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Introduction to Psychology

  1. Dr. Rhea Lowella Santillan Fiser, RPsy, Rpm, CSIOP Professor
  2. Objectives: At the end of this lesson, you should be able to: a. Express your expectation in this course, Introduction to Psychology b. Describe how you think and feel about yourself c. Explain the meaning and goals of psychology Dr. Rhea Lowella Santillan-Fiser, RPsy, Rpm, CSIOP Professor
  3. What is Psychology? comes from the Greek word: – Psyche- mind, spirit or soul – Logos- study ❑Scientific study and practical application of observable behavior and mental processes of organism. Dr. Rhea Lowella Santillan Fiser, RPsy, Rpm, CSIOP Professor
  4. Psychology • Scientific study of A = Affect B = Behavior C = Cognition
  5. What is Psychology? • Psychology is the science of human behavior and mental processes. • Behavior is anything we do – overt actions and reactions • Mental processes are our internal experiences – thoughts, feelings, memories…
  6. Mental Processes It include forms of cognition or the ways of knowing which includes: ✓Perception ✓Attention ✓Remembering ✓Reasoning ✓Solving Problems ✓Dreams ✓Fantasies ✓Wishes
  7. Study of Behavior To study the mind, one has associated the way of thinking of an individual to his behavior. It linked the behavior of man and what runs in his mind.
  8. Different Types of Behavior
 A. Overt and Covert Overt Behavior is a behavior which is observable and can manifested outwardly. Example: Walking, Playing, Writing Covert Behavior is a behavior of which actions that is not directly visible. Example: Lying, Thinking, Learning
  9. B. Conscious, Unconscious and Non- conscious Conscious behavior pertains to the action that is within one’s awareness Example: Solving math problems mentally All emotional feelings Unconscious are those action done by an individual yet he is not aware of doing so. Example: Sleep Walking
  10. B. Conscious, Unconscious and Non- conscious Non-conscious bodily activities which may be detected by instruments or apparatus Example: Blood Pressure, Pulse rate, Digestion of Food
  11. C. Rational & Irrational Rational behavior is manifested through an action which is in the reals of sanity and adequate reason Example: Admiring an girl because of her beauty. Irrational behavior pertains to actions which are done without any apparent reason and explanation.
  12. D. Voluntary and Involuntary Voluntary behavior is done with the man’s full will and discretion Involuntary are those actions done automatically. Example: Breathing, Digestion and Circulation of the Blood.
  13. E. Simple & Complex Behavior may also be considered as simple or complex based on the number of neurons involved in the process of behavior Simple behavior utilized fewer neurons Complex behavior utilized large amount of neurons.
  14. • Psychology helps us scientifically evaluate
 common beliefs and misconceptions about
 behavior and mental processes. 

  15. Can you identify which of the beliefs on the
 following slide are
  16. The best way to learn and remember information is to “cram,” or study it intensively during one concentrated period.
  17. This is the worst way to prepare for an exam! Don’t confuse this for a quicker method of study- students who cram often perform more poorly than those who do not study at all!
  18. Advertisers and politicians often use subliminal persuasion to influence our behavior.

  19. This is a psychology urban legend! Although we will discuss the influence of sensation and perception below our threshold of awareness.
  20. Punishment is the most effective way to permanently change behavior.
  21. We will examine this ineffective practice when we begin our study of learning.
  22. Eyewitness testimony is often unreliable.
  23. Our memories are very fragile and subject to many variables. We will examine the influence of memory formation during this semester.
  24. Police often use psychics to help solve crimes.

  25. It’s important to recognize the difference between psychology and pseudopsychology, which includes the area of psychics.
  26. People with schizophrenia have two or more distinct personalities.
  27. This disorder is very misunderstood among the general public. People often confuse this disorder with Multiple Personality Disorder, now known as Dissociative Identity Disorder
  28. This quiz was a brief illustration of how psychological information is often misunderstood. Psychology is NOT limited to “common sense” information. We will examine each of these questions in detail through the course of this class
  29. What is Pseudoscience?
  30. Fortune-telling is the practice of predicting information about a person's life Astrology predicting human behavior based on position of stars, planets and the date of birth.
  31. Numerology involves significant numbers in an individual life like birthdate, house address, to predict future events or describe the influences on a personal life Phrenology the bumps of the skull account for specific trait like personality and mental abilities
  32. Graphology involves interpreting handwriting to judge a person’s character and issues about their lives.
  33. Physiognomy ( Face Reading) assessment of a person's character or personality from his or her outer appearance, especially the face.
  34. Palmistry is the art of characterization and foretelling the future through the study of the palm.
  35. Psychological Concept Example: Long Distance Relationship Belief: 1. Absence makes the heart grow fonder. 2. Out of sight, Out of Mind
  36. Dr. Rhea Lowella G. Santillan, Rpm, CSIOP Can you think
 “outside the box?”
  37. Next we will talk about why psychology is a science, which requires critical thinking. Use your imagination and “think outside the box” on this next puzzle.
  38. A man dressed entirely in black and wearing a black mask, is standing in the middle of a crossroad. All of the streetlights at the intersection are broken. A car speeds down the road, heading straight for the man, yet it turns in time and doesn't hit him. How does it manage to miss him? SAMPLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL QUESTION
  39. • The driver of the car avoided hitting the man wearing only black because it was DAYTIME • These “Lateral Thinking” exercises are a great example of how psychologists think critically about psychological questions.
  40. Dr. Rhea Lowella G. Santillan, Rpm, CSIOP Psychology is a Science • Psychology is considered as a science because it is focused upon the study and investigation of certain behavior with the application of one or a combination of
  41. Scientific Methods
  42. Psychological information is based on empirical evidence This is information based on direct observation and measurements with
  43. • Describe-typically based on detailed record of behavioral observation • Understand-explain an event. Known for understanding when we state the cause of behavior or explain a perplexing problem. • Predict Behavior-prediction is the ability to accurately forecast behavior • Control-altering conditions that influence behavior
  44. Dr. Rhea Lowella G. Santillan, Rpm, CSIOP How Accurate is the Image of Psychology? Think on your own… Make a list of words you would use to describe a psychologist
  45. Dr. Rhea Lowella G. Santillan, Rpm, CSIOP Typical images of Psychology
  46. How about Scientists? Think on your own.. Make a list of words would you use to describe a scientist? What images do you have?
  47. Dr. Rhea Lowella G. Santillan, Rpm, CSIOP Did any of these images come to mind?
  48. Dr. Rhea Lowella G. Santillan, Rpm, CSIOP It’s important to remember that…
 Psychologist’s ARE scientists!
  49. Think on Your Own… You have a problem that you want to address in therapy… Can any Psychologist help you?

  50. No…There are many types of psychologists, and many have nothing to do with counseling!

  51. Why do we have so many types of psychologists?
  52. Dr. Rhea Lowella G. Santillan, Rpm, CSIOP Psychologists have different ways of looking at the same problem, which is why there are so many sub-fields of psychology
  53. Psychology and Other Sciences
 • Biopsychology • Physiological Psychology • Psychiatry • Psychotherapy • Psychotropics • Psychosurgery • Social Psychology • Psycholinguistics or psychology of Language
  54. Psychology and Other Sciences
 Biopsychology Application of the principles of biology to the study of mental processes and behavior Physiological Psychology Study of neutral mechanism of perception and behavior through direct manipulation of the brains of non human animal subjects in controlled experiments Psychiatry Branch of medicine which exists to study, prevent and treat mental disorders in humans
  55. Psychology and Other Sciences
 Psychotherapy Pertains to the application of specialized psychological method to the treatment of diagnosed mental disorders or to the problems of a person’s daily adjustment Psychotropics Is a sub-field of medicine that deals with the various pharmacological agents such as anti-depressants, anti-anxiety, anti-manic, & anti-psychotic agents utilized to affect behavior, mood and feelings.
  56. Psychology and Other Sciences
 Psychosurgery Branch of medicine which involves the surgical severing and chemical alteration of brain fibers with the purpose of modifying psychological disturbances and other behavior aberrations. Social Psychology Merged the discipline of Sociology and Anthropology together with the basic premise about the common concern in psychology which is to study human behavior and mental processes Psycholinguistic or psychology of language Study of psychological and neurobiological factors that enable human to acquire, use and understand language.
  57. Psychogenesis of Psychology Ancient Period Greek Period Medieval Period Animism It is the GOD and Spirits who were attributed to be direct cause of events Democritus Plato Aristotle Hippocrates Galen St. Agustine of Hippo he introduce the method instrospection St. Thomas Aquinas When bodies dies, the Soul separates and became SPIRIT
  58. Psychogenesis of Psychology Pre-Modern Period Modern Psychology Contemporary Psychology Rudolf Gockel Francis Bacon Rene Descartes Thomas Hobbes John Locke George Berkeley Christian Von Wolff David Hume Franz Anton Mesmer Immanuel Kant Johann Friedrich Herbart Ernst Weber Herman von Hemholtz Charles Darwin Paul Broca/ Francis Galton Wilhelm Wundt William James Emil Kraeplin Edward Titchener Sigmund Freud Carl Jung Alfred Adler Karen Horney Karl Pearson Charles Spearman Alfred Binet Theodore Simon Ivan Pavlov William Mc Dougall Edward Thorndike B.F Skinner
  60. Insanity Treatment
  61. Electroconvulsive Therapy
  62. Modern Treatment for Insanity
  63. Dr. Rhea Lowella G. Santillan, Rpm, CSIOP
  64. Schools of Psychology • Structuralism-importance of the structure of mind • Functionalism-importance of the function of mind. • Behaviorism-importance of the environment in shaping individual’s behavior • Gestalt-to configure or form a pattern • Psychoanalysis-behavior is determined by powerful inner forces buried in the unconscious mind. • Cognitive Psychology-human perception, thought memory • Existentialist Psychology-free will & uniqueness of individual • Humanistic-Individual behavior is primarily determined by his perception of the world around him.
  65. ]
  66. Branches of Psychology • Abnormal Psychology • Behavioral Psychology • Biopsychology • Cognitive Psychology • Comparative Psychology • Developmental Psychology • Educational Psychology • Experimental Psychology • Personality Psychology • Social Psychology
  67. Applied Field in Psychology • Clinical Psychologist • Cognitive and Perceptual Psychologist • Counseling Psychologists • Developmental Psychologists • Educational Psychologists • Engineering Psychologist • Evolutionary Psychologist • Experimental Psychologist • Forensic Psychologist • Health Psychologists • Industrial/Organizational Psychologists • Neuropsychologists/Behavioral Neuropsychologists • Quantitative & Measurement Psychologist • Rehabilitation psychologist • School Psychologists • Social Psychologist • Sports psychologists
  68. What is the Difference Between a Psychologist and a Psychiatrist
  69. Methods of Psychology • Controlled Experiments • Animal Studies • Qualitative & Descriptive Research • Survey Questionnaires • Longitudinal Studies • Neuropsychological Methods • Computational Modeling
  70. Where did Psychology come from? • The first psychological laboratory was not created until 1879 by Wilhelm Wundt. • Wundt was responsible for creating the first school of psychological thought called Structuralism – This school focused only on immediate conscious experience and thought.
  71. Problems with Structuralism This group of Psychologists used a technique called Introspection which was a process of self- examination where the person described and analyzed thoughts as they occurred.
  72. Think on your own…
 What are some potential problems with this type of Psychology?

  73. Structuralism…the first step • The focus of study was way too narrow • They studied people only like themselves- very wealthy white males. • No valid research was produced • This school of thought was a great start, but no longer exists.
  74. The Next Evolution • Functionalism is the second perspective to emerge, founded by William James. • They studied how and why the mind functions. • This perspective broadened the scope of psychology and applied psychology to practical settings. • This perspective still focused on consciousness but began to examine overt behavior, not just mental processes.
  75. Psychology continued to expand based on the early work of these perspectives
  76. Psychological Perspectives • Psychologists have different ways of looking at behavior…click on the links to learn more about each area of psychology! – Psychoanalytic perspective – Behaviorist perspective – Humanistic perspective – Cognitive perspective – Biopsychology perspective – Social psychological perspective – Evolutionary perspective See p. 12
  77. Dr. Rhea Lowella G. Santillan, Rpm, CSIOP Who hasn’t heard of Freud? • This is one of the most well-known psychological perspectives in history developed by Sigmund Freud. • Freud believed that emotional problems are due to anxiety from unresolved conflicts that reside in unconscious
  78. Dr. Rhea Lowella G. Santillan, Rpm, CSIOP Psychoanalytic Theory • Freud was an early pioneer in treating emotional disorders and was the first to provide counseling and therapy to patients. • Free association and dream interpretation were developed technique to explore the unconscious processes
  79. Psychoanalytic Theory • Freud was one of the first to treat emotional disorders. • Freud’s theories were the first to suggest that our childhood experiences impact our adult behaviors – The first to provide therapy for patients. – Developed dream interpretation and free association
  80. Think on your own… Do childhood experiences affect adult life?
 What are some childhood experiences that you feel have shaped who you are now as an adult?
  81. Behaviorism…the opposite of Psychoanalysis • Behaviorism was founded by John Watson in direct opposition to Psychoanalytic Theory. • Behaviorism focused on behavior that can be measured and observable. This returned the scientific approach to psychology. – We can describe, predict, and control that behavior. John B. Watson Father of Behaviorism
  82. Behaviorism • Behaviorist’s believe people are controlled by their environment. – Behaviorism focuses on observable behavior • We are the result of what we have learned from our environment.
  83. Cognitive Psychology • Cognitive psychology believes that behaviors are performed because of ideas and thoughts. • The cognitive perspective focuses on such processes as perception, memory, and thinking • That’s what this area of psychology believes and Cognitive psychology currently exerts a strong influence in psychology.
  84. Dr. Rhea Lowella G. Santillan, Rpm, CSIOP Biopsychology Perspective • How biological factors affect mental processes and how the brain effects behavior. • Behavior and biology interact in important ways, and we will discuss the impact of this field when examining psychopharmacology, development and genetics.
  85. Think on your own..
 Where do Psychologist’s Work?
 Make a list of potential work places or jobs for psychologists.
  86. Experimental Psychologists
 (usually researchers and professors) About 1/4th of Psychologists work in colleges and universities.
  87. Applied Psychologists
 (service providers) The remaining 3/4ths work in hospitals, clinics, police departments, research institutes, government agencies, business and industry, schools, nursing homes, counseling centers, and private practice.
  88. Dr. Rhea Lowella G. Santillan, Rpm, CSIOP
  89. Dr. Rhea Lowella Santillan-Fiser, RPsy, Rpm, CSIOP Professor For more questions you can email me through Youtube Channel DR. Rhea Lowella Santillan Fiser SGOA