They are Patient Care
Services that are Provided by
Pharmacist in Community
Screening is described as the use of rapid tests or
examinations to presumptively identify people with
unrecognized disease so that prompt treatments can be
made to stop the disease from progressing. Early
screening can lead to early treatment, such as intense
hyperglycemia and hypertension control. for example,
blood glucose measurement using a glucometer, blood
pressure measurement with a sphygmomanometer, and so
To reduce the severity of a condition by detecting people with
the condition and proving effective treatment.
To increase choice by identifying conditions or risk factors at an
early stage when more options are available.
Blood glucose and blood pressure readings, cholesterol levels, Opioid Use
Disorder (OUD), and mental health screenings are done by pharmacists as
part of preventive care. Pharmacists can be alerted seek for risk indicators
by using technology. Pharmacists in Medication Therapy Management
(MTM) practise settings are in a unique position to perform screenings to
improve patient health outcomes and eliminate racial inequities.
Centres for Disease Control and prevention (CDC) has created a
framework for community pharmacists and physicians to promote
preventive health services.
Through health screenings, pharmacy students can have a significant
impact on patient care.
Scope and importance:
Health screening services are provided by healthcare experts to check on the
health of people who have or do not have positive signs and symptoms.
Health screening is critical for spotting signs of sickness in early stages.
Early detection might mean the difference between basic treatments and life-
threatening consequences that necessitate lengthy and costly hospital stays.
Health screening services can be offered by health professionals or trained
technicians in hospitals, clinical and community pharmacies.
In Routine Monitoring of Patients:
Condition in which a person's weight has increased to the point where it is
compromising his/her health.
BMI = Weight in kilograms/ (height in mts)2.
Normal range: 17-25.
II. Blood Cholesterol:
A total cholesterol blood test measures cholesterol and triglycerides levels in
Body uses cholesterol to make hormones and create cells. Excess cholesterol
in bloodstream can clog arteries and cause plaque to form.
Plaque build-up can raise the risk of heart disease.
HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol) is a type of healthy cholesterol that
binds to fat in the bloodstream and helps the body eliminate it. Should be
more than 40 mgs/dl.
LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) has been linked to an increased risk of
heart disease. Should be less than 200 mgs/dl.
III. Blood glucose:
A blood Glucose blood glucose test measures the
amount of glucose (sugar) in blood to check diabetes.
These can be done in 3 times. One is Fasting blood glucose in empty
stomach; levels should be 70-99 mg/dl. Another one is PP(Post-Prandial ) in
after 2 hours of your food; levels should be 80-200mgs/dl. And Random
Blood glucose is taking at random time; levels should be 70-140mgs/dl.
AlC Test: This blood test shows the average blood glucose levels over the
previous three months. An anemic patient may not get the correct AlC test
report. Normal range is 5-7 percent.
Increase in blood pressure. There are 2 types:- Systole
Normal range is 120/80mmhg.
Can be measured by Sphygmomanometer.
Spirometry: This test determines how much air a person can inhale and
exhale. It also determines how quickly he/she can expel air. During
controlled ventilatory exercises, the pattern of air passage into and out of
the lungs is measured. While wearing a nose clip, person might be asked to
breathe through a mouthpiece. To ensure that the results are accurate, the
process should be repeated three times or more.
V. Lung or Pulmonary Function Tests:
These tests are used to assess how effectively the
lungs are functioning.
Body Plethysmography: This test analyses how much air
is present in the lungs when a person takes a deep breath.
It shows air is left in there lungs once fully exhaled.
Lung Diffusion Capacity: This test determines how
efficiently oxygen is transported from the lungs to the
Tidal Volume: It is the air inhaled during quiet
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV): It is the
volume of air inhale.
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV): It is the
volume of air exhalation.
Ultrasounds, X-rays, and mammograms are used to look for structural
abnonnalities, tumours, and stones. CT scans are recommended only after
consultation with the patient to avoid substantial radiation exposure.In
women over the age of 40, an ultrasound and mammography can help to
detect breast cancer.
VI. Radiological Investigations:
In older women, ultrasounds frequently
discover ovarian cysts and uterine fibroids as
well as other common malignancies in the area.
For individuals at risk, such as hepatitis B
carriers and alcoholics, scans can detect liver
cirrhosis and cancer.
Maintaining excellent health and a higher quality of life requires health
screening as well as a nutritious diet and exercise. Health screening and
timely or frequent testing are critical for recognizing early warning signs of
illness, as well as providing the drive to better understand one's health and
make changes as needed.
Screening for Cancer:-
Cancer is the abnormality of the abnormality of the cell.
In Early Detection:
I. Breast Cancer: It is a very common malignancy among women. Those who have a
family history of breast cancer have higher risk.
II. Prostate Cancer: It occurs in the prostate. It cause of death in males.
III. Cervical Cancer: All sexually active women should get a Pap smear test to
check for cervical cancer.
Lifestyle disorders, such as diabetes and high blood pressure, are on the rise,
and it would be good for everyone to be attentive by getting screened for
these diseases on a regular basis. High blood pressure might also lead to
complications including kidney damage. Regular health monitoring can
help to commence early care; in some cases, the disease can be managed
without the need of drugs.
Screening for Lifestyle Diseases:-
Kidney Cancer: A urine test may be performed to see if blood is present. Blood
tests, CT scans, and intravenous pyelograms are some of the other procedures
used to detect kidney cancer.
Colorectal Cancer: Person who is at a higher risk of colorectal
cancer, such as diabetic.
Hardening of arteries (atherosclerosis) can lead to a heart attack. Obese
people, smokers, hypertensive people, and diabetics may benefit from
routine cardiac exams, such as thread mills, ECHOs, and MRIs.
Simple blood tests are performed on an empty stomach and also after a
Urine testing may also aid in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.
Screening for Atherosclerosis/Heart Diseases:-
Screening for Type 2 Diabetes:-
Diabetics, hypertensives, and people with a family history of kidney
disease are at an increased risk of acquiring kidney disease. Regular
screening aids in the early detection of the disease.
Screening for Kidney Diseases:-
Screening for Familial/Genetic Diseases
Diseases that are passed on from generation to generation are known as
familial diseases. Genetic diseases are sometimes mistaken with family
diseases. There are genetic disorders in every family.
In Referral of Undiagnosed Cases:-
There are many diseases that go untreated and have a negative
impact on the quality of life.
Once detected through health screening, many of these
disorders can be addressed or improved with a simple course of