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Application of novel feeding system 
extrusion in manufacturing Tropical 
Kenaf Plastic Composite 
Khalina Abdan, Phd 
Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, 
Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest 
Products,(INTROP) 
Universiti Putra Malaysia,43400,Serdang, Selangor.
 Presentation outline 
 Overview of Kenaf Malaysia 
 Kenaf Fibre Processing 
 Extrusion Feeding System 
 Kenaf Polymer Composites 
 Potential of Biobased Composite Industry in 
Malaysia
 Overview of Kenaf Malaysia 
 It was introduced in 2000 
 Malaysia National Tobacco Board (MNTB) has 
successful planted 1000 hectares in 2007 at 
Eastern Malaysia for R&D&C and established few 
kenaf processing mills such as KFI Natural Fibre 
Industries Sdn. Bhd. 
 Kenaf plantation is fully mechanized to reduce 
labour and increase yield
KENAF MECHANIZATION 
4 
Land Preparation 
Sowing & Fertilising 
1 week 
Pest Control 2 months 
3.5 Month old 
2nd fertilizing
 Overview of Kenaf Industry in Malaysia 
 The developing of kenaf industry is reflected 
by two important events:The transformation 
of (MNTB) to Malaysian National Kenaf and 
Tobacco Board (MNKTB) and the inclusion 
of kenaf industry as one of strategic industries 
under the East Coast Economic Region 
(ECER) Development Program 
Malaysian government has taken the 
initiative to focus on the development 
of kenaf-based products by integrating 
 
the upstream to downstream 
processing R&D, towards economic 
and marketing activities
 Kenaf Fibre Processing 
 Infield Processing (decortication) (MNKTB) 
 Whole stem to long bast and water retting 
Hammer mill processing (KFI Sdn. Bhd.) 
 Whole stem to short bast and core fibre (10 -20mm), 
 Pulverizing process (Polyregion Sdn. Bhd.) 
 Chip fibre to fine fibre (0.2-1mm)
Screening process 
Pulverise Chip
Fibre Density 
(g/cm3) 
FIBRE PROPERTIES 
Elongation(%) Tensile 
Strength 
(MPa) 
Elastic 
Modulus 
(GPa) 
Cotton 1.6 7 287 5.5 
Flax 1.5 2.7 345 27.6 
Hemp 1.5 1.6 690 70 
Sisal 1.5 2 511 9.4 
Ramie 1.5 1.2 400 61.4 
Kenaf 1.4 1.6 930 53 
Jute 1.3 1.5 393 26.5 
Coir 1.2 30 175 4.0 
Bledzki et al.,2000
Graph L/D ratio 
FIBER CHARACTERIZATION: 
Graph bulk density 
Graph moisture content 
Bulk density for kenaf(250μ 
-650μ) 
Physical Properties
Water 
degradation Lignin 
FT-IR Graph DTG kenaf fiber 
degradation 
Hemicellulose 
degradation 
Hemicelluloses 
O-H plane 
bending 
(3341cm-1 
and 3345 
cm-1)_ 
FIBER CHARACTERIZATION: Thermal and 
Chemical Properties
FIBER CHARACTERIZATION: 
Morphological 
Florescence 
Microscope 
Kenaf fiber SEM photomicrograph illustrating 
the present of hollow portion in 
natural fibre (1000x). 
SEM photomicrograph illustrating 
the present of kenaf fiber in 
plastic composite
 Extrusion Feeding System 
 It has been designed to provide less clogging and efficient 
mixing of kenaf and plastic in order to achieve desire fibre 
loading using various fibre mesh by applying continuous 
feeding system 
 The feeding rate study was conducted to identify 
relationship between fibre mesh and the highest potential 
fibre loading 
 The optimization processing condition was examine to 
determine the suitable feeder speed, main screw mixer 
speed and mixing temperature.
Biocomposite Twin Screw Extruder : 
Plastic Feeder 
Kenaf Feeder 
Twin Spiral Screw 
Agitator 
Water Bath
Main Part of Extruder : Feeder 
Side Feeder 
motor 
Main Feeder 
Motor 
Main Feeder Side feeder 
Motor Single Unit 2 Units 
Input Plastic resin Kenaf fiber 
To ensure continuous feeding of kenaf ; two motors are required 
whereby first motor dedicated to avoid clogging and second 
motor devoted for transportation of kenaf fiber
Advantages of Kenaf Feeder 
1. High in output precision 
2. High volume of output 
Motor 
Speed 
Double 
Stage 
Feeder 
25 Hz 177 g/min ±3% 
Single Stage 
Feeder 
25 Hz 82 g/min ±11% 
Project’s Potential 
Output Tolerance 
Feeder for light weight material in composite compounding and 
extrusion industries, food industries and material handling industries.
Compounding 
zone 
Melting Zone 
Kenaf enter 
the barrel 
Metering 
Zone 
Main Part of Extruder : Barrel 
Zone 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 
Temperature (oC) 190 200 220 220 190 190 190 190 190 190
15 CM 
15 CM 
Dumble Size
Instron Tensile Test Machine
Acknowledgement 
 The research was supported by Grant of Economic Planning 
Unit, Prime Ministry Department 
Title : Development of Biocomposite Material from Kenaf 
Fibre for Industrial Building System and Furniture 
Component. 
Sub research title: Rheological Behaviours of Kenaf Fiber 
Reinforced Plastics Composite prepared using 
Biocomposite Twin Screw Extruder. 
NATURAL FIBRE REINFORCED 
PLASTIC COMPOSITE MILLS

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Kenaf Composite Manufacturing Process

  • 1. Application of novel feeding system extrusion in manufacturing Tropical Kenaf Plastic Composite Khalina Abdan, Phd Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products,(INTROP) Universiti Putra Malaysia,43400,Serdang, Selangor.
  • 2.  Presentation outline  Overview of Kenaf Malaysia  Kenaf Fibre Processing  Extrusion Feeding System  Kenaf Polymer Composites  Potential of Biobased Composite Industry in Malaysia
  • 3.  Overview of Kenaf Malaysia  It was introduced in 2000  Malaysia National Tobacco Board (MNTB) has successful planted 1000 hectares in 2007 at Eastern Malaysia for R&D&C and established few kenaf processing mills such as KFI Natural Fibre Industries Sdn. Bhd.  Kenaf plantation is fully mechanized to reduce labour and increase yield
  • 4. KENAF MECHANIZATION 4 Land Preparation Sowing & Fertilising 1 week Pest Control 2 months 3.5 Month old 2nd fertilizing
  • 5.  Overview of Kenaf Industry in Malaysia  The developing of kenaf industry is reflected by two important events:The transformation of (MNTB) to Malaysian National Kenaf and Tobacco Board (MNKTB) and the inclusion of kenaf industry as one of strategic industries under the East Coast Economic Region (ECER) Development Program Malaysian government has taken the initiative to focus on the development of kenaf-based products by integrating  the upstream to downstream processing R&D, towards economic and marketing activities
  • 6.  Kenaf Fibre Processing  Infield Processing (decortication) (MNKTB)  Whole stem to long bast and water retting Hammer mill processing (KFI Sdn. Bhd.)  Whole stem to short bast and core fibre (10 -20mm),  Pulverizing process (Polyregion Sdn. Bhd.)  Chip fibre to fine fibre (0.2-1mm)
  • 8. Fibre Density (g/cm3) FIBRE PROPERTIES Elongation(%) Tensile Strength (MPa) Elastic Modulus (GPa) Cotton 1.6 7 287 5.5 Flax 1.5 2.7 345 27.6 Hemp 1.5 1.6 690 70 Sisal 1.5 2 511 9.4 Ramie 1.5 1.2 400 61.4 Kenaf 1.4 1.6 930 53 Jute 1.3 1.5 393 26.5 Coir 1.2 30 175 4.0 Bledzki et al.,2000
  • 9. Graph L/D ratio FIBER CHARACTERIZATION: Graph bulk density Graph moisture content Bulk density for kenaf(250μ -650μ) Physical Properties
  • 10. Water degradation Lignin FT-IR Graph DTG kenaf fiber degradation Hemicellulose degradation Hemicelluloses O-H plane bending (3341cm-1 and 3345 cm-1)_ FIBER CHARACTERIZATION: Thermal and Chemical Properties
  • 11. FIBER CHARACTERIZATION: Morphological Florescence Microscope Kenaf fiber SEM photomicrograph illustrating the present of hollow portion in natural fibre (1000x). SEM photomicrograph illustrating the present of kenaf fiber in plastic composite
  • 12.  Extrusion Feeding System  It has been designed to provide less clogging and efficient mixing of kenaf and plastic in order to achieve desire fibre loading using various fibre mesh by applying continuous feeding system  The feeding rate study was conducted to identify relationship between fibre mesh and the highest potential fibre loading  The optimization processing condition was examine to determine the suitable feeder speed, main screw mixer speed and mixing temperature.
  • 13. Biocomposite Twin Screw Extruder : Plastic Feeder Kenaf Feeder Twin Spiral Screw Agitator Water Bath
  • 14. Main Part of Extruder : Feeder Side Feeder motor Main Feeder Motor Main Feeder Side feeder Motor Single Unit 2 Units Input Plastic resin Kenaf fiber To ensure continuous feeding of kenaf ; two motors are required whereby first motor dedicated to avoid clogging and second motor devoted for transportation of kenaf fiber
  • 15. Advantages of Kenaf Feeder 1. High in output precision 2. High volume of output Motor Speed Double Stage Feeder 25 Hz 177 g/min ±3% Single Stage Feeder 25 Hz 82 g/min ±11% Project’s Potential Output Tolerance Feeder for light weight material in composite compounding and extrusion industries, food industries and material handling industries.
  • 16. Compounding zone Melting Zone Kenaf enter the barrel Metering Zone Main Part of Extruder : Barrel Zone 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Temperature (oC) 190 200 220 220 190 190 190 190 190 190
  • 17. 15 CM 15 CM Dumble Size
  • 19. Acknowledgement  The research was supported by Grant of Economic Planning Unit, Prime Ministry Department Title : Development of Biocomposite Material from Kenaf Fibre for Industrial Building System and Furniture Component. Sub research title: Rheological Behaviours of Kenaf Fiber Reinforced Plastics Composite prepared using Biocomposite Twin Screw Extruder. NATURAL FIBRE REINFORCED PLASTIC COMPOSITE MILLS