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Body Image and Self esteem among Adolescents

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Body Image and Self esteem among Adolescents

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A prospective cross sectional study involving young school children over body image concerns, issues with self acceptance, peer relations, health, academics, and active interventions (workshops, awareness, collaboration, cellular helpline, etc).

A prospective cross sectional study involving young school children over body image concerns, issues with self acceptance, peer relations, health, academics, and active interventions (workshops, awareness, collaboration, cellular helpline, etc).

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Body Image and Self esteem among Adolescents

  1. 1. ASSESSMENT OF BODY IMAGE AND SELF ESTEEM AMONG YOUNG ADOLESCENTSDr. Nikhil S. Gupta, Dr. Gayatri R. Bhatia, Dr. Jyoti V. Shetty, Dr. Nilesh M. Naphade DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHIATRY BHARATI VIDYAPEETH DEEMED UNIVERSITY MEDICAL COLLEGE & RESEARCH HOSPITAL, PUNE-411043
  2. 2. Introduction  Body image refers to the picture that a person forms of his body in his mind and is influenced by his own beliefs and attitude as well as ideals in society.  Body image is a multifactorial construct, encompassing perceptual, affective, cognitive and behavioral aspects of body experience, depending on which it can be: Positive Body image or Negative Body image.  The way a person perceives his/her body is influenced by a variety of factors including the degree of importance their physical appearance has to their overall sense of self.
  3. 3.  Adolescence is the approximate time of development of personality along with self consciousness and self worth.  Among adolescent population, body shape and body weight dissatisfaction have been associated with a plethora of psychological ills ranging from eating disorders to major depression.
  4. 4.  Important co-relations of good self esteem are one’s positive physical appearance and high value to peers and family, academic achievements, athletic abilities and special talents.  This study aims at evaluating body image among school-going adolescents and assessing the strength of relationship between body image, self esteem and psychological distress among adolescent population.
  5. 5. Aim & Objectives AIM  To evaluate body image in relation to self esteem among school-going adolescents. OBJECTIVES  To assess body image disturbances in school-going adolescents.  To correlate prevalence of body image disturbances with gender.  To determine strength of relation between body image disturbances and self esteem.
  6. 6. Detailed Research Plan STUDY DESIGN  This is a cross sectional research analysis carried out from 1st September to 30th October 2015 in students studying in IX and X Standard of Bharati Vidyapeeth English Medium High School (CBSE), Pune after seeking approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee of Bharati Vidyapeeth University and School authorities.
  7. 7. INCLUSION CRITERIA  All students studying in IX and X standards in Bharati Vidyapeeth English Medium High School, Pune.  All students willing to participate in the study by means of a written assent form. EXCLUSION CRITERIA  Students whose parents do not consent to their participation in this study.
  8. 8. SAMPLE SELECTION  All the students were provided detailed information about study.  A total of 139 students including 87 boys and 52 girls consented to take part in study by means of written assent and parental consent forms. METHODOLOGY Students were asked to fill out a set of questions comprising of:  Specially designed Socio-demographic proforma  General Health Questionnaire-28  Rosenberg’s Self Esteem Scale  Body Image Questionnaire
  9. 9. Tool Description  GENERAL HEALTH QUESTIONNAIRE 28 – is divided into four sub-scales each containing Somatic symptoms, Anxiety/Insomnia, Social dysfunction, Severe depression. A score of >4 out of 28 indicates probable psychological distress.  ROSENBERG’S SELF ESTEEM SCALE- is a ten item likert scale to measure self-esteem by asking respondents to reflect on their current feelings and higher score indicates higher self esteem.  BODY IMAGE QUESTIONNAIRE – co-relates perceived body image with gender, health and current and future emotional adjustment and interpreted on factors like Satisfaction (Positive) / Dissatisfaction (Negative), Activity/ Passivity.
  10. 10. Results 72 22 15 30 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Boys (n=87) Girls (n=52) Numberofparticipants Gender Body Image vs Gender Positive Negative
  11. 11. 26 0 12 5 46 15 10 25 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Positive (72) Negative (15) Positive (22) Negative (30) Boys (n=87) P-value=0.004 Girls (n=52) P-value=0.007 Numberofparticipants Gender and Body Image Body Image VS GHQ-28 Normal Abnormal
  12. 12. 64 9 20 17 8 6 2 13 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Positive (72) Negative (15) Positive (22) Negative (30) Boys (n=87) P-value=0.013 Girls (n=52) P-value=0.012 Numberofparticipants Gender and Body image Body Image vs RSES Normal Abnormal
  13. 13. 14 14 9 30 58 1 13 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Positive (72) Negative (15) Positive (22) Negative (30) Boys (n=87) P-value<0.001 Girls (n=52) P-value<0.001 Numberofparticipants Gender and Body Image Body Image vs Effect Of Others Opinion Yes No
  14. 14. 0 7 1 14 72 8 21 16 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Positive (72) Negative (15) Positive (22) Negative (30) Boys (n=87) P-value<0.001 Girls (n=52) P-value=0.001 Numberofparticipants Gender and Body Image Body Image vs Subjects went on DIET Yes No
  15. 15. Discussion  These results demonstrate disparity in Body image dissatisfaction as girls were found to have more Negative Body image (58%) as compared to boys (17%) which co-relates with several previous studies (Paxton et al 1991, Kostanski et al 1998, Huang et al 2007) and indicates that girls are more concerned about their physical appearance and behavioral body experiences.
  16. 16.  In relation with self esteem; 89% boys and 91% girls with Positive Body image were found to have higher levels of self esteem and self worth in contrast with their physical appearance rather than other traits such as special talents and abilities, academical adjustment and achievements, family and social support and these findings are comparative with current literature that Positive body image report higher self esteem (Huang et al 2007).
  17. 17.  Although most of the participants (69%) were found to be scoring high for psychological distress on GHQ- 28 which seems to be due to academic pressure and high parental expectations in this age group, but in relation to Body image; as high as 100% boys and 83% girls with Negative Body image were found to be having psychological distress which is comparative with current literature that Negative body image and low self esteem has negative psycho-social effects and increase the risk for psychological distress (Huang et al 2007).
  18. 18. In relation with effect of others opinion, 93% boys and 100% girls with Body dissatisfaction reported that others opinion about their physical appearance is important for them and they even feel discriminated because of their physical appearance. Whereas equal number of boys and girls with Body dissatisfaction (47%) have been on diet in the past or present which relates to dissatisfaction with their body mass distribution either underweight or overweight (Kostanski et al 1998).
  19. 19. Conclusion and Future Directions  These findings demonstrate that adolescent girls have more Body image dissatisfaction as compared to boys and Positive body image will lead to higher levels of self esteem and self worth.  Others opinion also plays important role in the physical appearance and overall sense of self in adolescents with Body image dissatisfaction.
  20. 20.  Since a large proportion of adolescents with Negative Body image and even with Positive body image were found to be having psychological distress plans have been discussed with school authorities to have ongoing Counseling sessions/ Stress management workshops to help with the same.  The constancy of Body image dissatisfaction among adolescents points to the need for future research throughout early developmental periods as there is limited data in this regard.
  21. 21. References 1. Paxton, Wertheim et al Body image dissatisfaction, dieting beliefs and weight loss behaviors in adolescent girls and boys. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 20, 361-379. 2. Kostanski M, Eleonora G Adolescent body image dissatisfaction: Relationships with self esteem, anxiety and depression controlling for body mass. J. Child psychol. Psychiat. 1998; 39(2):255-262. 3. Huang JS, Norman GJ et al Body image and self esteem among adolescents undergoing an intervention targeting dietary and physical activity behaviors. J. Adolesc. health. 2007 March;40(3):245-251.

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