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Equine Dentistry
Equine Dentistry
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Equine dentition

  1. 1. Equine Dentition Dr. Qazi Muhammad Awais RCVetS, Lahore
  2. 2. “Never Look a Gift Horse in the Mouth”  Aging a horse by teeth  Diseases of the teeth  Diseases of the oral cavity
  3. 3. Teeth  Incisors – cutting teeth, closest to the front of the mouth  Canines – common in adult males, less common and smaller in adult females  Found in the gap between the incisors and premolars  Premolars – the three or four cheek teeth closest to front of mouth  Molars – the three cheek teeth at the back of the mouth
  4. 4. Deciduous Teeth  A total of 24 “baby” or “milk” teeth in the young horse  12 incisors and 12 premolars  No canines or molars!
  5. 5. Permanent Teeth  Replace the deciduous teeth, where present  The deciduous tooth that precedes the permanent tooth is called a cap  From eruption to being in wear is ~6 months  Continue to grow, using up the reserve crown over many years  Adult stallion with wolf teeth has 42 teeth
  6. 6. Premolars Molars Canine
  7. 7. Permanent Teeth  Six cheek teeth  Premolars 2, 3, and 4  Molars 1, 2, and 3  Fourth cheek tooth is the first molar  First premolar = wolf tooth  May be absent or very small in adult  Incisors:  Central  Intermediate  Corner
  8. 8. Eruption Dates Deciduous Permanent 1st incisor 0 – 1 week 2 ½ years 2nd incisor 4 – 6 week 3 ½ years 3rd incisor 6 – 9 months 4 ½ years *Canine 4 – 5 years 1st Premolar (wolf tooth) 5 – 6 months
  9. 9. Eruption Dates Deciduous Permanent 2nd Premolar 0 – 2 weeks 2 ½ years 3rd Premolar 0 – 2 weeks 3 years 4th Premolar 0 – 2 weeks 4 years 1st Molar 9 – 12 months 2nd Molar 2 years 3rd Molar 3 ½ - 4 years
  10. 10. Aging by teeth  An imprecise science – after the permanent teeth have erupted and are in wear, aging by teeth is a matter of judgement!
  11. 11. Things to consider  Permanent vs. deciduous teeth  7 and 11 year hooks  Points and stars. Enamel cups and dental stars  Galvayne’s Groove  Incisor Angle  Lip tattoo. 1997 started the alphabet again at “A”
  12. 12. One Year Old
  13. 13. Two Years Old
  14. 14. Three Years Old
  15. 15. Four Years Old
  16. 16. Five Years Old
  17. 17. Six Years Old
  18. 18. Seven Years Old 7-year hook
  19. 19. Eight Years Old
  20. 20. Nine Years Old
  21. 21. Ten Years Old Galvayne’s Groove
  22. 22. Twelve Years Old
  23. 23. Fifteen Years Old
  24. 24. Seventeen Years Old
  25. 25. Twenty Years Old and Older
  26. 26. Dental Problems?  Quidding  Spilling/spitting grain or hay  Difficulty chewing  Cheek sensitivity or swelling  Sensitivity to the bit  Head shaking or head tilt  Foul odor from mouth or nostrils  Excess salivation  Exaggerated tongue movements  Bleeding from mouth (especially after riding)  Poor body condition  Rough haircoat
  27. 27. Dental Examinations  Probably need to be tranquilized!  MUST use a full-mouth speculum  Visual and digital examination essential  How often?
  28. 28. Dental Problems  Retained dental caps  Permanent teeth can’t push deciduous teeth out  Lampas  Swelling in hard palate mucous membrane  Two year old bumps  Bone reacts with teeth  lump below jaw  Wolf teeth  Not always next to premolar 2
  29. 29.  Wolf tooth location and extraction
  30. 30. Dental Problems  Canines  Don’t always erupt  Molar hooks  Upper premolar 2  Lower third molar (most painful)  Float inside lower jaw, outside of upper jaw  Cribbing (woodchewing)  Air isn’t swallowed!
  31. 31.  Floating the teeth to get rid of sharp points on molars and premolars  Outside of upper teeth  Inside of lower teeth
  32. 32. Dental Problems  Windsucking (Stumpsucking)  Similar to Cribbing but doesn’t require something to set teeth on  May cause colic  Overdevelopment of neck muscles  Parrot Mouth/overshot jaw  Increased incidence of molar hooks  Decreased ability to prehend food
  33. 33. Parrot Mouth
  34. 34. Dental Problems  Monkey Mouth/undershot jaw  Wave Mouth  Can be caused by retained cap  Uneven wear of premolars and molars  Step mouth  Missing teeth/uneven wear  Cracked or fractured teeth
  35. 35. Dental Problems  Periodontal disease  Dental decay  Tooth root abscess  Supernumerary teeth  Dentigerous cyst  Salivary duct injuries  Tongue lacerations  Oral ulcers
  36. 36. Dental Problems  Cleft Palate  Odontomas  Bishoping
  37. 37. Dysphagia  Difficulty or unwillingness to eat  Slow and messy feeding  Extreme bad breath  Quidding  Productive cough  Nasal reflux of saliva, food and fluids  Possible Causes:  Strangles infection  Stylohyoid osteomyleitis  Physical trauma  Poisoning, such as lead  Botulism Inability to prehend, chew and swallow properly

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