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Health Screening Services in Community Pharmacy.pdf

  1. Chapter:7 Chapter:7 Chapter:7 Health Screening Services in Community Pharmacy By, Dr.Ravikiran.S Assitant Professor
  2. They are Patient Care Services that are Provided by Pharmacist in Community Pharmacy Definition
  3. Screening is described as the use of rapid tests or examinations to presumptively identify people with unrecognized disease so that prompt treatments can be made to stop the disease from progressing. Early screening can lead to early treatment, such as intense hyperglycemia and hypertension control. for example, blood glucose measurement using a glucometer, blood pressure measurement with a sphygmomanometer, and so on. Introduction:
  4. Aim: To reduce the severity of a condition by detecting people with the condition and proving effective treatment. To increase choice by identifying conditions or risk factors at an early stage when more options are available.
  5. Blood glucose and blood pressure readings, cholesterol levels, Opioid Use Disorder (OUD), and mental health screenings are done by pharmacists as part of preventive care. Pharmacists can be alerted seek for risk indicators by using technology. Pharmacists in Medication Therapy Management (MTM) practise settings are in a unique position to perform screenings to improve patient health outcomes and eliminate racial inequities. Centres for Disease Control and prevention (CDC) has created a framework for community pharmacists and physicians to promote preventive health services. Through health screenings, pharmacy students can have a significant impact on patient care. Scope and importance:
  6. Health screening services are provided by healthcare experts to check on the health of people who have or do not have positive signs and symptoms. Health screening is critical for spotting signs of sickness in early stages. Early detection might mean the difference between basic treatments and life- threatening consequences that necessitate lengthy and costly hospital stays. Health screening services can be offered by health professionals or trained technicians in hospitals, clinical and community pharmacies.
  7. In Routine Monitoring of Patients: I. Obesity: Condition in which a person's weight has increased to the point where it is compromising his/her health. BMI = Weight in kilograms/ (height in mts)2. Normal range: 17-25. II. Blood Cholesterol: A total cholesterol blood test measures cholesterol and triglycerides levels in blood. Body uses cholesterol to make hormones and create cells. Excess cholesterol in bloodstream can clog arteries and cause plaque to form. Plaque build-up can raise the risk of heart disease.
  8. HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol) is a type of healthy cholesterol that binds to fat in the bloodstream and helps the body eliminate it. Should be more than 40 mgs/dl. LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease. Should be less than 200 mgs/dl. III. Blood glucose: A blood Glucose blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose (sugar) in blood to check diabetes. These can be done in 3 times. One is Fasting blood glucose in empty stomach; levels should be 70-99 mg/dl. Another one is PP(Post-Prandial ) in after 2 hours of your food; levels should be 80-200mgs/dl. And Random Blood glucose is taking at random time; levels should be 70-140mgs/dl.
  9. AlC Test: This blood test shows the average blood glucose levels over the previous three months. An anemic patient may not get the correct AlC test report. Normal range is 5-7 percent. IV. Hypertension: Increase in blood pressure. There are 2 types:- Systole and Diastole. Normal range is 120/80mmhg. Can be measured by Sphygmomanometer.
  10. Spirometry: This test determines how much air a person can inhale and exhale. It also determines how quickly he/she can expel air. During controlled ventilatory exercises, the pattern of air passage into and out of the lungs is measured. While wearing a nose clip, person might be asked to breathe through a mouthpiece. To ensure that the results are accurate, the process should be repeated three times or more. V. Lung or Pulmonary Function Tests: These tests are used to assess how effectively the lungs are functioning. Body Plethysmography: This test analyses how much air is present in the lungs when a person takes a deep breath. It shows air is left in there lungs once fully exhaled.
  11. Lung Diffusion Capacity: This test determines how efficiently oxygen is transported from the lungs to the bloodstream. Tidal Volume: It is the air inhaled during quiet breathing. Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV): It is the volume of air inhale. Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV): It is the volume of air exhalation.
  12. Ultrasounds, X-rays, and mammograms are used to look for structural abnonnalities, tumours, and stones. CT scans are recommended only after consultation with the patient to avoid substantial radiation exposure.In women over the age of 40, an ultrasound and mammography can help to detect breast cancer. VI. Radiological Investigations: In older women, ultrasounds frequently discover ovarian cysts and uterine fibroids as well as other common malignancies in the area. For individuals at risk, such as hepatitis B carriers and alcoholics, scans can detect liver cirrhosis and cancer.
  13. Maintaining excellent health and a higher quality of life requires health screening as well as a nutritious diet and exercise. Health screening and timely or frequent testing are critical for recognizing early warning signs of illness, as well as providing the drive to better understand one's health and make changes as needed. Screening for Cancer:- Cancer is the abnormality of the abnormality of the cell. In Early Detection: I. Breast Cancer: It is a very common malignancy among women. Those who have a family history of breast cancer have higher risk. II. Prostate Cancer: It occurs in the prostate. It cause of death in males. III. Cervical Cancer: All sexually active women should get a Pap smear test to check for cervical cancer.
  14. Lifestyle disorders, such as diabetes and high blood pressure, are on the rise, and it would be good for everyone to be attentive by getting screened for these diseases on a regular basis. High blood pressure might also lead to complications including kidney damage. Regular health monitoring can help to commence early care; in some cases, the disease can be managed without the need of drugs. Screening for Lifestyle Diseases:- Kidney Cancer: A urine test may be performed to see if blood is present. Blood tests, CT scans, and intravenous pyelograms are some of the other procedures used to detect kidney cancer. Colorectal Cancer: Person who is at a higher risk of colorectal cancer, such as diabetic.
  15. Hardening of arteries (atherosclerosis) can lead to a heart attack. Obese people, smokers, hypertensive people, and diabetics may benefit from routine cardiac exams, such as thread mills, ECHOs, and MRIs. Simple blood tests are performed on an empty stomach and also after a meal. Urine testing may also aid in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Screening for Atherosclerosis/Heart Diseases:- Screening for Type 2 Diabetes:-
  16. Diabetics, hypertensives, and people with a family history of kidney disease are at an increased risk of acquiring kidney disease. Regular screening aids in the early detection of the disease. Screening for Kidney Diseases:- Screening for Familial/Genetic Diseases Diseases that are passed on from generation to generation are known as familial diseases. Genetic diseases are sometimes mistaken with family diseases. There are genetic disorders in every family.
  17. In Referral of Undiagnosed Cases:- There are many diseases that go untreated and have a negative impact on the quality of life. Once detected through health screening, many of these disorders can be addressed or improved with a simple course of treatment.