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Human trafficking

  1. 1. Human trafficking
  2. 2. Introduction • Human trafficking is the third largest organized crime after drugs and the arms trade across the globe. • According to the definition of the United Nations – “trafficking is any activity leading to recruitment, transportation, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of threat or use of force or a position of vulnerability”. • Close to 80% of the human trafficking across the world is done for sexual exploitation and the rest is for bonded labor and India is considered as the hub of this crime in Asia.
  3. 3. Human trafficking • According to an article in Firstpost, Delhi is the hub of human trafficking trade in India and half of the world’s slaves live in India. • Delhi is the hotspot for illegal trade of young girls for domestic labour, forced marriage and prostitution. • Delhi is also the transit point for human trafficking. • The New York Times has reported on the widespread problem of human trafficking in India especially in the state of Jharkhand. • Also in the report it is stated that children and young girls are trafficked from neighboring Nepal and Bangladesh to India.
  4. 4. Human trafficking • Kids especially girl and young women are taken from their homes and sold in faraway states of India for sexual exploitation and to work as bonded labour by the agents who lure their parents with education, better life, and money for these kids . • Agents do not send these kids to school but sell them to work in brick kilns, carpentry units, as domestic servants, beggars etc. • Whereas girls are trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation. • Even these girls are forced to marry in certain regions where female to male sex ratio is highly disturbed.
  5. 5. Statistics report • As per the statistics of the government – in every eight minutes a child goes missing in our country. • In 2011 about 35,000 children were reported missing and more than 11,000 out of these were from West Bengal. • Further, it is assumed that only 30% of the total cases are reported, so the actual number is pretty high. • As per the data from Home Ministry, 1379 cases of human trafficking were reported from Karnataka in the period of four years, in Tamil Nadu the number is 2,244 whereas Andhra Pradesh has 2,157 cases of human trafficking.
  6. 6. Figures in India • In 1998, between 5,000 and 7,000 Nepalese girls, some barely 9–10 years old were trafficked into the red light districts in Indian cities, and 200,000 to over 250,000 Nepalese women and girls were already in Indian brothels. • In 2009, it was estimated 1.2 million children are trafficked worldwide for sexual exploitation, including for prostitution or the production of sexually abusive images. • Only 10% of human trafficking in India is international, while almost 90% is interstate. • According to a report by the National Human Rights Commission of India, 40,000 children are abducted each year, leaving 11,000 untraced. • There is an estimated 300,000 child beggars in India.
  7. 7. Figures in India • Every year, 44,000 children fall into the clutches of the gangs. • According to the CBI (Central Bureau of Investigation) reports of 2009, there are an estimated 1.2 million children involved in prostitution in India. • In 2014, 76% of people trafficked in India were women and girls. • In 2015, in India 4,203 human trafficking cases were investigated. • Children make up roughly 40% of prostitutes. • It is estimated that over 2 million women and children are trafficked for sex into the red-light districts in India. • The Indian Government estimates that girls make up the majority of children in sex trafficking.
  8. 8. Types • Forced Labour • Bonded Labour • Sex Trafficking and Prostitution • Debt Bondage and Involuntary Servitude Among Migrant Labourers • Involuntary Domestic Servitude • Forced Child Labour • Child Soldiers • Children Exploited for Commercial Sex • Child Sex Tourism
  9. 9. Forced Labour • These workers are made more vulnerable to forced labour practices because of unemployment, poverty, crime, discrimination, corruption, political conflict, and cultural acceptance of the practice. • Forced labor is a form of human trafficking that can be harder to identify and estimate than sex trafficking. • It may not involve the same criminal networks profiting from transnational sex trafficking, but may instead involve individuals who subject anywhere from one to hundreds of workers to involuntary servitude, perhaps through forced or coerced household work or work at a factory.
  10. 10. Bonded Labour • One form of force or coercion is the use of a bond, or debt, to keep a person under subjugation. • This is referred to in law and policy as “bonded labor” or “debt bondage.” • Many workers around the world fall victim to debt bondage when traffickers or recruiters unlawfully exploit an initial debt the worker assumed as part of the terms of employment, or when workers inherit debt in more traditional systems of bonded labor. • Traditional bonded labor in South Asia enslaves huge numbers of people from generation to generation.
  11. 11. Sex Trafficking and Prostitution • Sex trafficking comprises a significant portion of overall trafficking and the majority of transnational modern-day slavery. • Sex trafficking would not exist without the demand for commercial sex flourishing around the world. • Turning people into dehumanized commodities creates an enabling environment for human trafficking. • Female victims of forced or bonded labor, especially women and girls in domestic servitude, are often sexually exploited as well.
  12. 12. Debt Bondage and Involuntary Servitude Among Migrant Labourers • The vulnerability of migrant laborers to trafficking schemes is especially disturbing because this population is so sizeable in some regions. • Three potential contributors can be discerned: • 1) Abuse of contracts; • 2) Inadequate local laws governing the recruitment and employment of migrant laborers; and • 3) The intentional imposition of exploitative and often illegal costs and debts on these laborers in the source country or state, often with the complicity and/or support of labor agencies and employers in the destination country or state. • Costs imposed on laborers for the “privilege” of working abroad can place laborers in a situation highly vulnerable to debt bondage.
  13. 13. Involuntary Domestic Servitude • Domestic workers may be trapped in servitude through the use of force or coercion, such as physical (including sexual) or emotional abuse. • Children are particularly vulnerable. Domestic servitude is particularly difficult to detect because it occurs in private homes, which are often unregulated by public authorities. • For example, there is great demand in some wealthier countries of Asia and the Middle East for domestic servants who sometimes fall victim to conditions of involuntary servitude.
  14. 14. Forced Child Labour • Most international organizations and national laws recognize that children may legally engage in light work. • In contrast, the worst forms of child labour are being targeted for eradication by nations across the globe. • The sale and trafficking of children and their entrapment in bonded and forced labour are clearly among the worst forms of child labour. • Any child who is subject to involuntary servitude, debt bondage, peonage, or slavery through the use of force, fraud, or coercion is a victim of trafficking in persons regardless of the location of that exploitation.
  15. 15. Child Soldiers • Child soldiering is a unique and severe manifestation of trafficking in persons that involves the unlawful recruitment of children through force, fraud, or coercion to be exploited for their labour or to be abused as sex slaves in conflict areas. • Such unlawful practices may be perpetrated by government forces, paramilitary organizations, or rebel groups. • UNICEF estimates that more than 300,000 children under 18 are currently being exploited in more than 30 armed conflicts worldwide. • While the majority of child soldiers are between the ages of 15 and 18, some are as young as 7 or 8 years of age.
  16. 16. Children Exploited for Commercial Sex • Each year, more than two million children are exploited in the global commercial sex trade. • Many of these children are trapped in prostitution. • The commercial sexual exploitation of children is trafficking, regardless of circumstances. • International covenants and protocols obligate criminalization of the commercial sexual exploitation of children. • Terms such as “child sex worker” are unacceptable because they falsely sanitize the brutality of this exploitation.
  17. 17. Child Sex Tourism • Child sex tourism (CST) involves people who travel from their own country—often a country where child sexual exploitation is illegal or culturally abhorrent—to another country where they engage in commercial sex acts with children. • CST is a shameful assault on the dignity of children and a form of violent child abuse. • The commercial sexual exploitation of children has devastating consequences for minors, which may include long-lasting physical and psychological trauma, disease (including HIV/AIDS), drug addiction, unwanted pregnancy, malnutrition, social ostracism, and possibly death.
  18. 18. Causes • Poverty • Political condition • War • Social and cultural practices • Demand of cheap labour • Child marriage • Mutilation • Sex-tourism • Child labour • migration
  19. 19. Causes • Poverty • Poverty is a major factor in human trafficking industry. • The victims look for any means to get out of the curse of poverty. • These helpless condition of the victims gives ample scope to the traffickers to entrap the victims in their nets. • The traffickers lure the victims with better life facilities by way of moving to foreign countries. • Large populations of Albania, Belarus, Bulgaria, China, Nigeria, Thailand and Ukraine are affected by extreme poverty and exploited by Traffickers.
  20. 20. Causes • Political condition • Political instability, militarism, generalized violence or civil unrest increase in trafficking as well. • The destabilization and scattering of population increase their vulnerability to unfair treatment and abuse via trafficking and forced labour. • War • A large number of children who have lost their family members in war are vulnerable to trafficking. • Armed conflicts lead to massive gross displacement of people.
  21. 21. Causes • Social and cultural practices • Most of the women and girls are generally exploited and abused due to social and cultural practices and are forced to live in dangerous condition. • They are more vulnerable to human trafficking as they get little opportunity of upward mobility. • In our society a single mother, divorced woman, widowed and sexually abused woman and young girls are easy prey to the traffickers because of the social stigma.
  22. 22. Causes • Demand of cheap labour • Demand of cheap labour particularly in restaurants and kitchens help traffickers to exploit employees who are often initially promised a safe work space and a steady salary, though they are paid less than minimum wage and are forced to work on overtime. • As the victims of trafficking are unable to protest for having very few alternatives, the business owners never cease to practices these illegal norms. • According to ILO there are more than 11.7 million people working as forced labour in Asia for specific reason
  23. 23. Causes • Child marriage • In our country child marriage is the easiest way of human trafficking. In village community it is a matter of shame for the poor parents who are unable to arrange the marriage of their daughter. • So they easily accept the offer of the traffickers who approach the poor families with marriage proposal without dowry, rather with cash rewards (between Rs. 1000- Rs. 5000 on an average). • After marriage, the girls are sold and resold until they reach ultimate destination. In South Africa range between 28,000 and 30,000 persons approximately half of whom are between 10-14 years of age, half of whom are between 15-18 years of age are trafficked for commercial sex.
  24. 24. Causes • Mutilation • People are trafficked for their organs, particularly kidneys. • It is a rapidly growing field of commercial activity. • The life of the victim is at risk as operations are carried out in clandestine conditions with no medical care at all. • According to NCRB (2015), 15 cases were registered under the Transplantation of Human Organ Act, 1994 in India.
  25. 25. Causes • Sex-tourism • In recent time globalization has played an important role for the growth of tourism business and entertainment industries. • As a result, sex related trades like sex tourism have grown rapidly. At the same time rising male migration to urban areas as well as stressful working of the BPO sector workers have also contributed to growing demand for commercial sex in the cities. • Statistics say that many women are trafficked from Philipines, Thailand to Netherland and Spain for sex tourism. • The communication revolution occurred with the development of internet, increases the growth of sex tourism industry.
  26. 26. Causes • Child labour • Child labour means work performed by a child under the age of 14 for economic purpose. • Children are deprived of their childhood and regular attendance to school. • Though all the work done by children is not detrimental or exploitive, but this practice is hazardous and harmful to the physical and mental health of a child. • Across the globe, traffickers supply child for use in forced labour activities. • Some of the children are trafficked into the commercial sex industry. • In Ghana about one in every six children ages 4-17 is engaged in child labour.
  27. 27. Causes • Migration • Migration means the movement by people from one place to another with an objective mind. • When people take irregular means for migration, they are easily victimised by human traffickers which poses a great danger to children and young woman in particular. • Migrants from Bangladesh are sometimes trafficked and sold into prostitution or forced labour.
  28. 28. Consequences • The victims in the process of trafficking in persons are abused and exploited in certain conditions which may result in short term and long term minor and severe psychological and physical attacks, diseases especially sexually transmitted diseases or HIV viruses. • This condition can even lead to the permanent disability and death. • The direct consequences of human trafficking are aggression, depression, disorientation, alienation and difficultiesin concentration. • Many studies have shown that injuries and traumas acquired during the process of trafficking can last for a long period even after the person has become free from exploitation and this mainly occurs when the victim is not given with proper care and counsel.
  29. 29. Consequences • Although the victims are brought out from the physical problems, the trauma and the psychological problems does not allow the victim to totally recover from the consequences. • Some of the victims find it difficult to adapt to the normal lives that they previously carried out. • The sad part about the victims of human trafficking is that the rights of the victims are violated even after they come out from the status of exploitation. • In many cases they face re-victimization.
  30. 30. Preventive Measures of Human Trafficking
  31. 31. Legal Framework to address Trafficking in India • Article 23 of the Constitution: Guarantees right against exploitation, prohibits trafficking human beings and forced labour and makes their practice punishable under law. • Article 24 of the Constitution: Prohibits employment of children below 14 years of age in factories, mines or other hazardous employment.
  32. 32. Indian Penal Code (IPC) • There are 25 provisions relevant to trafficking; significant among them are • Section 366A- Procuration of a minor girl (below 18 years of age) from one part of the country to the another is punishable. • Section 366B- Importation of a girl below 21 years of age is punishable. • Section 372- Selling of girls for prostitution. • Section 373- Buying of girls for prostitution • Section 374- Provides punishment for compelling any person to labour against his will. • Human Trafficking(Section 370 and 370A IPC) after enactment of the criminal law (amendment) Act 2013, the Bureau has also started collecting data under this section.
  33. 33. Major Act to prohibit trafficking in India • Trafficking in Women and Girls Act in 1956 popularly known as SITA: SITA is broadly defined prostitution as selling of sex by a female in return of money. • Child Labour (Protection and Regulation)Act,1986: Prohibits employment of children in certain specified occupation and lay down conditions of work of children. • Immoral Traffic (Prevention)Act,1956 (ITPA): Punish those who are engaged in the business of trafficking in women and girls for immoral purpose.
  34. 34. Other Important Act • Probation of Offenders Act ,1985 • Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986 • The Child Marriage Restraint Act,1929 • The Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (NDPS)Act,1985 • The Children(Pledging and Labour) Act,1986 • The Bonded Labour System (Abolition)Act,1976 • The Transplantation of Human Organ Act,1994 • Prohibition of Child Marriage Act,2006
  35. 35. Preventive Measures of Human Trafficking • Everyday there are chilling reports of abducted women and children in India. • This form of modern day slavery involves people abducting, luring or pressuring victims for the purpose of using them for forced labour or forced sexual acts for money. • Young women are the most likely to be trafficked and forced to become sex slaves, prostitutes, workers or even street beggars. • The preventive measures of human trafficking are:
  36. 36. Preventive Measures of Human Trafficking • Be Vigilant Of Your Surroundings • Always be vigilant and aware of your surroundings. • People are often distracted by their phones or other little things when walking. • Make sure that you’re aware of what’s going on around you so that you can spot when something is off. • If you notice a person or a car following you, alert someone you trust immediately.
  37. 37. Preventive Measures of Human Trafficking • Avoid Walking Alone • Women have been forcibly kidnapped while walking on the street. • You shouldn’t have to be restricted when you go out and it may seem unfair that you always have to be on the lookout, but for your own safety, try not to walk alone – especially in quiet areas.
  38. 38. Preventive Measures of Human Trafficking • Act Swiftly If Suspicious • Go into the nearest building and wait for the person or car to leave. • Alert someone in the building that you’re being followed or call someone to pick you up if you can. • Also, let someone you know that you’re going out and what time they can expect you to arrive at your destination.
  39. 39. Preventive Measures of Human Trafficking • Don’t Trust Easily • Some people who are trafficked are approached by strangers offering them a job or some kind of opportunity (like a modeling or singing career). • Traffickers can approach you anywhere, on social media, at school, in the mall and even outside your house. • Some traffickers might try to befriend you or form a relationship with you so that you trust them enough. • Women can also be traffickers and are often used to lure victims because they seem more trusting than men.
  40. 40. Preventive Measures of Human Trafficking • Use Social Media Wisely • Be suspicious of strangers who approach you after you’ve posted something personal on your social media profile and their suddenly offering you help, advice, money, a place to stay or a job opportunity. • If you’re getting random messages from people on social media, check your privacy settings, turn off your location settings on social media and only make your posts visible to your friends (not to the public). • Also avoid checking in to places on social media (while you’re at the place especially).
  41. 41. Preventive Measures of Human Trafficking • Be Ready For Anything • Carry pepper spray with you on your key-chain. • You also need to mentally prepare yourself to fight off the abductor. • If you begin to be attacked, make a scene, yell for help, and fight back like your life depends on it (because it probably does)
  42. 42. Preventive Measures of Human Trafficking • Use Your Phone • Allow 3 of your closest friends or family members to track your phone via GPS so they know your whereabouts at all times. • You can do with on most cell phones and allow a select few to have access to your location for 1 hour, 1 day, or indefinitely.
  43. 43. Preventive Measures of Human Trafficking • Trust Your Instincts • Listen to the intuitive voice inside your head. • Check with family and friends for advice if you get offers that are too good to be true. • Do Internet searches or background checks on the person wanting you to meet with them. Say no and see how they react. • Look for signs of abusive or possessive behaviors. Is the person trying to isolate or turn you against family and friends? If so, avoid that person.
  44. 44. Preventive Measures of Human Trafficking • Meet Strangers In Public Places • Don’t let anyone know where you live until you get to know them. • So for a date, meet them at a public place for the first few times until you get to know them and feel comfortable. • Also stay in contact with friends and family if you’re out and about alone or with someone you don’t know very well
  45. 45. Preventive Measures of Human Trafficking • Seek Help From Reliable Organizations • Traffickers also prey on young people who run away from home. • If you’re having trouble at home, instead of running away and putting yourself at risk of being kidnapped or lured into dangerous, life- threatening situations by traffickers, rather seek help.
  46. 46. Ways You Can Help Fight Human Trafficking • Learn the indicators of human trafficking so you can help identify a potential trafficking victim. • To report in India, call Shakti Vahini on +91-11-42244224, +91-9582909025 or the national helpline Child line on 1098. • Be a conscientious and informed consumer. • Encourage companies to take steps to investigate and prevent human trafficking in their supply chains and publish the information, including supplier or factory lists, for consumer awareness. • Volunteer and support anti-trafficking efforts in your community.
  47. 47. Ways You Can Help Fight Human Trafficking • Meet with and/or write to your local, state and central government representatives to let them know you care about combating human trafficking, and ask what they are doing to address it. • Host an awareness-raising event to watch and discuss films about human trafficking. For example, learn how modern slavery exists today; watch an investigative documentary about sex trafficking; or discover how human trafficking can affect global food supply chains. Also, check out CNN’s Freedom Project for more stories on the different forms of human trafficking around the world.
  48. 48. Thank you