-Ikhlas (Sincerity)Objective of obedience- pleasure of Allah. And they have been commanded no more than this: to worship Allah offering Him sincere devotion..Bayyana 98:5 ..So serve Allah offering Him sincere devotion. Zumar.39:2 Say it is Allah I serve with my sincere devotion. Zumar 39:14
  19. • 6-Khauf (Fear of Allah)• Fear of Allah’s accountability should prevail all other fears. • ..So fear them not but fear me. 2:150 • Do you fear them? Nay, it is Allah whom you should more justly fear. Tauba 9:13 • 7-Ta’ah. (Obedience) • Obedience of Allah’s commands and the Sunnah of the Prophet. • Turn towards your Rabb and submit to Him. Zumar:54 • We did not send a Prophet except that he be obeyed with the leave of Allah. Nisa:
  20. • What percentage of your time, energies and abilities is being devoted to Islamic struggle? • What is condition of your heart on seeing rebellion to Allah’s commands? • Do you feel happy by accepting less halal and forfeiting more haram? • Does sin brings displeasure and goodness brings pleasure to your heart?
  21. • Definition-is an attribute which pushes the believers: • To avoid anything distasteful or abominable. • It keeps them from being neglectful in giving everyone what is due upon them • If for any reason they are not able to keep up with their commitment then they will feel extremely bad and ashamed about this. • The reason being that they will have displeased Allah by breaking a commitment.
  22. • ..for Allah ever watches over you. Nisa 4:1 • Allah knows of (the tricks) that deceive with the eyes and all that the heart (of men) conceal. (Momin 40:19) • There is not a secret consultation between three but he makes the fourth among them..(Mujadila58:7) • Hayaa’ is derived from Hayaat, which means life. It is only obvious that when someone has Hayaa’ in them, they will LIVE a life of Islam • "Hayaa’ and trustworthiness will be the first to go from this world, therefore keep asking Allah for them." (Baihaqi)
  23. • Narrated by Abu Huraira (RA): The Prophet (SAW) said, "Faith (Belief) consists of more than sixty branches (i.e. parts). And Hayaa’ (this term "Hayaa’" covers a large number of concepts which are to be taken together; amongst them are selfrespect, modesty, bashfulness, scruple, etc.) is a part of faith." (Bukhari) • Narrated Abdullah ibn Umar (RA): The Prophet passed by a man who was admonishing his brother regarding Hayaa’ and was saying, "You are very shy, and I am afraid that might harm you." On that, Allah's Apostle said, "Leave him, for Hayaa’ is (a part) of Faith."
  24. • 1- ‘The good Hayaa’ is to be ashamed to commit a crime or do a thing which Allah and His Messenger (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) have forbidden • 2-’Bad Hayaa’ is to be ashamed to do a thing, which Allah and His Messenger (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) have ordered us to do • 3- Guarding Chastity and modesty- To obey the order of Allah (a'zza wa jall) which tells us to keep hidden our beauty and adornments from all men lawful in marriage
  25. • • • • • • • • 1- Hijab is an act of obedience of Allah (Ta’ah) 2- Hijab is modesty ( Iffah) 3- Hijab is purity (Taharah) 4- Hijab is a shield (Sitr) 5- Hijab is act of righteousness (Taqwah) 6- Hijab is part of faith (Iman) 7- Hijab is symbol of bashfulness (Hayaa) 8- Hijab is sign of protective envy (Gheerah)
  26. • "Indeed hayaa’ (modesty) and Iman (faith) are Companions. When one of them is lifted, the other leaves as well." (Baihaqi) • Narrated on the authority of Anas bin Malik, the Prophet (saw) said: "When lewdness is a part of anything, it becomes defective; and when hayaa’ is a part of anything it becomes beautiful." (Tirmidhi)
  27. ’ • 1-Allah loves Hayaa’. We know this by the following hadith: "Surely Allah (is One who) has Hayaa’ and is the Protector. He loves Hayaa’ and people who cover each other’s faults." (Bukhari) • 2-Hayaa’ itself is a Greatness of Islam, as our Noble Prophet (SAW) indicated: "Every way of life has an innate character. The character of Islam is Hayaa’." Or "Every deen (religion) has an innate character. The character of Islam is modesty (Hayaa’)." (Abu Dawood)
  28. • 3- Hayaa’ only brings good and nothing else. Our Prophet (saw) said: "Hayaa’ does not bring anything except good." (Bukhari) • 4-Hayaa’ is a very clear indication of our iman (faith). As the Prophet (SAW) mentioned to an Ansari Companion who was condemning his brother about being too shy: "Leave him, for Hayaa’ is (a part) of Faith." (Bukhari) • 5-Hayaa’ leads us to PARADISE. As the Prophet (SAW) informed us: "Hayaa’ comes from Iman (faith); Iman leads to Paradise. Obscenity comes from antipathy; and antipathy leads to the fire." (Bukhari)
  29. 1- Trust in Allah who is the source of knowledgeAnd upon Allah put your trust, if you are truly believers. (Al Maidah,23) 2- Sincere intentionIndeed Allah is with those who have Taqwah and who are doers of good. (An Nahl,128) 3- Make Dua to Allah in humilityAnd say O’ My Rabb! Increase me in knowledge. (Taha,114)
  30. • 4- An upright heartSpiritually diseased hearts do not get knowledge as Allah says about hypocrites: They have hearts with which they do not comprehend. (Al Araaf,179) • 5-Intelligence- It could be natural or acquired. In both cases we need to work to enhance it. • 6- Strong Desire and Motivation- One must be eager in studies, manage time to acquire ILM • 7-Patience and Perseverance- One must be steadfast in face of hardship on the path of ILM
  31. • 8- Proficiency- Apply highest extent of effort to achieve knowledge and its depth with ability to apply it in solving problems. • 9- Accompanying pious qualified teacherThis helps to acquire ILM on firm and correct basis. In addition, one acquires good moral values and piety. • 10- Life long quest- Al Qadee Iyaad was once asked,” Until when should a student seek ILM?” He replied: “ Until he dies, at which point his inkwell should be spilled upon his grave.”
  32. • Allah will exalt in degree those amongst you who believe and those who are granted knowledge. Allah is aware of what you do. (Mjadilah: 11) • Imam Shafi(RA) said, “ After obligatory deeds, nothing is more beloved to Allah than studying to acquire knowledge.” • Abu Darda (RA) said,” Studying Islam for one hour is more rewarding than praying entire night in Tahajjad.” • Imam Zuhri (RA) said,” Nothing is better in worship of Allah than to achieve knowledge of Deen.”
  33. • A-Memorization of Quran; There are certain Surahs or Ayahs of the Qur'an which, it is reported, the Prophet (SAW) used to recite more often in particular Prayers or on specific occasions. We should try to memorize these and recite in our Prayers. • B-Tarteel-"And recite the Qur'an in slow measured rhythmic tones" (Muzammil) Tarteel is the term used to define the rules that explain how to recite the Qur'an in the way and manner that the angel Jibreel (AS) recited to our beloved Messenger (SAW).
  34. • , ‘Whoever recited Surah Zilzilah (99) would get the reward of reciting half the Qur’an. Whoever recited Surah al Kaafirun (109) would get a reward as if reading a quarter of the Qur’an. Whoever recited Surah al Ikhlas (112) would get a reward as if reading one third of the Qur’an’. (At-Tirmidhi) • There is no envy (acceptable) except in two (cases): a person whom Allah has given the Qur’an and recites it throughout the night and throughout the day. And a person whom Allah has given wealth, that he gives out throughout the night and throghout the day.” *Al-Bukhari and Muslim]
  35. • Tajweed means "Improving," or "to make something better." Tajweed is a manner of beautifying the recitation of the Qur'an by reciting in a much slower manner than tarteel. • • Understanding of Quran and Quranic Arabic: • We should take advantage of excellent on line e book and A/V material provided by
  36. • “Verily Allah raises nations by this book (the Qur’an) and puts down (i.e. destroys) others by it.” *Muslim] • We should make a target of reading at least a chapter a day. • If one can’t manage that then at least half a chapter. • If one still can’t manage that then recite at least quarter of a chapter or even a page a day. • We should try to recite each day with its meanings and implement what we learn into our daily lives
  37. • A. We must make every effort to perform five times daily prayer. No matter where we are. • This is the first thing that draws you near to Allah, the Glorified and the Exalted, and you are in His Presence • We must try to establish Salah with congregation, at the masjid or at home with our family members • If one looses a single prayer one should feel as if everything is lost and offer 'Qada' without any delay.
  38. • The Prophet (SAW) said: "Ask (anything)." Rabi'ah said: "I ask of you to be your companion in paradise." The Prophet said: “Anything else?" Rabi'ah said: "That is it." The Prophet (SAW) said to him: "Then help me by making many prostrations (nafl prayers)." [Muslim] • Tahajjad- Prophet (SAW) said, “Hold fast to night prayer, for it was the way of the righteous before you, a way of drawing closer to your Lord, an expiation for wrong deeds, and a shield from sin.” (Tirmidhi)
  39. • Fasting is not restricted to Ramadan. • Fasting 6 days of Shawwal is recommended • `Aisha (RA) said: Prophet (SAW) used to fast Mondays and Thursdays". [An-Nasai; Sahih] • Prophet (SAW) said "O Abu Dhār! if you fast three days of every month, then fast the 13th, the 14th and the 15th [ al-ayaam al-beedh, the white days]". [Ahmad, an-Nasaa'i and at-Tirmithi) • Fasting on the day of Arafah and Ashurah is also meritorious
  40. • Obligatory Infaq 'that is Zakah must be paid • Optional Infaq should be practiced all the time. • Real worth is not of the quantity which you spend but the spirit of sacrifice for the sake of Allah. (Maududi) • “You shall not attain true goodness until you give of what you love.”(Ale Imran:92) • “Believers shade on the Day of Judgment shall be his charity.” (Tirmidhi)
  41. • "…Verily, in the remembrance of Allah do hearts find rest." (13:28) • Remembrance of Allah indeed is the greatest virtue.(29:46). • O ye who believe, remember Allah much. And glorify Him morning and evening (33:42-43)
  42. • The Prophet (SAW) said, "The similitude of one who remembers his Rubb and one who does not remember Him, is like that of the living and the dead.'' [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]. • When a man complained, "The laws of Islam are heavy for me, so tell me something that I can easily follow," the Prophet told him, "Let your tongue be always busy with the remembrance of Allah." [Ahmad]. • Zikr can be done anywhere and anytime
  43. • "Call on Me. I will answer your prayer, but those who are too arrogant to serve me will surely find themselves humiliated in Hell" (40:60). • "Call upon your Lord Humbly and in secret" (Quran 7:55), • "Is not He (best) who listens to the (soul) distressed when it calls on Him, and who relieves its suffering." (Quran 27:62) • "When My servants question thee concerning Me, I am indeed close (to them): I listen to the prayer of every suppliant when he calleth on Me" (Quran 2:186
  44. • Aisha(RA) said, "No believer makes Dua and it is wasted. Either it is granted here in this world or deposited for him in the Hereafter as long as he does not get frustrated.“ • "Whosoever does not supplicate to Allah, He will be angry with Him." [Saheeh Jaami`as-Sagheer #2414) • "The supplication that gets the quickest answer is the one made by one Muslim for another in his absence." [Abu Daw'ud and Tirmidhi]
  45. • And whoever does a wrong or wrongs himself, but then seeks forgiveness from Allah, he will find Allah forgiving and merciful. (Nisaa 4:110) • And seek Allahs forgiveness. Certainly, Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. (Muzzammil 73:20) • Lo! Allah is a Lord of Kindness to mankind, but most of mankind give not thanks. (al-Baqarah 2:143)
  46. • 1- Act of repentance be sincerely for Allah alone. • 2- Person must feel remorse and guilt over his actions so much so that he wished he had never done it in the first place. • 3- Person must immediately cease performing the wrong and sinful act. • 4- Repentant person must have a firm intention to never commit the sin again. • 5- Person must repent before it is too late, meaning before death approaches
  47. • Taubah opens the door of hope with the Mercy, forgiveness and salvation from the most Merciful Allah (SWT) • Repentance is an act, which purifies the soul • It increases humility and removes arrogance • It brings the servant closer to Allah. • It puts the heart at rest from guilt. • It protects one from falling prey to his/her desires lusts • It increases the faith in Allah (SWT) as our most Kind, Merciful and Forgiving Lord.
  48. O ye who believe! Save yourselves and your families from a Fire whose fuel is Men and Stones over which are (appointed) angels stern (and) severe who flinch not (from executing) the Commands they receive from Allah but do (precisely) what they are
  49. • Work of Dawah and Aqamah of Deen begins at home • One must try to establish congregational prayers with the family members • One must conduct collective study of Qur’an with the family members at least three times a week. • One must pay all due rights to the spouse and children and treat them with love, respect and understanding.
  50. • Many think that “a perfect Muslim” is simply one who observes Salah , the fasting, the Zakah and the Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah) • One can never get close to Allah by being arrogant, full of pride and having a bad character and manners. • Prophet (SAW) said, “Nothing is heavier in the scales of a believer on the Day of Judgment than his good behavior. Allah detests a person who is obscene and shameless”. (Tirmidhi)
  51. • The Prophet (SAW) said: “And no one humbles himself before Allah but Allah will raise him (in status).” Nawawi. • . As the Prophet(SAW) said "Al-Kibr is rejecting the truth and looking down upon people" [Muslim) • Humbleness is that one should humble himself with his companions. • Humbleness is to humble oneself to one who is below you. • Humbleness is that your deeds should not become too great. • The arrogant never gives credit to anybody or mentions good about others.
  52. • • • • • Sincerity Honesty Truthfulness Moderation Refined and gentle in speech, don’t curse and use foul language • Considerate , compassionate and loving, don’t be harsh • Polite and respectful to people, don’t be insulting or disrespectful • Generous and charitable, don’t be selfish and miserly
  53. • Good natured and forgiving, don’t be bitter and resentful. • Share and be content with what Allah has given you, don’t be greedy • Cheerful and pleasant, don’t be irritable and morose • Chaste and pure, don’t be lustful • Dignified and decent, don’t be graceless • Optimistic and hopeful, don’t be cynical or pessimistic • Confident and have deep faith, don’t be doubtful and wavering • Spiritually oriented and not materialistic
  54. • A true believer recognizes the wonder of the human body and is grateful to the Creator. • Islam’s holistic approach to health covers all aspects of the mind, body and soul. • A truly health conscious person blends diet, nutrition and exercise with the remembrance of God and an intention to fulfill all their religious obligations
  55. • Prophet Muhammad (SAW) said, “ A strong believer was better than a weak believer”. • The Prophet (peace be on him) once wrestled with a man called Rukanah who was well-known for his strength, throwing him down more than once. (Reported by Abu Daoud.) • Islam lays emphasis on cleanliness (Taharah), a simple diet combined with physical exercise.
  56. • The daily performance of five prayers is in itself a form of exercise. • Good health is necessary if one intends to fast the month of Ramadan. • Performance of the Hajj (or pilgrimage to Mecca) is an arduous task that requires many days of hard physical effort
  57. And thus We have made you a community of the middle way, so that you may be witnesses [to the Truth] before all mankind, and the Messenger may be witness [to it] before you (al-Baqarah 2: 143) O believers, be ever steadfast in standing up, for the sake of God, bearing witness to justice (al-Ma'idah 5: 8)
  58. • You have been given Divine guidance, • You have been shown the Truth. • You must, therefore, establish by your testimony and witness its authenticity and truthfulness before all mankind • Messengers were sent to the world; this was their primary duty. • After them, their followers were entrusted with the same duty
  59. A- Through Words • Through our speech and writing, we should proclaim and explain Islam to the world • Islam’s complete guidance in all aspects of life including thought, belief, in morality, in culture and civilization is to be conveyed. • We must establish its truth and soundness, by rational discourse and convincing evidence • We must commit all our hearts and minds, all of our resources, to this cause
  60. • • • • • • • • • • • Warning (indhar) Bringing glad tidings (tabshir) Inviting and calling (da'wah) Communicating (tabligh) Teaching and instructing (ta'lim) Conveying and propagating (tilawah).
  61. • Let our lives speak the truth • Let the world taste in our conduct, individual and collective, that sweetness which only the faith in One God can impart to character and morality • Our actions must show how every aspect of life is set right, developed and enriched • Principles and teachings which Islam proclaims to be true are indeed true, and that they do improve the quality of human life and raise it to better and higher levels.
  62. • Establishing Islam in our lives (Iqamatu 'd-din) • Making God's guidance and way of life proclaim over all others (Izhar) • Establishing justice (Qist) • Enjoining right and forbidding wrong (Amar Bil Maroof and Nahi Anil Munkar) • Jihad or struggle
  63. • “Hold fast to al-Jama’ah and stay away from division.” (Ttirmizi) • • “I order you of five things: to be with al jama’ah, to listen to the leaders, to obey the leader’s orders, hijrah, and jihad.” (Tirmizi) • “Whosoever obeyed the leader, he obeyed me (i.e., the Prophet) and whosoever disobeyed the leader, he disobeyed me.” (Muslim)
  64. • “Stay with al-Jama’ah, because the wolf devours the goat that runs away (from the herd).” (Abu Dawood) • “Satan is man’s wolf, just like there is goat’s wolf who hunts the goats that stay aloof, or run away or are separated (from the herd).” (Mishkat) • “Stay with al-Jama’ah and stay away from divisions. This is because Satan is with one individual, but stays away from two.” (Tirmizi)
  65. O ye who believe! Fear Allah and let every soul look to what (provision) he has sent forth for tomorrow. Fear Allah: for Allah is well-acquainted with (all) that ye do. Hashar 59:18
  66. Types of Nafs Nor do I absolve my own self (of blame): the (human soul) is certainly prone to evil unless my Lord do bestow His Mercy: but surely certainly my Lord is Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful. Yusuf, 12:53 And I do call to witness the self-reproaching spirit. 75:2 "O (thou) soul in (complete) rest and satisfaction! 89:27
  67. 1-Bahimi nafs, the cattle-like nafs. Like cows and chickens, this nafs finds ultimate happiness in consuming food, drink, sleep, and sex. 2-Subu’ee nafs, the predatory nafs. In addition to the basal desires of food, sleep, and sex, this hyena-like nafs finds pleasure in coveting the goods of others. 3-Shaytaani nafs, the devilish nafs. This type seeks to mischievously plot and scheme in creating evil and causing harm to others. 4-Malaaiki nafs, the angelic nafs. This nafs finds its greatest pleasure in nearness to its Creator.
  68. 1-Mushâratah: • To make an agreement or contract. (‘shart’ = stipulation) • In this step one must identify and set:  standards, conditions, limits, terms and guidelines for one’s own thoughts, feelings and actions one is trying to achieve.
  69. 2-Murâqabah • Murâqabah: to guard. (‘raqab’ = guard) • In this step one must meditate before one’s actions. • This involves that one must think, contemplate, be introspective and keep watch over one’s own self. • We function as our own observer
  70. 3-Muhâsabah • To evaluate self, taking account. (‘hisab’ = account) • This step involves self-examination • One takes account of one’s own actions • One continuously checks if one is upholding the agreement
  71. 4-Muâqabah • To punish, to control. (‘aqabah’ = punish) • For the contract to work we set consequences for ourselves when we have done something wrong • When we fail to keep the stipulations we agreed to uphold, we must pay the penalty
  72. 5-Mujâhadah • To make effort, striving. (‘jahd’ = effort) • In this step one is fighting against one’s own lower self and inclinations. • This is the stage of continuous and consistent struggle to overcome one’s nafs.
  73. 6-Muâtabah • To rebuke. (‘atab’ = repent) • In this step, if one has failed to maintain the contract, we make the effort to turn around, • Regretting and changing one’s ways on recognizing the error
  74. • We must take a few minutes in the morning • Make a contract with ourselves about how we will conduct this business of life, • Consciously try to maintain it, and • Spend some time at night evaluating how we did during the day; • We will then live with more awareness • We be able to improve the quality of our life.
  75. • If a Believer fails to observe this brief period of soulsearching daily, then he should at least try to do so once every few days, or once a week. • In this way, he draws up his life balance sheet, depicting to him his (spiritual) assets and liabilities. • A Believer should also have a longer period of this practice at the end of each month • It should be done at an even longer period at the end of the year, when he bids farewell to one year and prepares for and welcomes another
  76. • Allahumma aati nafsi taqwaahaa wa-zakkihaa, anta khayru man zakkaahaa, anta waliyyuhaa wamawlaahaa Allah grant me a nafs which has taqwa and purify it, you are the best of those who purify it, you are its wali and mawla... Allahumma alhimni rushdi wa-a'idhni min sharri nafsi Allah guide me straight and save me from my nafs