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Trace minerals

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In this slide presentation, holistic veterinarian Dr. Chris King discusses a case involving complex trace mineral deficiencies in a herd of goats. Please scroll through this slide show at your own pace.

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Trace minerals

  1. 1. Case study: complex trace mineral deficiency in a herd of goats TRACE MINERALS Dr. Christine King Anima Vet Winston-Salem, NC animavet.com
  2. 2. Trace Minerals • this case study illustrates the pitfalls of relying on a generic trace mineral supplement to fill in the gaps
  3. 3. Trace Minerals • this case study illustrates the pitfalls of relying on a generic trace mineral supplement to fill in the gaps • it also highlights the value of forage testing whenever an unusual or unexpected problem arises
  4. 4. Trace Minerals • this case study illustrates the pitfalls of relying on a generic trace mineral supplement to fill in the gaps • it also highlights the value of forage testing whenever an unusual or unexpected problem arises • this case study involves goats, but the lessons also apply to horses, cattle, sheep, and other grazing animals
  5. 5. Trace Minerals • the case involves a herd of breeding bucks in the Piedmont region of North Carolina
  6. 6. Trace Minerals • the case involves a herd of breeding bucks in the Piedmont region of North Carolina • 4 Nigerian Dwarfs, 5 – 8 years of age • 3 Miniature Nubians, 5 – 6 years of age
  7. 7. Trace Minerals • the case involves a herd of breeding bucks in the Piedmont region of North Carolina • soils here tend to be high in iron (red clay under shallow topsoil) and marginal or low in various other minerals
  8. 8. Trace Minerals Element (%) Average (range) Element (ppm) Average (range) Aluminium 6.1 % (4.2 – 8.6 %) Manganese 693 ppm (280 – 1,935 ppm) Iron (Fe) 3.2 % (1.5 – 9.0 %) Zinc (Zn) 43 ppm (36 – 78 ppm) Calcium (Ca) 1.5 % (0.6 – 3.2 %) Copper (Cu) 9.3 ppm (2.0 – 17.3 ppm) Sodium 1.0 % (0.5 – 2.4 %) Arsenic 2.8 ppm (1.0 – 7.3 ppm) Magnesium 0.5 % (0.2 – 1.1 %) Selenium 0.11 ppm (0.10 – 0.19 ppm) Phosphorus (P) 0.03 % (0.01 – 0.04 %) Ca : P 54.6 : 1 Fe : Cu 3,453 : 1 Ca : Mg 2.9 : 1 Zn : Cu 4.6 : 1 % = grams per 100 grams (multiply by 10,000 to get ppm); ppm = parts per million (mg/kg or μg/g) Ratios (X : Y) in the lower cells are those of most nutritional importance (discussed later) Average soil analysis for this county US Geological Survey data at https://mrdata.usgs.gov/geochem/county.php?place=f37067&el=Se&rf=east-central
  9. 9. Trace Minerals • the case involves a herd of breeding bucks in the Piedmont region of North Carolina • soils here tend to be high in iron (red clay under shallow topsoil) and marginal or low in various other minerals • forages therefore tend to be high in iron and marginal or low in various other minerals
  10. 10. Trace Minerals • the case involves a herd of breeding bucks in the Piedmont region of North Carolina • soils here tend to be high in iron (red clay under shallow topsoil) and marginal or low in various other minerals • forages therefore tend to be high in iron and marginal or low in various other minerals • livestock owners are encouraged to feed a mineral supplement formulated for the target species
  11. 11. Trace Minerals • year-round, these bucks graze pasture and are also fed free-choice grass hay and a mineral supplement for goats
  12. 12. Trace Minerals • year-round, these bucks graze pasture and are also fed free-choice grass hay and a mineral supplement for goats • the pasture is well established but unimproved; it is a mix of open and wooded fields, with some seasonal browse
  13. 13. Trace Minerals • year-round, these bucks graze pasture and are also fed free-choice grass hay and a mineral supplement for goats • the pasture is well established but unimproved; it is a mix of open and wooded fields, with some seasonal browse • the hay is grown on a nearby farm that was once used for cattle; it is a mix of grasses and, like the pasture, is unimproved
  14. 14. Trace Minerals • year-round, these bucks graze pasture and are also fed free-choice grass hay and a mineral supplement for goats • the pasture is well established but unimproved; it is a mix of open and wooded fields, with some seasonal browse • the hay is grown on a nearby farm that was once used for cattle; it is a mix of grasses and, like the pasture, is unimproved • the mineral supplement is formulated for the southern states; it is a loose mineral salt containing ammonium chloride…
  15. 15. Trace Minerals Nutrient Amount Nutrient Amount Crude protein 1.75 % Copper 800–820 ppm Calcium 20–22 % Iodine 40 ppm Salt (NaCl) 18–21 % Selenium 32 ppm Phosphorus 6 % Cobalt 15 ppm Magnesium 3 % Vitamin A 300,000 IU/lb Sulfur 0.25 % Vitamin D 25,000 IU/lb Zinc 3,000 ppm Vitamin E 200 IU/lb Manganese 2,000 ppm (Iron) (unspecified) Guaranteed minimums, or where a range is given, guaranteed minimum and maximum ppm = parts per million (mg/kg or μg/g); IU = international units Guaranteed analysis for the loose mineral salt Feeding instructions: feed free-choice at a rate of ½–¾ oz. per head per day
  16. 16. Trace Minerals Ca : P (3.3 – 3.6) : 1 Zn : Cu 3.7 : 1 Ca : Mg (6.6 – 7.3) : 1 Fe : Cu ? Nutritionally important ratios for the loose mineral salt (More on these ratios later)
  17. 17. Trace Minerals • year-round, these bucks graze pasture and are also fed free-choice grass hay and a mineral supplement for goats • the bucks are also fed ~ ½ cup alfalfa pellets each, once a day during the winter months, for additional calories and protein
  18. 18. Trace Minerals • year-round, these bucks graze pasture and are also fed free-choice grass hay and a mineral supplement for goats • the bucks are also fed ~ ½ cup alfalfa pellets each, once a day during the winter months, for additional calories and protein • this past winter they were also fed ~ ¼ cup unshelled sunflower seeds each, once a day, for additional calories and protein
  19. 19. Trace Minerals • the problem first appeared as a seasonal dermatosis (skin disease) after about a year on this base diet (pasture, hay, mineral salt)
  20. 20. Trace Minerals • the problem first appeared as a seasonal dermatosis (skin disease) after about a year on this base diet (pasture, hay, mineral salt) • the bucks became very itchy in the late winter–early spring, rubbing themselves raw in places
  21. 21. Trace Minerals • the problem first appeared as a seasonal dermatosis (skin disease) after about a year on this base diet (pasture, hay, mineral salt) • the bucks became very itchy in the late winter–early spring, rubbing themselves raw in places • no external parasites such as lice could be found, so we concluded that the problem was probably caused by mites
  22. 22. Trace Minerals • the problem first appeared as a seasonal dermatosis (skin disease) after about a year on this base diet (pasture, hay, mineral salt) • the bucks became very itchy in the late winter–early spring, rubbing themselves raw in places • no external parasites such as lice could be found, so we concluded that the problem was probably caused by mites • a single oral dose of ivermectin stopped the itching
  23. 23. Trace Minerals • the problem first appeared as a seasonal dermatosis (skin disease) after about a year on this base diet (pasture, hay, mineral salt) • the bucks became very itchy in the late winter–early spring, rubbing themselves raw in places • no external parasites such as lice could be found, so we concluded that the problem was probably caused by mites • a single oral dose of ivermectin stopped the itching • however, the rough, thickened, grey, bare (i.e., parakeratotic) skin along their topline persisted throughout the year, and…
  24. 24. Trace Minerals • the problem first appeared as a seasonal dermatosis (skin disease) after about a year on this base diet (pasture, hay, mineral salt) • the bucks became very itchy in the late winter–early spring, rubbing themselves raw in places • no external parasites such as lice could be found, so we concluded that the problem was probably caused by mites • a single oral dose of ivermectin stopped the itching • however, the rough, thickened, grey, bare (i.e., parakeratotic) skin along their topline persisted throughout the year, and… • the itching returned the next spring, and every spring thereafter
  25. 25. Trace Minerals • over the next 3 years, the bucks slowly became unthrifty
  26. 26. Trace Minerals • over the next 3 years, the bucks slowly became unthrifty • it was most apparent in the Mini Nubians and in the older Nigerians
  27. 27. Trace Minerals • over the next 3 years, the bucks slowly became unthrifty • it was most apparent in the Mini Nubians and in the older Nigerians • coat and body condition slowly deteriorated despite a good appetite, free-choice forage, hay, and minerals, and a good deworming program
  28. 28. Trace Minerals • over the next 3 years, the bucks slowly became unthrifty • it was most apparent in the Mini Nubians and in the older Nigerians • coat and body condition slowly deteriorated despite a good appetite, free-choice forage, hay, and minerals, and a good deworming program • the unthriftiness was not associated with the buck’s FAMACHA score and was not responsive to anthelmintic treatment
  29. 29. Trace Minerals • over the next 3 years, the bucks slowly became unthrifty • it was most apparent in the Mini Nubians and in the older Nigerians • coat and body condition slowly deteriorated despite a good appetite, free-choice forage, hay, and minerals, and a good deworming program • the unthriftiness was not associated with the buck’s FAMACHA score and was not responsive to anthelmintic treatment • anthelmintic use on this farm is still very light, and there has been no apparent increase in parasite resistance or parasitism
  30. 30. Trace Minerals • the problem came to a head when a Mini Nubian was found down and severely hypothermic one winter morning
  31. 31. Trace Minerals • the problem came to a head when a Mini Nubian was found down and severely hypothermic one winter morning • the temperature outside was 15° F, and the buck’s rectal temperature was 93° F
  32. 32. Trace Minerals • the problem came to a head when a Mini Nubian was found down and severely hypothermic one winter morning • he responded well to rewarming, but he remained inexplicably weak and unable to rise without assistance or stand for very long
  33. 33. Trace Minerals • the problem came to a head when a Mini Nubian was found down and severely hypothermic one winter morning • he responded well to rewarming, but he remained inexplicably weak and unable to rise without assistance or stand for very long • despite diligent nursing care and nutritional support, he wasted away and died 2 weeks after his collapse
  34. 34. Trace Minerals • the problem came to a head when a Mini Nubian was found down and severely hypothermic one winter morning • he responded well to rewarming, but he remained inexplicably weak and unable to rise without assistance or stand for very long • despite diligent nursing care and nutritional support, he wasted away and died 2 weeks after his collapse • in his last few days he developed loose manure and then diarrhea
  35. 35. Trace Minerals • the problem came to a head when a Mini Nubian was found down and severely hypothermic one winter morning • he responded well to rewarming, but he remained inexplicably weak and unable to rise without assistance or stand for very long • despite diligent nursing care and nutritional support, he wasted away and died 2 weeks after his collapse • in his last few days he developed loose manure and then diarrhea • post-mortem examination was strikingly unremarkable; he looked severely malnourished but with no obvious cause
  36. 36. Trace Minerals • 2 ½ months later, a second Mini Nubian started showing similar signs and was found down and unable to rise one night
  37. 37. Trace Minerals • 2 ½ months later, a second Mini Nubian started showing similar signs and was found down and unable to rise one night • the buck who died had always been a poor-doer; this second buck was the next most unthrifty
  38. 38. Trace Minerals • 2 ½ months later, a second Mini Nubian started showing similar signs and was found down and unable to rise one night • the buck who died had always been a poor-doer; this second buck was the next most unthrifty • he had steadily been losing weight throughout the winter, despite unlimited hay and supplemental alfalfa pellets and sunflower seeds
  39. 39. Trace Minerals • 2 ½ months later, a second Mini Nubian started showing similar signs and was found down and unable to rise one night • the buck who died had always been a poor-doer; this second buck was the next most unthrifty • he had steadily been losing weight throughout the winter, despite unlimited hay and supplemental alfalfa pellets and sunflower seeds • he developed loose manure and then diarrhea about 10 days before he collapsed; his FAMACHA score was 2/5 (acceptable)
  40. 40. Trace Minerals • 2 ½ months later, a second Mini Nubian started showing similar signs and was found down and unable to rise one night • the buck who died had always been a poor-doer; this second buck was the next most unthrifty • he had steadily been losing weight throughout the winter, despite unlimited hay and supplemental alfalfa pellets and sunflower seeds • he developed loose manure and then diarrhea about 10 days before he collapsed; his FAMACHA score was 2/5 (acceptable) • the diarrhea improved after deworming with fenbendazole (double dose, in case other parasites were involved) but then it returned
  41. 41. Trace Minerals • ‘fortunately’, the Nigerians were now showing signs consistent with chronic zinc deficiency
  42. 42. Trace Minerals • ‘fortunately’, the Nigerians were now showing signs consistent with chronic zinc deficiency • they were not (yet) itchy, but they all had parakeratotic skin along the topline and on the ears, face, and bottom of the scrotum
  43. 43. Trace Minerals a large bare patch of dry, rough, grey, flaky skin partially hidden beneath the topcoat on this buck’s back
  44. 44. Trace Minerals same buck as in the previous photo; the grossly thickened, hairless skin at the base of his tail persisted throughout the year and gradually worsened over time
  45. 45. Trace Minerals one of the older Nigerian bucks with parakeratotic skin along the top of his neck and head, with some thinning of the hair on the top of the ears (pronounced parra-kerra-tottic)
  46. 46. Trace Minerals less severe skin lesions on the head, but more obvious thinning of the hair at the base of the ears and a wart-like area of rough, grey, bare, thickened skin on the left ear (circle) (after 4 weeks of Zn supplementation, this wart-like patch is almost gone)
  47. 47. Trace Minerals this photo and the next two were taken a couple of weeks after the trace mineral deficiencies were corrected; hair is regrowing on the parakeratotic area at the bottom of this buck’s scrotum – but it’s growing back white (it was all black before this problem developed)
  48. 48. Trace Minerals typical appearance of the bottom of the scrotum; the skin is still parakeratotic (although improving) and it’s wrinkled (not a cold morning) it’s difficult to say for sure whether the testicles are decreased in size, but it appears so, which is another sign of chronic zinc deficiency
  49. 49. Trace Minerals this older buck had some of the most severe skin lesions; the bottom of his scrotum is now depigmented (pink patch); before this problem began, the skin was black and the hair was salt-and- pepper grey like other areas on his body
  50. 50. Trace Minerals • ‘fortunately’, the Nigerians were now showing signs consistent with chronic zinc deficiency • they were not (yet) itchy, but they all had parakeratotic skin along the topline and on the ears, face, and bottom of the scrotum • the oldest bucks had the worst skin lesions, consistent with a very chronic problem
  51. 51. Trace Minerals the oldest buck with the most severe skin lesions; he is almost bare along the top of his neck and shoulders; also notice the hair loss at the base and outer edge of his right ear
  52. 52. Trace Minerals the same buck as in the previous photo; notice the hair loss on the top of his nose and face, and at the base of his ears (hair loss on the bridge of the nose was present in all of the bucks and was mistakenly attributed to the hay feeder rubbing the hair off when the bucks pulled out hay)
  53. 53. Trace Minerals • ‘fortunately’, the Nigerians were now showing signs consistent with chronic zinc deficiency • they were not (yet) itchy, but they all had parakeratotic skin along the topline and on the ears, face, and bottom of the scrotum • the oldest bucks had the worst skin lesions, consistent with a very chronic problem • the oldest Nigerian was often seen standing with his back hunched – also a sign of zinc deficiency but mistakenly attributed to arthritis
  54. 54. Trace Minerals • ‘fortunately’, the Nigerians were now showing signs consistent with chronic zinc deficiency • they were not (yet) itchy, but they all had parakeratotic skin along the topline and on the ears, face, and bottom of the scrotum • the oldest bucks had the worst skin lesions, consistent with a very chronic problem • the oldest Nigerian was often seen standing with his back hunched – also a sign of zinc deficiency but mistakenly attributed to arthritis • skin lesions were much less obvious in the Mini Nubians; instead, these bucks had the greatest amount of weight loss
  55. 55. Trace Minerals • blood samples were taken from the weak buck and the oldest buck (with the worst skin lesions)
  56. 56. Trace Minerals • blood samples were taken from the weak buck and the oldest buck (with the worst skin lesions) • for economy, serum zinc and copper were requested on the weak buck and serum zinc on the other buck
  57. 57. Trace Minerals • blood samples were taken from the weak buck and the oldest buck (with the worst skin lesions) • while waiting for results, supplemental zinc (Zn) was started at an initial rate of 30 mg Zn per buck per day, in feed
  58. 58. Trace Minerals • blood samples were taken from the weak buck and the oldest buck (with the worst skin lesions) • while waiting for results, supplemental zinc (Zn) was started at an initial rate of 30 mg Zn per buck per day, in feed • published dosages for zinc sulfate in goats range from 1 gram to 14 grams per day
  59. 59. Trace Minerals • blood samples were taken from the weak buck and the oldest buck (with the worst skin lesions) • while waiting for results, supplemental zinc (Zn) was started at an initial rate of 30 mg Zn per buck per day, in feed • published dosages for zinc sulfate in goats range from 1 gram to 14 grams per day • zinc sulfate is 22.7% zinc, so 1 gram provides 227 mg Zn
  60. 60. Trace Minerals • blood samples were taken from the weak buck and the oldest buck (with the worst skin lesions) • while waiting for results, supplemental zinc (Zn) was started at an initial rate of 30 mg Zn per buck per day, in feed • published dosages for zinc sulfate in goats range from 1 gram to 14 grams per day • as the product used in these bucks was a highly bioavailable zinc chelate, and zinc was already available in the loose mineral salt…
  61. 61. Trace Minerals • blood samples were taken from the weak buck and the oldest buck (with the worst skin lesions) • while waiting for results, supplemental zinc (Zn) was started at an initial rate of 30 mg Zn per buck per day, in feed • published dosages for zinc sulfate in goats range from 1 gram to 14 grams per day • as the product used in these bucks was a highly bioavailable zinc chelate, and zinc was already available in the loose mineral salt… • the recommended human dosage (30 mg/day) was used
  62. 62. Trace Minerals • blood samples were taken from the weak buck and the oldest buck (with the worst skin lesions) • while waiting for results, supplemental zinc (Zn) was started at an initial rate of 30 mg Zn per buck per day, in feed • published dosages for zinc sulfate in goats range from 1 gram to 14 grams per day • as the product used in these bucks was a highly bioavailable zinc chelate, and zinc was already available in the loose mineral salt… • the recommended human dosage (30 mg/day) was used, along with vitamin A (beta-carotene, ~ 4,000 IU per buck per day)
  63. 63. Trace Minerals • blood samples were taken from the weak buck and the oldest buck (with the worst skin lesions) • while waiting for results, supplemental zinc (Zn) was started at an initial rate of 30 mg Zn per buck per day, in feed • (vitamin A supplementation facilitates zinc utilization)
  64. 64. Trace Minerals • blood samples were taken from the weak buck and the oldest buck (with the worst skin lesions) • while waiting for results, supplemental zinc (Zn) was started at an initial rate of 30 mg Zn per buck per day, in feed • the response was dramatic; within hours the weak buck could rise unaided, after collapsing and being unable to rise 3 times that day
  65. 65. Trace Minerals • blood samples were taken from the weak buck and the oldest buck (with the worst skin lesions) • while waiting for results, supplemental zinc (Zn) was started at an initial rate of 30 mg Zn per buck per day, in feed • the response was dramatic; within hours the weak buck could rise unaided, after collapsing and being unable to rise 3 times that day • however, after switching to a less expensive zinc supplement 4 days later, the improvement waned
  66. 66. Trace Minerals • blood samples were taken from the weak buck and the oldest buck (with the worst skin lesions) • while waiting for results, supplemental zinc (Zn) was started at an initial rate of 30 mg Zn per buck per day, in feed • the response was dramatic; within hours the weak buck could rise unaided, after collapsing and being unable to rise 3 times that day • however, after switching to a less expensive zinc supplement 4 days later, the improvement waned • suspecting that the zinc dosage was now too low, we increased it to 150 mg Zn per buck per day – until we realized that…
  67. 67. Trace Minerals • zinc supplementation worsened the concurrent copper deficiency!
  68. 68. Trace Minerals • zinc supplementation worsened the concurrent copper deficiency! • to avoid risking copper toxicity, we’d decided to rely on the loose mineral to supply sufficient copper while awaiting the lab results
  69. 69. Trace Minerals • zinc supplementation worsened the concurrent copper deficiency! • to avoid risking copper toxicity, we’d decided to rely on the loose mineral to supply sufficient copper while awaiting the lab results • however, the lab results revealed the presence of both zinc and copper deficiency
  70. 70. Trace Minerals • zinc supplementation worsened the concurrent copper deficiency! • to avoid risking copper toxicity, we’d decided to rely on the loose mineral to supply sufficient copper while awaiting the lab results • however, the lab results revealed the presence of both zinc and copper deficiency • the most obvious signs of copper deficiency were seen in the Mini Nubians: continued weight loss…
  71. 71. Trace Minerals • zinc supplementation worsened the concurrent copper deficiency! • to avoid risking copper toxicity, we’d decided to rely on the loose mineral to supply sufficient copper while awaiting the lab results • however, the lab results revealed the presence of both zinc and copper deficiency • the most obvious signs of copper deficiency were seen in the Mini Nubians: continued weight loss… • mild anemia (FAMACHA score of 3/5 – borderline)
  72. 72. Trace Minerals • zinc supplementation worsened the concurrent copper deficiency! • to avoid risking copper toxicity, we’d decided to rely on the loose mineral to supply sufficient copper while awaiting the lab results • however, the lab results revealed the presence of both zinc and copper deficiency • the most obvious signs of copper deficiency were seen in the Mini Nubians: continued weight loss… • mild anemia (FAMACHA score of 3/5); loose manure or diarrhea; and…
  73. 73. Trace Minerals • zinc supplementation worsened the concurrent copper deficiency! • to avoid risking copper toxicity, we’d decided to rely on the loose mineral to supply sufficient copper while awaiting the lab results • however, the lab results revealed the presence of both zinc and copper deficiency • the most obvious signs of copper deficiency were seen in the Mini Nubians: continued weight loss… • mild anemia (FAMACHA score of 3/5); loose manure or diarrhea; and… • reddish discoloration of the black haircoat (very subtle in these bucks)
  74. 74. Trace Minerals late-afternoon sun shining through the hair along this buck’s topline; notice the rusty tinge to the black hair in this untouched photo (no color correction) (normal tan marking on this tricolor buck)
  75. 75. Trace Minerals • in addition to blood tests, a sample of hay was sent to a forage testing laboratory
  76. 76. Trace Minerals • in addition to blood tests, a sample of hay was sent to a forage testing laboratory • while awaiting the hay results, we added copper and selenium supplementation in addition to low-dose zinc and vitamin A
  77. 77. Trace Minerals • in addition to blood tests, a sample of hay was sent to a forage testing laboratory • while awaiting the hay results, we added copper and selenium supplementation in addition to low-dose zinc and vitamin A • copper (Cu) was supplemented as copper sulfate solution (0.5 %), at an initial dosage of 25 mg Cu per goat per day, in feed
  78. 78. Trace Minerals • in addition to blood tests, a sample of hay was sent to a forage testing laboratory • while awaiting the hay results, we added copper and selenium supplementation in addition to low-dose zinc and vitamin A • copper (Cu) was supplemented as copper sulfate solution (0.5 %), at an initial dosage of 25 mg Cu per goat per day, in feed • 5 grams copper sulfate crystals (measured with an electronic scale) were added to 1 liter of hot water and stirred until fully dissolved
  79. 79. Trace Minerals • in addition to blood tests, a sample of hay was sent to a forage testing laboratory • while awaiting the hay results, we added copper and selenium supplementation in addition to low-dose zinc and vitamin A • copper (Cu) was supplemented as copper sulfate solution (0.5 %), at an initial dosage of 25 mg Cu per goat per day, in feed • 5 grams copper sulfate crystals (measured with an electronic scale) were added to 1 liter of hot water and stirred until fully dissolved • this solution provides 12.5 mg Cu per 10 mls
  80. 80. Trace Minerals • in addition to blood tests, a sample of hay was sent to a forage testing laboratory • while awaiting the hay results, we added copper and selenium supplementation in addition to low-dose zinc and vitamin A • even this dilute, copper sulfate solution tastes awful, so molasses was added to mask the taste
  81. 81. Trace Minerals • in addition to blood tests, a sample of hay was sent to a forage testing laboratory • while awaiting the hay results, we added copper and selenium supplementation in addition to low-dose zinc and vitamin A • even this dilute, copper sulfate solution tastes awful, so molasses was added to mask the taste • selenium (Se) was supplemented at a dosage of 150 micrograms (μg) Se per goat per day, in feed
  82. 82. Trace Minerals • in addition to blood tests, a sample of hay was sent to a forage testing laboratory • while awaiting the hay results, we added copper and selenium supplementation in addition to low-dose zinc and vitamin A • even this dilute, copper sulfate solution tastes awful, so molasses was added to mask the taste • selenium (Se) was supplemented at a dosage of 150 micrograms (μg) Se per goat per day, in feed • chelated selenium (Se-methionine) tablets were crushed and mixed in hot water (…it doesn’t dissolve well)
  83. 83. Trace Minerals • so, the interim supplement regimen consisted of the following, per goat per day:
  84. 84. Trace Minerals • so, the interim supplement regimen consisted of the following, per goat per day: • 16.5 mg zinc • 25 mg copper • 150 μg selenium • 4,000 IU vitamin A (beta-carotene)
  85. 85. Trace Minerals • so, the interim supplement regimen consisted of the following, per goat per day: • 16.5 mg zinc • 25 mg copper • 150 μg selenium • 4,000 IU vitamin A (beta-carotene) that’s a Zn : Cu of ~ 0.7 : 1
  86. 86. Trace Minerals • so, the interim supplement regimen consisted of the following, per goat per day: • 16.5 mg zinc • 25 mg copper • 150 μg selenium • 4,000 IU vitamin A (beta-carotene) • this combo was mixed with hay pellets (2 : 1 blend of timothy grass and alfalfa) each morning
  87. 87. Trace Minerals • so, the interim supplement regimen consisted of the following, per goat per day: • 16.5 mg zinc • 25 mg copper • 150 μg selenium • 4,000 IU vitamin A (beta-carotene) • this combo was mixed with hay pellets (2 : 1 blend of timothy grass and alfalfa) each morning • the loose mineral salt was also available free-choice
  88. 88. Trace Minerals • why was selenium included?
  89. 89. Trace Minerals • why was selenium included? • soils in this county are low in selenium (average of 0.11 ppm)
  90. 90. Trace Minerals • why was selenium included? • soils in this county are low in selenium (average of 0.11 ppm) • the loose mineral contains selenium (32 μg/g), but the bucks would need to eat at least 5 grams (1 teaspoon) per day to meet their needs
  91. 91. Trace Minerals • why was selenium included? • soils in this county are low in selenium (average of 0.11 ppm) • the loose mineral contains selenium (32 μg/g), but the bucks would need to eat at least 5 grams (1 teaspoon) per day to meet their needs • the bucks were not consuming the loose mineral every day; in fact, they had barely touched it all winter
  92. 92. Trace Minerals • why was selenium included? • soils in this county are low in selenium (average of 0.11 ppm) • the loose mineral contains selenium (32 μg/g), but the bucks would need to eat at least 5 grams (1 teaspoon) per day to meet their needs • the bucks were not consuming the loose mineral every day; in fact, they had barely touched it all winter • the persistent weakness and loss of body condition suggested that selenium deficiency may be involved, in addition to zinc and copper
  93. 93. Trace Minerals • why was selenium included? • selenium was not included in the blood test or hay analysis for reasons of economy
  94. 94. Trace Minerals • why was selenium included? • selenium was not included in the blood test or hay analysis for reasons of economy • in hindsight, it would have been best to include it in both
  95. 95. Trace Minerals • why was selenium included? • selenium was not included in the blood test or hay analysis for reasons of economy • in hindsight, it would have been best to include it in both • we decided against using injectable selenium (e.g., Bo-Se) in the absence of blood or hay results and…
  96. 96. Trace Minerals • why was selenium included? • selenium was not included in the blood test or hay analysis for reasons of economy • in hindsight, it would have been best to include it in both • we decided against using injectable selenium (e.g., Bo-Se) in the absence of blood or hay results and… • because there were no clear signs of deficiency on necropsy in the buck who died (e.g., no ‘white muscle’ or heart lesions)
  97. 97. Trace Minerals • why was selenium included? • selenium was not included in the blood test or hay analysis for reasons of economy • in hindsight, it would have been best to include it in both • we decided against using injectable selenium (e.g., Bo-Se) in the absence of blood or hay results and… • because there were no clear signs of deficiency on necropsy in the buck who died (e.g., no ‘white muscle’ or heart lesions) • for safety, we opted for oral supplementation at a dosage that simply met the minimum daily requirement
  98. 98. Trace Minerals • what about glyphosate (Roundup®) toxicity?
  99. 99. Trace Minerals • what about glyphosate (Roundup®) toxicity? • at least in plants, glyphosate interferes with the uptake of some minerals
  100. 100. Trace Minerals • what about glyphosate (Roundup®) toxicity? • at least in plants, glyphosate interferes with the uptake of some minerals • however, its effect on mineral uptake in animals is far less clear, and such any effect remains highly speculative
  101. 101. Trace Minerals • what about glyphosate (Roundup®) toxicity? • at least in plants, glyphosate interferes with the uptake of some minerals • however, its effect on mineral uptake in animals is far less clear, and such any effect remains highly speculative • lastly, glyphosate has not been used on the home farm or hay field for many years (if at all), and…
  102. 102. Trace Minerals • what about glyphosate (Roundup®) toxicity? • at least in plants, glyphosate interferes with the uptake of some minerals • however, its effect on mineral uptake in animals is far less clear, and such any effect remains highly speculative • lastly, glyphosate has not been used on the home farm or hay field for many years (if at all), and… • glyphosate is not used by the forage company which produces the timothy grass and alfalfa pellets fed to these bucks
  103. 103. Trace Minerals • the hay results provided the final piece of the puzzle…
  104. 104. Trace Minerals Nutrient Amount Nutrient Amount Dry matter 92 % Digestible energy 0.88 Mcal/lb Crude protein 7.6 % (34 g/lb) Estimated lysine 0.26 % (1.2 g/lb) Nonfiber carbohydrates 18 % (82 g/lb) Neutral detergent fiber 59 % (269 g/lb) Calcium (Ca) 0.6 1% (2.75 g/lb) Phosphorus (P) 0.29 % (1.31 g/lb) Magnesium (Mg) 0.43 % (1.93 g/lb) Potassium 1.74 % (7.88 g/lb) Sodium <0.01 % (0.04 g/lb) Ca : P 2.1 : 1 Ca : Mg 1.4 : 1 Hay analysis – macronutrients (as fed) The forage testing lab mainly serves the horse industry, so some of these indices, such as digestible energy and crude protein, are only indirectly applicable to goats. Mcal = megacalories
  105. 105. Trace Minerals Nutrient Amount Nutrient Amount Iron (Fe) 118 ppm Manganese 138 ppm Zinc (Zn) 69 ppm Copper (Cu) 9 ppm Molybdenum <0.001% Zn : Cu 7.5 : 1 Fe : Cu 12.9 : 1 Hay analysis – trace minerals (as fed)
  106. 106. Trace Minerals • the hay results were the final piece of the puzzle… • and now in relation to daily maintenance requirements (the amounts recommended to avoid deficiency of that nutrient)…
  107. 107. Trace Minerals Nutrient Amount in hay Daily requirement Supplied by 2 lbs of hay Crude protein 34 g/lb 53 – 59 grams 68 grams Calcium 2.75 g/lb 1.8 grams 5.5 grams Phosphorus 1.31 g/lb 1.4 grams 2.6 grams Magnesium 1.93 g/lb 0.53 grams 3.9 grams Sodium 40 mg/lb 560 mg 80 mg Hay – macronutrient content in relation to maintenance requirements These daily maintenance requirements are for adult dairy bucks weighing 60–70 lbs. The last column is based on the recommended dry matter intake for adult bucks weighing 60–70 lbs, if hay is the sole source of forage (e.g., during winter). From Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants – Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids (NRC, 2007)
  108. 108. Trace Minerals Nutrient Amount in hay Daily requirement Supplied by 2 lbs of hay Crude protein 34 g/lb 53 – 59 grams 68 grams Calcium 2.75 g/lb 1.8 grams 5.5 grams Phosphorus 1.31 g/lb 1.4 grams 2.6 grams Magnesium 1.93 g/lb 0.53 grams 3.9 grams Sodium 40 mg/lb 560 mg 80 mg Hay – macronutrient content in relation to maintenance requirements These daily maintenance requirements are for adult dairy bucks weighing 60–70 lbs. The last column is based on the recommended dry matter intake for adult bucks weighing 60–70 lbs, if hay is the sole source of forage (e.g., during winter). From Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants – Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids (NRC, 2007) barely enough
  109. 109. Trace Minerals Nutrient Amount in hay Daily requirement Supplied by 2 lbs of hay Crude protein 34 g/lb 53 – 59 grams 68 grams Calcium 2.75 g/lb 1.8 grams 5.5 grams Phosphorus 1.31 g/lb 1.4 grams 2.6 grams Magnesium 1.93 g/lb 0.53 grams 3.9 grams Sodium 40 mg/lb 560 mg 80 mg Hay – macronutrient content in relation to maintenance requirements These daily maintenance requirements are for adult dairy bucks weighing 60–70 lbs. The last column is based on the recommended dry matter intake for adult bucks weighing 60–70 lbs, if hay is the sole source of forage (e.g., during winter). From Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants – Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids (NRC, 2007) barely enough This forage analysis measured crude protein (CP), which is really just a measure of nitrogen content. The percentage of usable protein is probably quite low in this unfertilized, mature hay, so we should consider this hay barely adequate in quality protein, even for an adult’s maintenance needs. A small amount of supplemental protein would be wise, as all of these bucks have lost muscle mass, and likely fertility as well, with this chronic trace mineral deficiency.
  110. 110. Trace Minerals Nutrient Amount in hay Daily requirement Supplied by 2 lbs of hay Crude protein 34 g/lb 53 – 59 grams 68 grams Calcium 2.75 g/lb 1.8 grams 5.5 grams Phosphorus 1.31 g/lb 1.4 grams 2.6 grams Magnesium 1.93 g/lb 0.53 grams 3.9 grams Sodium 40 mg/lb 560 mg 80 mg Hay – macronutrient content in relation to maintenance requirements These daily maintenance requirements are for adult dairy bucks weighing 60–70 lbs. The last column is based on the recommended dry matter intake for adult bucks weighing 60–70 lbs, if hay is the sole source of forage (e.g., during winter). From Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants – Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids (NRC, 2007) excess
  111. 111. Trace Minerals Nutrient Amount in hay Daily requirement Supplied by 2 lbs of hay Crude protein 34 g/lb 53 – 59 grams 68 grams Calcium 2.75 g/lb 1.8 grams 5.5 grams Phosphorus 1.31 g/lb 1.4 grams 2.6 grams Magnesium 1.93 g/lb 0.53 grams 3.9 grams Sodium 40 mg/lb 560 mg 80 mg Hay – macronutrient content in relation to maintenance requirements These daily maintenance requirements are for adult dairy bucks weighing 60–70 lbs. The last column is based on the recommended dry matter intake for adult bucks weighing 60–70 lbs, if hay is the sole source of forage (e.g., during winter). From Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants – Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids (NRC, 2007) excess This hay contains about 3 times as much calcium as these bucks need. On its own, it is not high enough to cause problems, such as calcium-based urinary stones, but it may be high enough to interfere with phosphorous absorption and turn a marginal phosphorus intake into a chronic deficiency…
  112. 112. Trace Minerals Nutrient Amount in hay Daily requirement Supplied by 2 lbs of hay Crude protein 34 g/lb 53 – 59 grams 68 grams Calcium 2.75 g/lb 1.8 grams 5.5 grams Phosphorus 1.31 g/lb 1.4 grams 2.6 grams Magnesium 1.93 g/lb 0.53 grams 3.9 grams Sodium 40 mg/lb 560 mg 80 mg Hay – macronutrient content in relation to maintenance requirements These daily maintenance requirements are for adult dairy bucks weighing 60–70 lbs. The last column is based on the recommended dry matter intake for adult bucks weighing 60–70 lbs, if hay is the sole source of forage (e.g., during winter). From Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants – Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids (NRC, 2007) enough, but...
  113. 113. Trace Minerals Nutrient Amount in hay Daily requirement Supplied by 2 lbs of hay Crude protein 34 g/lb 53 – 59 grams 68 grams Calcium 2.75 g/lb 1.8 grams 5.5 grams Phosphorus (P) 1.31 g/lb 1.4 grams 2.6 grams Magnesium 1.93 g/lb 0.53 grams 3.9 grams Sodium 40 mg/lb 560 mg 80 mg Hay – macronutrient content in relation to maintenance requirements These daily maintenance requirements are for adult dairy bucks weighing 60–70 lbs. The last column is based on the recommended dry matter intake for adult bucks weighing 60–70 lbs, if hay is the sole source of forage (e.g., during winter). From Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants – Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids (NRC, 2007) enough, but... On paper, this hay contains adequate phosphorus. However, its calcium content may be high enough to inhibit P absorption and create a relative P deficiency. Signs of P deficiency include unthriftiness, slow growth, decreased milk production, and when severe, osteophagia (bone eating). The stems of some of the grasses in the hay had reddish-purple ‘paintbrush’ markings that are suggestive of phosphorus deficiency in plants. As soils here are low in P (average, 0.028 %), we should consider the local forages marginal or low in P, and supplement the diet with a small amount of phosphorus.
  114. 114. Trace Minerals Nutrient Amount in hay Daily requirement Supplied by 2 lbs of hay Crude protein 34 g/lb 53 – 59 grams 68 grams Calcium 2.75 g/lb 1.8 grams 5.5 grams Phosphorus 1.31 g/lb 1.4 grams 2.6 grams Magnesium 1.93 g/lb 0.53 grams 3.9 grams Sodium 40 mg/lb 560 mg 80 mg Hay – macronutrient content in relation to maintenance requirements These daily maintenance requirements are for adult dairy bucks weighing 60–70 lbs. The last column is based on the recommended dry matter intake for adult bucks weighing 60–70 lbs, if hay is the sole source of forage (e.g., during winter). From Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants – Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids (NRC, 2007) excess, but…
  115. 115. Trace Minerals Nutrient Amount in hay Daily requirement Supplied by 2 lbs of hay Crude protein 34 g/lb 53 – 59 grams 64 grams Calcium 2.75 g/lb 1.8 grams 5.5 grams Phosphorus 1.31 g/lb 1.4 grams 2.6 grams Magnesium 1.93 g/lb 0.53 grams 3.9 grams Sodium 40 mg/lb 560 mg 80 mg Hay – macronutrient content in relation to maintenance requirements These daily maintenance requirements are for adult dairy bucks weighing 60–70 lbs. The last column is based on the recommended dry matter intake for adult bucks weighing 60–70 lbs, if hay is the sole source of forage (e.g., during winter). From Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants – Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids (NRC, 2007) excess, but… This hay contains over 7 times as much magnesium as the bucks need, but it is unlikely to cause a problem. Magnesium is one of the components of struvite crystals, which can form urinary stones. However, with barely enough protein (nitrogen) and phosphorus in their diet and a plentiful supply of palatable drinking water, it is unlikely that magnesium- ammonium-phosphate (struvite) crystals will form in their urine. That said…
  116. 116. Trace Minerals Nutrient Amount in hay Daily requirement Supplied by 2 lbs of hay Crude protein 34 g/lb 53 – 59 grams 68 grams Calcium 2.75 g/lb 1.8 grams 5.5 grams Phosphorus 1.31 g/lb 1.4 grams 2.6 grams Magnesium 1.93 g/lb 0.53 grams 3.9 grams Sodium 40 mg/lb 560 mg 80 mg Hay – macronutrient content in relation to maintenance requirements These daily maintenance requirements are for adult dairy bucks weighing 60–70 lbs. The last column is based on the recommended dry matter intake for adult bucks weighing 60–70 lbs, if hay is the sole source of forage (e.g., during winter). From Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants – Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids (NRC, 2007) deficient, but…
  117. 117. Trace Minerals Nutrient Amount in hay Daily requirement Supplied by 2 lbs of hay Crude protein 34 g/lb 53 – 59 grams 64 grams Calcium 2.75 g/lb 1.8 grams 5.5 grams Phosphorus 1.31 g/lb 1.4 grams 2.6 grams Magnesium 1.93 g/lb 0.53 grams 3.9 grams Sodium 40 mg/lb 560 mg 80 mg Hay – macronutrient content in relation to maintenance requirements These daily maintenance requirements are for adult dairy bucks weighing 60–70 lbs. The last column is based on the recommended dry matter intake for adult bucks weighing 60–70 lbs, if hay is the sole source of forage (e.g., during winter). From Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants – Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids (NRC, 2007) deficient, but… This hay contains way too little sodium – but that’s a common issue with forages in much of the country. It is easily remedied by providing a source of plain salt (sodium chloride) for the goats to consume as needed. Providing a palatable form of salt also ensures that the bucks drink plenty of water, which, along with the optimal balance of Ca, P, and Mg, is the best insurance against urinary stones in bucks on all-forage diets.
  118. 118. Trace Minerals Nutrient Amount in hay Daily requirement Supplied by 2 lbs hay Iron 118 ppm 4 mg 107 mg Zinc 69 ppm 9 mg 63 mg Copper 9 ppm 18 mg 8 mg Manganese 138 ppm 8 mg 125 mg Molybdenum <0.001% not known 0 Hay – trace mineral content in relation to maintenance requirements These daily maintenance requirements are for adult dairy bucks weighing 60–70 lbs. The last column is based on the recommended dry matter intake for adult bucks weighing 60–70 lbs, if hay is the sole source of forage (e.g., during winter). From Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants – Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids (NRC, 2007)
  119. 119. Trace Minerals Nutrient Amount in hay Daily requirement Supplied by 2 lbs hay Iron 118 ppm 4 mg 107 mg Zinc 69 ppm 9 mg 63 mg Copper 9 ppm 18 mg 8 mg Manganese 138 ppm 8 mg 125 mg Molybdenum <0.001% not known 0 Hay – trace mineral content in relation to maintenance requirements These daily maintenance requirements are for adult dairy bucks weighing 60–70 lbs. The last column is based on the recommended dry matter intake for adult bucks weighing 60–70 lbs, if hay is the sole source of forage (e.g., during winter). From Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants – Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids (NRC, 2007) excess!
  120. 120. Trace Minerals Nutrient Amount in hay Daily requirement Supplied by 2 lbs hay Iron 118 ppm 4 mg 107 mg Zinc 69 ppm 8–9 mg 62 mg Copper 9 ppm 13–15 mg 8 mg Manganese 138 ppm 7–8 mg 124 mg Molybdenum <0.001% not known 0 Hay – trace mineral content in relation to maintenance requirements These daily maintenance requirements are for adult dairy bucks weighing 60–70 lbs. The last column is based on the recommended dry matter intake for adult bucks weighing 60–70 lbs, if hay is the sole source of forage (e.g., during winter). From Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants – Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids (NRC, 2007) excess! This hay contains over 26 times as much iron as these bucks need. Herein lies one of the main problems with this hay: an excess of iron inhibits the absorption of several other minerals, including copper and zinc. Clearly in this case, the loose mineral salt the bucks had available did not contain enough copper or zinc to make up for this excess of iron. An iron-free mineral supplement is needed.
  121. 121. Trace Minerals Nutrient Amount in hay Daily requirement Supplied by 2 lbs hay Iron 118 ppm 4 mg 107 mg Zinc 69 ppm 9 mg 63 mg Copper 9 ppm 18 mg 8 mg Manganese 138 ppm 8 mg 124 mg Molybdenum <0.001% not known 0 Hay – trace mineral content in relation to maintenance requirements These daily maintenance requirements are for adult dairy bucks weighing 60–70 lbs. The last column is based on the recommended dry matter intake for adult bucks weighing 60–70 lbs, if hay is the sole source of forage (e.g., during winter). From Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants – Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids (NRC, 2007) enough, but…
  122. 122. Trace Minerals Nutrient Amount in hay Daily requirement Supplied by 2 lbs hay Iron 118 ppm 4 mg 107 mg Zinc 69 ppm 9 mg 63 mg Copper 9 ppm 13–15 mg 8 mg Manganese 138 ppm 7–8 mg 124 mg Molybdenum <0.001% not known 0 Hay – trace mineral content in relation to maintenance requirements These daily maintenance requirements are for adult dairy bucks weighing 60–70 lbs. The last column is based on the recommended dry matter intake for adult bucks weighing 60–70 lbs, if hay is the sole source of forage (e.g., during winter). From Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants – Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids (NRC, 2007) enough, but… Although this hay contains 7 times as much zinc as these bucks need, the classic signs of zinc deficiency, the low serum zinc, and the immediate response to zinc supplementation alone indicate that something is blocking zinc absorption and creating zinc deficiency. An excess of iron can block zinc absorption, so an iron-free mineral supplement should be enough to address this problem.
  123. 123. Trace Minerals Nutrient Amount in hay Daily requirement Supplied by 2 lbs hay Iron 118 ppm 4 mg 107 mg Zinc 69 ppm 9 mg 63 mg Copper 9 ppm 18 mg 8 mg Manganese 138 ppm 8 mg 125 mg Molybdenum <0.001% not known 0 Hay – trace mineral content in relation to maintenance requirements These daily maintenance requirements are for adult dairy bucks weighing 60–70 lbs. The last column is based on the recommended dry matter intake for adult bucks weighing 60–70 lbs, if hay is the sole source of forage (e.g., during winter). From Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants – Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids (NRC, 2007) deficient!
  124. 124. Trace Minerals Nutrient Amount in hay Daily requirement Supplied by 2 lbs hay Iron 118 ppm 4 mg 107 mg Zinc 69 ppm 9 mg 63 mg Copper 9 ppm 18 mg 8 mg Manganese 138 ppm 7–8 mg 124 mg Molybdenum <0.001% not known 0 Hay – trace mineral content in relation to maintenance requirements These daily maintenance requirements are for adult dairy bucks weighing 60–70 lbs. The last column is based on the recommended dry matter intake for adult bucks weighing 60–70 lbs, if hay is the sole source of forage (e.g., during winter). From Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants – Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids (NRC, 2007) deficient! Here is a three-fold problem: the hay is very deficient in copper (providing less than 50 % of the bucks’ daily requirement at this feed intake), plus copper absorption is blocked by an excess of iron and zinc. Not only is an iron-free mineral supplement needed, it must also contain enough copper to overcome these two inhibitors (iron and zinc).
  125. 125. Trace Minerals Nutrient Amount in hay Daily requirement Supplied by 2 lbs hay Iron 118 ppm 4 mg 107 mg Zinc 69 ppm 9 mg 63 mg Copper 9 ppm 18 mg 8 mg Manganese 138 ppm 8 mg 124 mg Molybdenum <0.001% not known 0 Hay – trace mineral content in relation to maintenance requirements These daily maintenance requirements are for adult dairy bucks weighing 60–70 lbs. The last column is based on the recommended dry matter intake for adult bucks weighing 60–70 lbs, if hay is the sole source of forage (e.g., during winter). From Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants – Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids (NRC, 2007) excess!
  126. 126. Trace Minerals Nutrient Amount in hay Daily requirement Supplied by 2 lbs hay Iron 118 ppm 4 mg 107 mg Zinc 69 ppm 9 mg 63 mg Copper 9 ppm 18 mg 8 mg Manganese 138 ppm 8 mg 124 mg Molybdenum <0.001% not known 0 Hay – trace mineral content in relation to maintenance requirements These daily maintenance requirements are for adult dairy bucks weighing 60–70 lbs. The last column is based on the recommended dry matter intake for adult bucks weighing 60–70 lbs, if hay is the sole source of forage (e.g., during winter). From Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants – Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids (NRC, 2007) excess! Here is a further problem: this hay contains over 15 times as much manganese as needed. Just as with an excess of iron, an excess of manganese can block zinc absorption and create zinc deficiency where it might not otherwise occur, such as in a hay that contains adequate zinc. Together, an excess of iron and manganese practically guarantees the development of zinc deficiency.
  127. 127. Trace Minerals • what about minerals in the drinking water?
  128. 128. Trace Minerals • what about minerals in the drinking water? • the bucks’ drinking water comes from the municipal supply
  129. 129. Trace Minerals • what about minerals in the drinking water? • the bucks’ drinking water comes from the municipal supply • as of 2016, the only minerals present above 1 ppm in the city water supply were these:
  130. 130. Trace Minerals • what about minerals in the drinking water? • the bucks’ drinking water comes from the municipal supply • as of 2016, the only minerals present above 1 ppm in the city water supply were these: calcium, 4.2 ppm (2.5–5.7 ppm) magnesium, 1.6 ppm (1.3–2.1 ppm) phosphate, 1 ppm (0.7–1.4 ppm) potassium, 1.9 ppm (1.3–2.8 ppm) silica, 10.6 ppm (6.8–15.4 ppm) sodium, 1 1.3 ppm (7.6–18 ppm) Source: http://cityofws.org/waterqualityreport16
  131. 131. Trace Minerals • mineral interactions are complex…
  132. 132. Trace Minerals
  133. 133. Trace Minerals • the following interactions are of most nutritional importance:
  134. 134. Trace Minerals • the following interactions are of most nutritional importance: Inhibitor Inhibited sodium potassium calcium magnesium manganese iron iron copper zinc copper
  135. 135. Trace Minerals • the following interactions are of most nutritional importance: • when the first of the pair is in excess and the other is at the lower limit of requirement, these interactions can become problematic Inhibitor Inhibited sodium potassium calcium magnesium manganese iron iron copper zinc copper
  136. 136. Trace Minerals • the following interactions are of most nutritional importance: • when the first of the pair is in excess and the other is at the lower limit of requirement, these interactions can become problematic Inhibitor Inhibited sodium potassium calcium magnesium manganese iron iron copper zinc copper these two interactions were present in this case
  137. 137. Trace Minerals Interaction pair Soil Hay Daily requirement Ca : P 54.6 : 1 2.1 : 1 1.2 : 1 Ca : Mg 2.9 : 1 1.4 : 1 3.4 : 1 Mn : Fe 0.02 : 1 1.2 : 1 2 : 1 Zn : Cu 4.6 : 1 7.5 : 1 0.5 : 1 Fe : Cu 3,453 : 1 13 : 1 0.2 : 1 Soil values are averages for this county; values for daily requirement are simply the ratios taken from the minimum daily intakes needed to avoid deficiency in bucks. Nutritionally important mineral interactions in this case
  138. 138. Trace Minerals Interaction pair Soil Hay Daily requirement Ca : P 54.6 : 1 2.1 : 1 1.2 : 1 Ca : Mg 2.9 : 1 1.4 : 1 3.4 : 1 Mn : Fe 0.02 : 1 1.2 : 1 2 : 1 Zn : Cu 4.6 : 1 7.5 : 1 0.5 : 1 Fe : Cu 3,453 : 1 13 : 1 0.2 : 1 Soil values are averages for this county; values for daily requirement are simply the ratios taken from the minimum daily intake needed to avoid deficiency in bucks. Nutritionally important mineral interactions in this case A 2 : 1 ratio is tolerated and even recommended in some situations, but it may be problematic in this hay.
  139. 139. Trace Minerals Interaction pair Soil Hay Daily requirement Ca : P 54.6 : 1 2.1 : 1 1.2 : 1 Ca : Mg 2.9 : 1 1.4 : 1 3.4 : 1 Mn : Fe 0.02 : 1 1.2 : 1 2 : 1 Zn : Cu 4.6 : 1 7.5 : 1 0.5 : 1 Fe : Cu 3,453 : 1 13 : 1 0.2 : 1 Soil values are averages for this county; values for daily requirement are simply the ratios taken from the minimum daily intake needed to avoid deficiency in bucks. Nutritionally important mineral interactions in this case These disparities are probably unimportant, but it is worth ensuring that these bucks drink plenty of water.
  140. 140. Trace Minerals Interaction pair Soil Hay Daily requirement Ca : P 54.6 : 1 2.1 : 1 1.2 : 1 Ca : Mg 2.9 : 1 1.4 : 1 3.4 : 1 Mn : Fe 0.02 : 1 1.2 : 1 2 : 1 Zn : Cu 4.6 : 1 7.5 : 1 0.5 : 1 Fe : Cu 3,453 : 1 13 : 1 0.2 : 1 Soil values are averages for this county; values for daily requirement are simply the ratios taken from the minimum daily intake needed to avoid deficiency in bucks. Nutritionally important mineral interactions in this case These disparities are serious and separate problems that compounded each other in this case.
  141. 141. Trace Minerals Interaction pair Soil Hay Daily requirement Ca : P 54.6 : 1 2.1 : 1 1.2 : 1 Ca : Mg 2.9 : 1 1.4 : 1 3.4 : 1 Mn : Fe 0.02 : 1 1.2 : 1 2 : 1 Zn : Cu 4.6 : 1 7.5 : 1 0.5 : 1 Fe : Cu 3,453 : 1 13 : 1 0.2 : 1 Fe : Zn 747 : 1 1.7 : 1 0.4 : 1 Nutritionally important mineral interactions in this case Here is another interaction that was important in this case.
  142. 142. Trace Minerals • mineral interactions are complex • it pays to have your soil and forages (pasture and hay) tested for their mineral content, and…
  143. 143. Trace Minerals • mineral interactions are complex • it pays to have your soil and forages (pasture and hay) tested for their mineral content, and… • supplement accordingly
  144. 144. Trace Minerals • mineral interactions are complex • it pays to have your soil and forages (pasture and hay) tested for their mineral content, and… • supplement accordingly • the best long-term plan is to amend the soil according to the test results
  145. 145. Trace Minerals • the bucks are now on a more appropriate supplement
  146. 146. Trace Minerals • the bucks are now on a more appropriate supplement • it was difficult to find a mineral supplement for goats that did not contain iron and manganese
  147. 147. Trace Minerals • the bucks are now on a more appropriate supplement • it was difficult to find a mineral supplement for goats that did not contain iron and manganese • we found one that is iron-free and higher than most others in phosphorus and copper
  148. 148. Trace Minerals • the bucks are now on a more appropriate supplement • it was difficult to find a mineral supplement for goats that did not contain iron and manganese • we found one that is iron-free and higher than most others in phosphorus and copper • the bucks showed immediate improvement on the new mineral supplement
  149. 149. Trace Minerals • the bucks are now on a more appropriate supplement • it was difficult to find a mineral supplement for goats that did not contain iron and manganese • we found one that is iron-free and higher than most others in phosphorus and copper • the bucks showed immediate improvement on the new mineral supplement • we also provided some rock salt in a separate tub so that the bucks could meet their sodium needs separately
  150. 150. Trace Minerals • the bucks are now on a more appropriate supplement • it was also difficult to find a goat mineral supplement that did not contain ammonium chloride
  151. 151. Trace Minerals • the bucks are now on a more appropriate supplement • it was also difficult to find a goat mineral supplement that did not contain ammonium chloride • this urinary acidifier tastes terrible and it is unnecessary in these bucks now that their dietary Ca : P is improved
  152. 152. Trace Minerals • the bucks are now on a more appropriate supplement • it was also difficult to find a goat mineral supplement that did not contain ammonium chloride • this urinary acidifier tastes terrible and it is unnecessary in these bucks now that their dietary Ca : P is improved • salt and ammonium chloride each reduce palatability and thus intake
  153. 153. Trace Minerals • the bucks are now on a more appropriate supplement • it was also difficult to find a goat mineral supplement that did not contain ammonium chloride • this urinary acidifier tastes terrible and it is unnecessary in these bucks now that their dietary Ca : P is improved • salt and ammonium chloride each reduce palatability and thus intake • so, it was important to find a mineral supplement that contained neither and that addressed the mineral deficiencies of their diet
  154. 154. Trace Minerals • plans for the spring–summer include soil testing and forage analysis of the pasture once it’s mature
  155. 155. Trace Minerals Spring grazing – two of the bucks 3 or 4 years ago …the adventure continues...

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